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Article
Publication date: 30 March 2012

Ely Laureano Paiva, Elena Revilla Gutierrez and Aleda V. Roth

This paper aims to analyze manufacturing strategy process (MSP) from a knowledge‐based view (KBV) of the firm. MSP considers the ways that manufacturing organizes its

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze manufacturing strategy process (MSP) from a knowledge‐based view (KBV) of the firm. MSP considers the ways that manufacturing organizes its resources in order to create/strengthen manufacturing‐related capabilities. In this context, managers often are under pressure to find quick answers in highly complex environments. By viewing MSP as a knowledge creation process, managers may choose a company's objectives based upon previous experiences and knowledge. MSP addresses the level of planning and decision making related to building competitive operations capabilities over the long term.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey research was used to make cross‐country comparison. The constructs were empirically confirmed in both country samples, attesting to measurement invariance. The proposed model was tested in both samples and analyzed the differences between them.

Findings

The results suggest that knowledge is a key resource in MSP in both samples. Resource‐based orientation presents higher levels of influence over MSP in Brazil. In the Spanish sample the influence of external knowledge in MSP and market performance is more relevant.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation of this study is that the Brazilian sample is located in a specific region and therefore some regional characteristics may be present. Another limitation was the use of a questionnaire in two different countries that was originally developed in a non‐native language.

Practical implications

As a practical implication, manufacturing should seek to integrate the strategic process in order to be more responsive in dynamic environments.

Originality/value

The paper uses a cross‐country sample for scale validation, which is rare in management research. Manufacturing strategy process was analyzed from a knowledge‐based view, bringing new possibilities for academic studies. For managers, the paper highlights the importance of manufacturing developing a proactive role through knowledge integration in cross‐functional activities during the strategic process.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2009

William DiPietro

The purpose of the paper is to investigate whether, and, if so, to what extent, the valuation that nations place on individual personality traits change with economic…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to investigate whether, and, if so, to what extent, the valuation that nations place on individual personality traits change with economic growth and development.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper compares the averages of the cross‐country valuations of eight different personality characteristics for various levels of development, and, in addition, employs cross‐country regression analysis to assess the impact of economic growth on the value placed on these characteristics.

Findings

In general, the findings of both the comparative analysis and the cross‐country regression analysis indicate that the valuation counties place on individual personality characteristics change with economic growth and development, and for certain characteristics, rather dramatically.

Research limitations/implications

A major implication of the findings of the paper is that economic growth may not just act in a neutral fashion by merely providing additional material goods, but may have profound effect on future national identity, on the definition of the type of individual that a nation values.

Practical implications

Since economic growth changes the way personality characteristics are valued by a nation, it is possible that the growth process itself can alter the future growth prospects of a nation, because some personality characterizes are apt to be growth fostering, while others are likely to be growth inhibiting.

Originality/value

The paper should be of interest to anyone interested in the changes brought about by growth and development.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

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Book part
Publication date: 1 April 2006

Howard White

There is a substantial literature evaluating the impact of aid at the macroeconomic level using cross-country regressions. However, despite econometric advances in recent…

Abstract

There is a substantial literature evaluating the impact of aid at the macroeconomic level using cross-country regressions. However, despite econometric advances in recent years, there remain many flaws in this approach. Similar problems beset cross-country analysis of the impact of aid on poverty indicators. More reliable estimates of the poverty impact of aid come from project-level analyses from which can be built up a picture of aid impact at the country level. This paper presents the findings from three such studies carried out by the Independent Evaluation Group of the World Bank.

Details

Theory and Practice of Foreign Aid
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-444-52765-3

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Amna Niazi and Hamid Hassan

Level of trust among the members is considered to be an important component that contributes towards the economic growth in an economy. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

Level of trust among the members is considered to be an important component that contributes towards the economic growth in an economy. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of trust level along with income per capita, human capital (education level), investment, labor force and political institutions on the economic performance.

Design/methodology/approach

In this research, panel data as well as cross-country analysis were applied on a sample of 64 countries from 1980 to 2014. Countries were further divided into developed and developing countries to observe the resultant effect of trust on economic performance. To explain the monotonic relationship between trust and economic performance, a non-linear term of trust is added to the regression model to see the impact of change in trust level on economic performance.

Findings

Empirical results show that there is a positive relation between social trust and economic performance. The result further describes that investment and human capital are leading determinants of economic performance. To explain the monotonic relationship between trust and economic performance, the study adds non-linear term of trust in regression model. The result explains U-shaped path between trust and economic performance in developing countries and inverse U-shaped path in developed countries.

