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1 – 10 of over 1000
Article
Publication date: 1 September 2002

Ben Brown and Wm Reed Benedict

This research updates and expands upon Decker’s article “Citizen attitudes toward the police: a review of past findings and suggestions for future policy” by summarizing the…

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Abstract

This research updates and expands upon Decker’s article “Citizen attitudes toward the police: a review of past findings and suggestions for future policy” by summarizing the findings from more than 100 articles on perceptions of and attitudes toward the police. Initially, the value of research on attitudes toward the police is discussed. Then the research pertaining to the impact of individual level variables (e.g. race) and contextual level variables (e.g. neighborhood) on perceptions of the police is reviewed. Studies of juveniles’ attitudes toward the police, perceptions of police policies and practices, methodological issues and conceptual issues are also discussed. This review of the literature indicates that only four variables (age, contact with police, neighborhood, and race) have consistently been proven to affect attitudes toward the police. However, there are interactive effects between these and other variables which are not yet understood; a finding which indicates that theoretical generalizations about attitudes toward police should be made with caution.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 April 2018

Lisa M. Graziano

The purpose of this paper is to provide a systematic review of the literature examining the role of news media consumption and awareness in shaping public attitudes about police.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a systematic review of the literature examining the role of news media consumption and awareness in shaping public attitudes about police.

Design/methodology/approach

A comprehensive, systematic search of multiple academic databases (e.g. EBSCO Host) was undertaken, supplemented by the use of Google Scholar to search among journals indicated as having cited the articles found in the databases.

Findings

A total of 42 studies were identified that met the selection criteria for this meta-review and examined exposure to high-profile incidents involving police, awareness of negative news coverage of police, and/or consumption of specific news mediums (e.g. newspapers). Overall, research supports a relationship between negative perceptions of police and both exposure to high-profile incidents and awareness of negative coverage. Some support for the influence of consuming television news on attitudes exists, but more research is needed on the role of different news sources in shaping perceptions. Future research should also include determining causal pathways and how news about police is selected.

Originality/value

This is the first meta-review of the research examining how news media and attitudes about police are related. This study will provide a useful resource for those researchers wishing to continue to examine different aspects of news media consumption as a predictor of perceptions.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 10 June 2016

Charles F. Klahm, Jordan Papp and Laura Rubino

This study set out to advance knowledge on the reporting of police shootings in print media. Media is the main source of information on criminal justice issues for most citizens…

Abstract

Purpose

This study set out to advance knowledge on the reporting of police shootings in print media. Media is the main source of information on criminal justice issues for most citizens. Thus, understanding the presentation of police-involved shooting incidents is important for determining the manner in which media might shape the opinions of readers.

Methodology/approach

The current study content analyzed relevant newspaper articles gathered from a large database of journalistic documents compiled by Lexis Nexis. Articles pertaining to police shootings published between January 1, 2014 and April 30, 2015, were identified and coded to document various dimensions of how these encounters are portrayed in print media.

Findings

Results indicate that explicit racialization of the stories was limited, which is contrary to what was expected. Neither the race of the suspect or officer was mentioned in most stories, making it difficult to assess explicit reporting bias of these incidents. However, results indicate that implicit bias might play a role in shaping the content portrayed in print news accounts of police-involved shootings.

Originality/value

The current study represents one of the first – if not the first – content analysis of news stories centered on police-involved shootings. Given the significant role media plays in delivering information about crime and justice topics to the citizenry, a working knowledge about the media’s portrayal of these events is important for understanding how media consumption may shape citizens’ opinions about police-involved shootings.

Details

The Politics of Policing: Between Force and Legitimacy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-030-5

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1939

The Twentieth Annual Report of the Chief Medical Officer of the Ministry of Health, Sir Arthur MacNalty, for the year 1938, begins with a review of the nature of progress and the…

Abstract

The Twentieth Annual Report of the Chief Medical Officer of the Ministry of Health, Sir Arthur MacNalty, for the year 1938, begins with a review of the nature of progress and the application of the conception to questions of health. Life in primitive society is not so healthy as is sometimes supposed, and the true condition is cloaked by the law of survival of the fittest. Civilisation has its cost; certain diseases follow in its train, e.g., tuberculosis. Besides the “new humanity” of the eighteenth century improvements in public health began to appear, and the population increased rapidly. Then came the progress of the Industrial Revolution, accompanied by new problems, especially in the domain of health. It can be concluded, however, that the growth of the health services, and the proof of their effectiveness as shown by the improvement of the nation's vital statistics, is real evidence of progress. In 1938 there was a rise of 10,647 births over the number registered in 1937, representing a birth rate of 15·1 per 1,000 living—a slight improvement on the rate of 14·9 for 1937. It is 0·7 above the rate for 1933, which was the lowest recorded. The infant mortality rate is 53 per 1,000 births as against 58 for 1937, and is now the lowest on record. The deaths in 1938 were 478,829, as compared with 509,574 in 1937, a decrease of 30,745. The five principal killing diseases remain the same as for many years past and occur in the same order, viz.:— (1) Diseases of the heart and circulatory system; (2) cancer—malignant disease; (3) bronchitis, pneumonia and other respiratory diseases; (4) diseases of the nervous system; (5) all forms of tuberculosis. If, however, the diseases are re‐arranged to show the principal killing diseases operating during the years of working life—15–65—then tuberculosis takes the third place instead of the fifth, and diseases of the nervous system occupy the fifth place.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 41 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 2 December 2016

Igor Hawryszkiewycz

Abstract

Details

Designing Creative Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-034-9

Article
Publication date: 16 August 2013

Tara O’Connor Shelley, Michael J. Hogan, N. Prabha Unnithan and Paul B. Stretesky

Public opinion regarding the police is generally positive, although there are number of individual and contextual variables that affect these views. Yet research examining public…

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Abstract

Purpose

Public opinion regarding the police is generally positive, although there are number of individual and contextual variables that affect these views. Yet research examining public perceptions regarding state law enforcement agencies (particularly state patrols) is rare.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper utilizes a representative state‐wide sample of state residents and examine their perceptions of the Colorado State Patrol (CSP).

