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Article

Jelka Geršak

The contribution presented here is the development of the system for qualitative prediction of garment appearance quality. The starting point for designing such a system…

Abstract

The contribution presented here is the development of the system for qualitative prediction of garment appearance quality. The starting point for designing such a system is a qualitative evaluation of garment appearance quality, based on the study of relation of fabric mechanical properties and achieved quality level of garment appearance, as well as the definition of elements of a system for qualitative evaluation of garment appearance quality level, i.e. its fit.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 14 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article

KyoungOk Kim, Sho Sonehara and Masayuki Takatera

– The purpose of this paper is to quantitatively evaluate the effect of adhesive interlining on the appearance of tailored jackets with different rigidity.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to quantitatively evaluate the effect of adhesive interlining on the appearance of tailored jackets with different rigidity.

Design/methodology/approach

Four tailored jackets having the same pattern and fabric and three different adhesive interlinings or no adhesive interlining were prepared as experimental samples. Criteria and characteristics for assessing jacket appearance were investigated in sensory tests. A paired comparison of the jacket appearance was conducted using a ranking method. Smoothness and constriction values were proposed and obtained using three-dimensional shape data. The smoothness value refers to the degree of wrinkling on the jacket surface and the constriction value refers to the degree of constriction of the waistline. A quantitative assessment model of jacket appearance was proposed using multiple regression analysis.

Findings

The sensory test reveals that the number of wrinkles, acceptability of wrinkling and degree of constriction of the waist are important criteria in the assessment of jacket appearance. The smoothness value for the front body and the constriction value of the waist partially agreed with the normal scores of sensory test results. Sensory evaluation values for the entire jacket appearance were estimated employing multiple regression analysis with the constriction and smoothness values. The values of jacket appearance estimated using multiple regression analysis were in good agreement with the sensory test results.

Originality/value

Criteria and characteristics to be used in the assessment of the appearance of a jacket with adhesive interlining were clarified. Employing the proposed methodology, it is possible to predict jacket appearance for different adhesive interlinings, quantitatively.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article

G.L.D. Wickramasinghe G.L.D. Wickramasinghe, Sameera Umesh Dolawatte, Isuru Udayanga Thebuwana and W.W.S. Sampath Botheju

The main objectives of this research work were to investigate the effect of production speed on intermingled yarn properties and melange fabric properties with special…

Abstract

Purpose

The main objectives of this research work were to investigate the effect of production speed on intermingled yarn properties and melange fabric properties with special reference to melange appearance.

Design/methodology/approach

Polyester/nylon intermingled yarns were produced using an SSM DP3-C air-intermingling machine using commercial process parameters and Heberlein P212 nozzle. Melange fabric samples were knitted from polyester/nylon intermingled yarns while maintaining the same parameters to avoid knitting variations. The fabric samples were dyed using a sample dyeing machine while maintaining dye recipe and dyeing parameters constant to avoid dyeing variations.

Findings

The production speed has significant effect on intermingled yarn and melange fabric properties. When the production speed is increased, mingle points, mingle stability, linear density, strength and the elongation of the intermingled yarns decreases. When the production speed is increased, fabric weight decreases and the melange effect varies from dot-like appearance to line-like appearance.

Research limitations/implications

Only the effect of production speed on intermingled yarn and melange fabric properties is discussed in this paper. Appearance evaluating systems developed in this research are limited to melange fabrics produced using air-intermingled yarns with two colour components.

Practical implications

Results indicate that the intermingled yarns for the application of melange fabrics should be developed with optimum intermingling speeds, and it should not be changed during the production since production speed has significant effect on yarn and fabric parameters. Therefore, melange appearance and fabric weight may vary between fabric lots with different production speeds even though all the other parameters are kept constant. Further, melange appearance evaluation method developed in this research could be used as a guide in developing melange fabrics.

