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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1948

It may be remarked that the area immediately concerned is about 1,700 square miles, or somewhat greater than the area of the County of Kent. We say immediately concerned…

Abstract

It may be remarked that the area immediately concerned is about 1,700 square miles, or somewhat greater than the area of the County of Kent. We say immediately concerned, as the Governments of St. Vincent, St. Lucia, and others submitted samples for examination, but these related to criminal investigations and call for no comment. In Trinidad itself what may be called the upper classes are of European origin—British, French, or Spanish. There is a high proportion of East Indians, i.e., from Asia, and the lower classes are of mixed negro origin. It is, perhaps, as well to remind readers of these facts. The records of criminal investigation undertaken by the Department at the request of the police authorities suggest by their number and nature that we are here concerned with people who in general are in a somewhat lower state of social culture than that which is found, for instance, in an English district. This would tend to react on the Health Administration generally by increasing the difficulties already existing that arise from a tropical climate and a sparse population very largely engaged in agricultural pursuits, or in industries closely allied thereto. The Port of Spain, the capital, contains perhaps a fifth of the total population and a higher proportion of persons of European origin than elsewhere. The Health Authorities of the city, however, still seem disinclined to avail themselves as fully as they might do of the resources of the Government Chemist's Department. Few samples appear to be sent for examination, though it hopefully stated that more samples of foods and drugs may be sent in when the new Food and Drugs Act replaces the existing one. The Medical Officer of the Port of Spain sends in water samples from the main sources of supply every week for chemical examination. The results of examination are satisfactory, but even in the British Isles water is not the chief form of sustenance, and the need for a due examination of foods and drugs—especially the last—is shown by the facts that while the number of food samples submitted for examination has decreased, the number found to be unsatisfactory has increased. As to drugs, it is sufficient to quote the words of the report, “No samples of drugs were submitted under the Ordinance, so that it is not possible to offer any opinion as to whether or not adulteration is practised of these important articles which are sold to the public. We believe this sin of omission to be one of long standing. The total number of samples and exhibits of all kinds was 4,950. Of these, 4,359 were official and 548 were unofficial, a decrease of 437 and 131 respectively. Out of this total 1,058 were samples of foods, or baking powder, vinegar, and so forth. The number found to be unsatisfactory was 131, or 12·4 per cent. This is a high percentage of failures. It is due almost entirely to cows' milk of poor quality. Three hundred and eighty‐five samples were examined, and 12·4, or 32·2 per cent. were reported against. Out of 163 samples of butter and cooking butter 2·5 per cent were deficient in fat. Having regard to the tenor of this report, the distinction here made between “butter” and “cooking butter” seems to be a rather unfortunate one. In the shops and kitchens of this country the distinction used to be accepted. But why a substance which is, by implication, inferior or unpalatable and unfit to be eaten with bread, might still be used in cooking, has never been clear to us. The unaccepted defence of a baker—convicted over here of putting bad eggs in his pastry—“The stink goes off in the baking,” comes to mind. The fat deficiency ranged from 6·10 to 3·63. Out of 128 coffee samples three were adulterated with burnt sugar. The general position with regard to food—especially in the case of milk—seems to be very unsatisfactory. The remarks of the Govern‐ment Chemist are unquestionably fully justified.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 50 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 6 February 2007

Georgios Exarchakos, Nick Antonopoulos and James Salter

The purpose of this paper is to propose a model for sharing network capacity on demand among different underloaded and overloaded P2P ROME‐enabled networks. The paper aims…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a model for sharing network capacity on demand among different underloaded and overloaded P2P ROME‐enabled networks. The paper aims to target networks of nodes with highly dynamic workload fluctuations that may experience a burst of traffic and/or massive nodes' failure rates.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper shows that when locally available network capacity is not adequate for the workload requirements, the excessive capacity needs to be sought into other networks with more availability. A random flat P2P overlay of the ROME servers is used for the discovery and movement of nodes between two networks. Centralised or decentralised DHT‐based directories of available nodes cannot cope with high workload fluctuations and frequent join/leave actions of nodes. The paper also introduces semantics to refine the answers to the ones with the most appropriate nodes for the requesting network and to find the requested capacity faster and more efficiently. The behaviour of the model is simulated to evaluate with several experiments the model based on some metrics.

Findings

The paper finds that all the user queries of an overloaded underlying network are dropped if G‐ROME is not used but as G‐ROME overlay satisfies the requested capacity of a ROME server, its Chord ring size increases. In case of uniformly distributed and/or plentiful capacity over the overlay, shallow searches may give very good results. On the contrary, deeper searches are required for scarce capacity but the number of messages increases almost exponentially.