Findings

The paper finds positive views of the CSP overall and place particular emphasis on how individual, contextual, and contact‐related variables affect opinions.

Research limitations/implications

The study focusses on one state patrol and is not generalizable to all state patrols and to other forms of state law enforcement.

Originality/value

The paper fills a void in the research on public opinion regarding state law enforcement and discuss similarities and differences in how they are viewed when compared to municipal agencies.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 May 2020

Ben Brown

The purpose of this paper is to examine public perceptions of police efforts to control crime in South Korea.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine public perceptions of police efforts to control crime in South Korea.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were gathered from surveys administered to college students in the Seoul-Gyeonggi Province metropolitan area. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the impact of gender, fear of crime and perceived risk of victimization on diffuse and specific perceptions of police performance.

Findings

The respondents did not view the police favorably. Fewer than half the respondents reported that the police do a good job of controlling drunk driving, approximately a quarter reported that the police do a good job of controlling burglary and investigating homicide and roughly a fifth reported believing that the police effectively control crime. Violent victimization and fear of violent victimization had a significant negative impact on confidence in the police.

Practical implications

The data suggest that informing the public about the low risk of violent victimization and other publicity campaigns designed to reduce fear of violence may foster confidence in the police.

Originality/value

This study identifies subtle similarities and differences in the structure of public perceptions of the police between Eastern and Western nations. Additionally, the data indicate there is a need for greater specificity in measures of public perceptions of the police.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1997

J.E. Jeffery

High‐frequency performance of printed boards(PBs) — a term which encompasses printed wiring boards (PWBs) andprinted circuit boards (PCBs) — is becoming increasingly important in…

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Abstract

High‐frequency performance of printed boards (PBs) — a term which encompasses printed wiring boards (PWBs) and printed circuit boards (PCBs) — is becoming increasingly important in digital circuits and knowledge of the electrical characteristics associated with conductors acting as transmission lines is essential. This paper is an introduction to the electrical theory associated with transmission lines and develops the fundamental principles into formulae of use to PB users, designers and manufacturers. Established equations for calculating propagation delay and characteristic impedance based on physical parameters of conductor configurations are then summarised. The concept of ‘critical conductor length’ is proposed as a method of ascertaining whether control of characteristic impedance is required for a particular transmission line. The paper uses the surface microstrip configuration as a vehicle for mathematical analysis but the analysis is equally applicable to other transmission line configurations such as embedded microstrip, symmetrical stripline and dual stripline for which the associated physical parameter equations are included.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 April 2018

Lisa M. Graziano and Jane Florence Gauthier

Given the heightened scrutiny of police by the media in the post-Ferguson era, the purpose of this paper is to test hypotheses derived from the cultivation theory regarding…

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Abstract

Purpose

Given the heightened scrutiny of police by the media in the post-Ferguson era, the purpose of this paper is to test hypotheses derived from the cultivation theory regarding possible media-related effects on perceptions of police legitimacy.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 1,197 residents from a mid-size California city was surveyed. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the relative effects of media consumption and personal experience on perceptions of police legitimacy.

Findings

Partial support for the cultivation theory was found. Those who reported local TV as their most important news source saw police as more legitimate than those who reported the internet as most important. Consistent with past research, procedural justice was the strongest predictor of perceptions of police legitimacy for those recently stopped by the police. Awareness of negative media depictions of police, however, also had independent effects indicating that media consumption does impact perceptions of police legitimacy.

Originality/value

While a wealth of research on the relationship between procedural justice and perceptions of police legitimacy exists, no previous research has examined the role media consumption plays in shaping such perceptions.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 41 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 December 2014

Catherine E. Marshall, Christina O. Lengyel and Verena H. Menec

The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on body image and aging among older women. Using existing qualitative research, this paper explores how aging affects body…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on body image and aging among older women. Using existing qualitative research, this paper explores how aging affects body image and how women respond to body image issues as they age.

Design/methodology/approach

Multiple databases were used to locate original and review articles on the topics of body image and aging, with a target population of women ages 60 years and older. The findings of the literature search were compiled, summarized and sorted to create themes.

Findings

Women struggle with body image issues throughout their lives. Women tend to perceive age-related changes in appearance negatively, as a threat to their identity and social value. This is due, in part, to the sociocultural environment, which pressures women to “fight” aging and maintain an ideal (young and thin) image at all costs. Some women do come to terms with their aging body and report increased self-acceptance with age. However, others turn to various forms of body work (e.g. dieting, hair dye, makeup) in order to maintain their value in an appearance-based society.

Practical implications

Poor body image can affect older women's emotional, psychological and physical health and overall well-being. Health care professionals, community workers and policy makers need to be made aware of these issues so that they can respond appropriately.

Originality/value

There has been limited research exploring body image among older women. This paper identifies gaps in the literature and suggests avenues for future research in this area.

Details

Ethnicity and Inequalities in Health and Social Care, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0980

Keywords

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