Originality/value

This research introduced a qualitative and a quantitative method to analyse melange fabric appearance. This melange appearance evaluation method can be used as a guide to achieve specific melange effect in the sample development stage. Further, when a melange sample appearance catalogue is developed for all the variables for a particular fabric type using this evaluation method, customer requested appearance can be achieved in minimum sample trials which save time, capacity, money and customer credibility.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Book part

Isabelle Barth and Anne-Lorraine Wagner

Physical appearances constitute a criterion of discrimination recognised by the French law. This topic is often raised in the field of media and advertising, but the…

Abstract

Physical appearances constitute a criterion of discrimination recognised by the French law. This topic is often raised in the field of media and advertising, but the consequences of stereotypes and prejudices about appearances at work are not taken into account as much. However, this criterion is subject to a multitude of normative injunctions, located in time and space, and significantly affects all spheres of life. Voluntary or involuntary transgression of these norms leads to processes of segregation, discrimination and harassment. These processes are all the more insidious because their legitimacy is less questioned than when it concerns a criterion shared by a collective such as race or gender. Appearances are, in fact, perceived as individual characteristics; moreover, some of them are perceived as controllable, which justifies the unfavourable treatment of people who do not fit the norm.

At work, recruitment is the most obvious step in which appearances play a role because first impressions are largely based on them. But remuneration or daily life at the office is also affected by beliefs and expectations about appearances. After presenting testimonies from focus groups on this issue, we offer some advices for organisations concerned by the topic.

Details

Management and Diversity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-489-1

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Book part

Mehmet Ali Turkmenoglu

The aim of this chapter is to examine appearance-based discrimination in the workplace. Modern society is exalting beautification and good looking, which affect not merely…

Abstract

The aim of this chapter is to examine appearance-based discrimination in the workplace. Modern society is exalting beautification and good looking, which affect not merely social relations but also the process of employment. It is argued that employees who have ‘good looking’ are recruited, paid more and promoted rapidly, while those who have ‘wrong looking’ discriminated against. Therefore, the chapter explores how individuals encounter discrimination in the workplace due to their appearance during the decision-making process of employers. It emerges from the literature that discriminating based on appearance is not illegal in almost all countries. However, it is publicised by lawsuits against employers. There are several measures that need to be taken at different levels in order to forestall discriminatory practices. At the individual level, an embracing attitude should be internalised. A merit-based recruitment strategy should be adopted by employers. Finally, new anti-discrimination laws and regulations must be passed by authorities to tackle with ugly discriminatory practices.

Details

Contemporary Global Issues in Human Resource Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-393-9

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Book part

Mary Nell Trautner and Samantha Kwan

The formal and informal regulation of employees' appearance is a routine component of organizational life. In our research, we analyze appearance-related employment…

Abstract

The formal and informal regulation of employees' appearance is a routine component of organizational life. In our research, we analyze appearance-related employment discrimination lawsuits. These cases involve organizational dress codes, grooming policies, and employers' attempts to regulate employees' appearance with regard to weight, hairstyles, religious attire, body art, and more. Men and women who refuse to comply with appearance norms face termination of their employment, promotion denials, lower wages, transfers, not being hired in the first place, and other workplace sanctions. Our focus on court deliberations and decisions allows us to explore not only the gendered nature of appearance policies themselves but also how the legal system supports, reinforces, codifies, or, conversely, deems unacceptable such policies. Our data demonstrate that organizations and courts are likely to support appearance norms that reinforce traditional ideas about femininity and masculinity.

Details

Gender and Sexuality in the Workplace
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-371-2

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Article

Karen Kaigler‐Walker and Zelda L. Gilbert

The purpose of this paper is to determine and assess generational differences in Chinese women's perception of appearance and appearance products that can be explained by…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine and assess generational differences in Chinese women's perception of appearance and appearance products that can be explained by the political, economic, and social policies of China over the past 40 years.

Design/methodology/approach

This is an exploratory research using focus groups and a survey. Three age cohorts of Chinese women, those who came of age during the Cultural Revolution, those who came of age during the early and mid years of China's economic reforms, and those born after the implementation of China's one‐child policy and the market economy, are assessed as to their perception of appearance and use of appearance‐related products. Six cohort differences that could be attributable to these socio‐economic‐political events are found.

Findings

Significant differences between the age cohorts are found on four of six appearance‐related factors – sources of fashion information, happiness in purchasing new apparel, confidence in appearance, and preference for purchasing luxury goods.

Research limitations/implications

Although the study identifies cultural and generational constructs of Chinese women's perception of appearance and use of appearance products, due to its exploratory nature the findings are not generalizable to the larger Chinese community. In addition, to provide a more complete understanding of the generational differences, future research needs to take into account additional demographic information such as education and income.