Practical implications

The study adds valuable insight to the debate of relationship between trust level and economic performance. Business and managers can use this insight while making international strategic decisions regarding foreign direct investments and international expansions.

Originality/value

This study highlights the importance of trust in developing and developed countries and shows that trust works as a strong binding in holding societies together and better economic performance is not possible, especially in developing countries where there is a lack of trust.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2015

Arief Rahman

Citizens are substantial stakeholders in every e-government system, thus their willingness to use and ability to access the system are critical. Unequal access and…

Abstract

Citizens are substantial stakeholders in every e-government system, thus their willingness to use and ability to access the system are critical. Unequal access and information and communication technology usage, which is known as digital divide, however has been identified as one of the major obstacles to the implementation of e-government system. As digital divide inhibits citizen’s acceptance to e-government, it should be overcome despite the lack of deep theoretical understanding on this issue. This research aimed to investigate the digital divide and its direct impact on e-government system success of local governments in Indonesia as well as indirect impact through the mediation role of trust. In order to get a comprehensive understanding of digital divide, this study introduced a new type of digital divide, the innovativeness divide.

The research problems were approached by applying two-stage sequential mixed method research approach comprising of both qualitative and quantitative studies. In the first phase, an initial research model was proposed based on a literature review. Semi-structured interview with 12 users of e-government systems was then conducted to explore and enhance this initial research model. Data collected in this phase were analyzed with a two-stage content analysis approach and the initial model was then amended based on the findings. As a result, a comprehensive research model with 16 hypotheses was proposed for examination in the second phase.

In the second phase, quantitative method was applied. A questionnaire was developed based on findings in the first phase. A pilot study was conducted to refine the questionnaire, which was then distributed in a national survey resulting in 237 useable responses. Data collected in this phase were analyzed using Partial Least Square based Structural Equation Modeling.

The results of quantitative analysis confirmed 13 hypotheses. All direct influences of the variables of digital divide on e-government system success were supported. The mediating effects of trust in e-government in the relationship between capability divide and e-government system success as well as in the relationship between innovativeness divide and e-government system success were supported, but was rejected in the relationship between access divide and e-government system success. Furthermore, the results supported the moderating effects of demographic variables of age, residential place, and education.

This research has both theoretical and practical contributions. The study contributes to the developments of literature on digital divide and e-government by providing a more comprehensive framework, and also to the implementation of e-government by local governments and the improvement of e-government Readiness Index of Indonesia.

Details

E-Services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-325-9

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Ayman Issa and Mohammad A. A. Zaid

Drawing on the multi-theoretical perspective, the primary purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate the inextricably entwined nexus between board gender…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the multi-theoretical perspective, the primary purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate the inextricably entwined nexus between board gender diversity and corporate environmental performance within cross-country context.

Design/methodology/approach

Multiple regression analysis on a cross-country panel data analysis was used. Further, the authors applied static panel data estimator ordinary least squares (OLS) as a baseline model with different proxies of gender diversity. In addition, to control for the potential endogeneity problem and providing robust findings, the authors run two-stage least squares (2SLS) and lagged independent variables.

Findings

The findings clearly unveiled that corporate environmental performance is positively and significantly affected by the level of gender diversity on board. This inextricable and intimate nexus is vastly attributed to the argument that female directors show greater concerns for eco-friendly activities.

Practical implications

The findings of this study provide useful and fruitful insights for regulatory parties and policymakers to mandate gender quota in electing boardroom members to ameliorate corporate environmental performance.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, most of the prior studies have not yet provided a multi-theoretical analysis of the effect of board gender diversity on environmental performance. Thereby, this study handled this contemporary gap and went beyond the narrow perspectives by diving deep with cross-country analysis.

Details

International Journal of Accounting & Information Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1834-7649

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2010

Dierk Herzer

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of outward foreign direct investment (FDI) on economic growth.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of outward foreign direct investment (FDI) on economic growth.

Design/methodology/approach

Two econometric approaches are used: cross‐country regressions for a sample of 50 countries and time‐series estimators for the USA.

Findings

Both approaches tell the same story: outward FDI is positively associated with growth. This finding is robust to several model specifications, potential outliers, and different estimation techniques. In addition, Granger‐causality tests for the USA indicate that causality is bidirectional, suggesting that increased outward FDI is both a cause and a consequence of increased domestic output.