Originality/value

This paper provides a model for moving the required resources to the requesting job environment rather than the job and its context to the resource.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

Nick Antonopoulos and James Salter

Presents a new model for resource discovery in grids and peer‐to‐peer networks designed to utilise efficiently small numbers of messages for query processing and building…

Abstract

Presents a new model for resource discovery in grids and peer‐to‐peer networks designed to utilise efficiently small numbers of messages for query processing and building of the network. Outlines and evaluates the model through a theoretical comparison with other resource discovery systems and a mathematical analysis of the number of messages utilised in contrast with Chord, a distributed hash table. Shows that through careful setting of parameter values the model is able to provide responses to queries and node addition in fewer messages than Chord. The model is shown to have significant benefits over other peer‐to‐peer networks reviewed. Uses a case study to show the applicability of the model as a methodology for building resource discovery systems in peer‐to‐peer networks using different underlying structures. Shows a promising new method of creating a resource discovery system by building a timeline structure on demand, which will be of interest to both researchers and system implementers in the fields of grid computing, peer‐to‐peer networks and distributed resource discovery in general.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 14 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 February 2021

Jon M. Hawes

This paper aims to explore not only the greatness of Patterson but also some of the mistakes he made along the way.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore not only the greatness of Patterson but also some of the mistakes he made along the way.

Design/methodology/approach

The study traces the career of John Patterson, founder and president of the National Cash Register (NCR) from 1884 to 1922. Data from many different sources, some only recently available through the HathiTrust Digital Library, are analyzed to provide a systematic and focused examination of Patterson’s greatness, as well as some errors in judgment he during his lengthy leadership at NCR.

Findings

John Patterson recognized the potential development of a new global industry before it existed and went to work creating it. After he bought the original patents for the cash register, he spent huge sums on research and development and secured hundreds of additional patents on the device. He also spent a fortune on educational advertising to create market demand where none previously existed and invested heavily in developing his salesforce through a strong focus on training, professionalism and high commissions. He also engaged in many unsavory sales practices to try to keep others from encroaching on what he considered his exclusive right to the cash register market. At one point, he was convicted in a criminal proceeding for those efforts and sentenced to prison.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to provide a balanced review of Patterson’s contributions to the business history of that era from a sales and marketing perspective. The paper may be of interest to marketing scholars and practitioners, as well as business historians.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 25 June 2010

Paul B. Trescott

China around 1900 was an enormous domain with approximately 400 million people, almost all of them desperately poor. Most were farmers, working intensively on small tracts…

Abstract

China around 1900 was an enormous domain with approximately 400 million people, almost all of them desperately poor. Most were farmers, working intensively on small tracts of land using relatively primitive technology. It was in many respects a Malthusian economy, with high death and birth rates and many residents living close to the subsistence level.

Details

A Research Annual
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-060-6

Article
Publication date: 29 March 2011

Anil Sharma, G.S. Yadava and S.G. Deshmukh

The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on maintenance optimization models and associated case studies. For these optimization models critical observations are made.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on maintenance optimization models and associated case studies. For these optimization models critical observations are made.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper systematically classifies the published literature using different techniques, and also identifies the possible gaps.

Findings

The paper outlines important techniques used in various maintenance optimization models including the analytical hierarchy process, the Bayesian approach, the Galbraith information processing model and genetic algorithms. There is an emerging trend towards uses of simulation for maintenance optimization which has changed the maintenance view.

Practical implications

A limited literature is available on the classification of maintenance optimization models and on its associated case studies. The paper classifies the literature on maintenance optimization models on different optimization techniques and based on emerging trends it outlines the directions for future research in the area of maintenance optimization.

Originality/value

The paper provides many references and case studies on maintenance optimization models and techniques. It gives useful references for maintenance management professionals and researchers working on maintenance optimization.

Details

Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2511

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1916

At a meeting of the Council of the Royal Borough of Kensington on February 29th, ALDERMAN A. G. McARTHUR, Chairman of the Public Health Committee of the Council, brought…

Abstract

At a meeting of the Council of the Royal Borough of Kensington on February 29th, ALDERMAN A. G. McARTHUR, Chairman of the Public Health Committee of the Council, brought up a Report as follows— “We have received replies from nineteen City and Borough Councils to the circular letter addressed to them by this Council protesting against the suggestion made by the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries that, before proceedings under the Sale of Food and Drugs Acts are instituted on analytical evidence in respect of milk there should be a preliminary investigation by an officer of the Local Authority, or that the milk producer should be given an opportunity of offering an explanation.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Abstract

Details

Politics and the Life Sciences: The State of the Discipline
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-108-4

Abstract

Details

Philosophy, Politics, and Austrian Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-405-2

Article
Publication date: 1 October 1934

ON December 6th Mr. Salter Davies was installed President of the Library Association at Chaucer House in succession to Mr. S. A. Pitt. A word first should be said about…

Abstract

ON December 6th Mr. Salter Davies was installed President of the Library Association at Chaucer House in succession to Mr. S. A. Pitt. A word first should be said about the Presidency of Mr. Pitt. It has been carried on under handicaps that would have deterred most men in such a post. A severe illness, successfully encountered and gallantly overcome, has been the main personal feature for Mr. Pitt of what should have been the most distinguisned year of a quite eminent library career. We had looked forward to very active work from him during his Presidency, and so far as circumstances permitted, he fulfilled all the obligations laid upon him completely. We can thank him more warmly, if not more sincerely, than perhaps would ordinarily be the case, because of the difficulties he has victoriously surmounted. With newly established health, we wish for him a continuance of the great work he has done for librarianship not only in Glasgow but in the Library Association and in the world of libraries generally.

Details

New Library World, vol. 37 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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