Originality/value

No previous study has attempted to determine the impact of China's economic, social, and political policies on generational cohorts of Chinese women as to their perception of appearance and use of appearance products. Fashion marketers will benefit, as understanding these powerful determinants of purchasing behaviour are paramount to successfully planning, developing and marketing of apparel products.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Article

Iida Kukkonen, Erica Åberg, Outi Sarpila and Tero Pajunen

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the gendered double standards of exploiting physical appearance in Finland. Drawing from literature on physical appearance as a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the gendered double standards of exploiting physical appearance in Finland. Drawing from literature on physical appearance as a form of capital, four hypotheses on role of gender in endorsing double standards are put forth, and then empirically tested. The focus is on whether women or men are more disapproving of women exploiting their appearance. The paper also explores whether self-perceived attractiveness has an influence on the gendered endorsement of double standards.

Design/methodology/approach

The study utilises unique survey data with a split-ballot design to study gendered double standards at a societal level by means of ordered logistic regression. The data are nationally representative of 15-74-year-old Finns (n=1,600).

Findings

The main finding is that women are more prone to endorse the double standards against each other. It is particularly women who do not perceive themselves as attractive who are likely to hold double standards. Experienced unattractiveness is associated with disapproving attitudes towards the exploitation of physical appearance-related assets for both women and men. Men are overall more approving compared to women, and do not generally hold double standards.

Originality/value

Research on double standards in different spheres of life in a relatively gender equal country like Finland gives an intriguing example of gendered social inequality. The information provided by this paper deepens our understanding of gendered social stratification related to physical appearance.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 38 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article

Hyun‐Mee Joung and Nancy J. Miller

The purpose of this study is to examine: direct effects of appearance management and fashion involvement on social participation; direct effects of social participation…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine: direct effects of appearance management and fashion involvement on social participation; direct effects of social participation, appearance management, and fashion involvement on self‐esteem; and indirect effects of appearance management and fashion involvement on self‐esteem through social participation.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 389 females aged 55 and over completed a mail survey measuring appearance management, fashion involvement, social participation, and self‐esteem. Principal component factor analysis was conducted to reduce multi‐items measuring the variables. Path analysis was employed to test direct and indirect effects among the variables.

Findings

The results of path analysis showed that social participation and appearance management had direct effects on self‐esteem, whereas fashion involvement had no direct effect on self‐esteem. However, both appearance management and fashion involvement had positive indirect effects on self‐esteem via social participation.

Practical implications

To maintain self‐esteem in old age, individuals should be encouraged to participate in social activities and appearance management activities. The fashion and personal care industry should have an awareness of older female consumers' needs and develop and provide age‐related products and services.

Originality/value

This paper provides important contributions to gerontology, retailing, marketing, and consumer behavior‐related research. Although older adults (55+) are an important market segment, especially for the fashion and personal care industry, little research has included this group of consumers. This study showed that older adult females' self‐esteem was influenced by social participation, appearance management, and fashion involvement. The finding of this study helps marketers developing products targeting seniors.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Article

André Le Roux, Marinette Thébault, Yves Roy and François Bobrie

This research aims to explore the impact of an overlooked variable, brand typicality, on brand evaluation and the categorization of counterfeits and imitations.

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to explore the impact of an overlooked variable, brand typicality, on brand evaluation and the categorization of counterfeits and imitations.

Design/methodology/approach

The research design is a 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 mixed design with the first three variables as between-subjects variables and the last as a within-subjects variable on a convenience sample of 287 respondents split into eight experimental conditions. Data are analyzed using Linear Mixed Models.

Findings

Results show that brand typicality and brand name and product appearance manipulations impact brand evaluation and categorization. Regarding brand evaluation, under high typicality conditions, any manipulation of brand name and/or product appearance, from identical to different, results in a less favorable evaluation, whereas under low typicality conditions, only brand name manipulation negatively impacts brand evaluation. Concerning categorization, under high typicality conditions, any change in brand name and/or product appearance results in the item’s categorization as an imitation or a counterfeit, whereas under low typicality conditions, the item may be categorized as either genuine or as imitation or counterfeit.

Originality/value

This research demonstrates the impact of brand typicality on both the evaluation and categorization of changes in brand name and product appearance. It also suggests that brands and product classes are not equal vis-à-vis counterfeiting and imitation. High typicality brand seems less vulnerable to counterfeiting and imitation. Findings are discussed regarding brand vulnerability to imitation and counterfeiting, the importance of considering competitive context, brand management and brand strategy.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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