Originality/value

Previous studies have primarily examined the firm‐ and industry‐level effects of outward FDI – for example, on domestic investment, employment, and productivity. This paper, in contrast, deals with the effects of aggregate outward FDI on the economy as a whole.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 37 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 12 March 2020

Giorgio Mion and Cristian R. Loza Adaui

Public-interest entities – among which are listed companies – are obliged to publish nonfinancial disclosure in some countries and regions. The European Commission…

Abstract

Public-interest entities – among which are listed companies – are obliged to publish nonfinancial disclosure in some countries and regions. The European Commission established mandatory nonfinancial disclosure by Directive 2014/95/EU. While a large body of literature was developed on sustainability reporting quality (SRQ) in voluntary context, evidence about the effect of mandatory nonfinancial disclosure on SRQ is controversial and previous experiences worldwide did not make clear if obligatoriness improves SRQ. This chapter aims to bridge the gap of empirical evidence about this phenomenon in European countries, focusing on first implementation of new legislation by Italian and German companies. The research has an explorative character and it adopts content analysis methods performed on sustainability reporting practices of companies listed in FTSE-MIB and DAX 30. The analysis aims to understand if obligatoriness affects SRQ, causes some changes in reporting practices such as harmonizing Italian and German ones by performing a cross-country comparison. The findings suggest that obligatoriness improves reporting quality and, above all, it fills the gap between different countries by fostering the adoption of international guidelines and the consequent introduction of some content, such as materiality analysis and quantitative measures of social and environmental performance.

Details

Non-Financial Disclosure and Integrated Reporting: Practices and Critical Issues
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-964-4

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Book part
Publication date: 28 March 2006

Solomon W. Polachek and Jun (Jeff) Xiang

In this paper, we define a tractable procedure to measure worker incomplete information in the labor market. The procedure, which makes use of earnings distribution…

Abstract

In this paper, we define a tractable procedure to measure worker incomplete information in the labor market. The procedure, which makes use of earnings distribution skewness, is based on econometric frontier estimation techniques, and is consistent with search theory. We apply the technique to 11 countries over various years, and find that incomplete information leads workers to receive on average about 30–35% less pay than they otherwise would have earned, had they information on what each firm paid. Generally, married men and women suffer less from incomplete information than the widowed or divorced; and singles suffer the most. Women suffer more from incomplete information than men. Schooling and labor market experience reduce these losses, but institutions within a country can reduce them, as well. For example, we find that workers in countries that strongly support unemployment insurance (UI) receive wages closer to their potential, so doubling UI decreases incomplete information and results in 5% higher wages. A more dense population reduces search costs leading to less incomplete information. A more industrial economy disseminates wage information better, so workers exhibit less incomplete information and higher wages. Finally, we find that foreign worker inflows increase incomplete information, and at the same time reduce average wage levels, at least in the short run.

Details

The Economics of Immigration and Social Diversity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-390-7

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2019

Phuong Minh Khuong, Russell McKenna and Wolf Fichtner

The connection between urbanization and energy consumption in the context of cross-country and cross-sector analyses is poorly understood, especially in the Association of…

Abstract

Purpose

The connection between urbanization and energy consumption in the context of cross-country and cross-sector analyses is poorly understood, especially in the Association of South East Asian (ASEAN). This paper aims to present the first extensive multi-level analysis of the relationship between urbanization and energy consumption in ASEAN countries from 1995 to 2013.

Design/methodology/approach

The multi-level (across country and sector) index decomposition method is used to analyze urbanization, energy mix, energy intensity and activity effects on energy demand. Urbanization is measured by two representative factors, name the urban population and the number of non-agriculture workers.

Findings

Despite the decreasing rate of urbanization, its effect on energy consumption has played the most important role since 2000. Since then, the effect has continued to increase at the national and sectoral levels across the whole region. The strongest urbanization impacts are encountered in the residential sector, followed by transportation and industrial sectors with much weaker effects in the commercial sector. The way in which urbanization impacts energy consumption depends strongly on the income level of the country studied.

Practical implications

The results provide quantitative relationships between urbanization and energy demand. For example, if the urban population and the non-agriculture workers decreased by 0.1 per cent per year, this would reduce energy demand by 1.4 per cent and 2.6 per cent per year respectively.

Originality/value

This contribution provides detailed quantitative insights into the relationships between urbanization and energy demand at sectoral, national and international levels, which are invaluable for policymakers in the region.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

Keywords

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