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Article
Publication date: 20 August 2018

José Luis Ruiz-Real, Juan Carlos Gázquez-Abad, Irene Esteban-Millat and Francisco J. Martínez-López

The authors analyze the relationship between different consumer attitudinal variables and a number of variables related to consumer perception of the store and purchasing…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors analyze the relationship between different consumer attitudinal variables and a number of variables related to consumer perception of the store and purchasing behavior, in assortments composed exclusively of private labels (PLs).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors developed an experiment based on an online survey to test the hypotheses formulated. The model’s causal relationships are established using structural equations.

Findings

The image of stores that only offer their own brand is mainly configured by price consciousness and the attitude toward the private label. The private label purchase intention is strongly influenced by the store image and a favorable attitude toward the brand, and loyalty strategies should be aimed at securing a clear perception of providing real value.

Practical implications

For retailers who only offer their own brands, an assortment with price-competitive PLs is key to the strategy of differentiating them from other retailers. It is reasonable to assume that, if retailers have a favorable image, customers transfer this brand value to their PLs and trust them. Customer loyalty strategies of these retailers should be aimed at ensuring that consumers clearly perceive that their assortment provides real value and that, although it is limited in terms of number of brands, it can meet all their needs.

Originality/value

This research represents a significant contribution to brand management literature because, includes, together with loyalty to the store, its image and the PL purchase intention as consumer response variables. Another differentiating feature is the methodology used. Estimation of the structural equation model permits the simultaneous estimation of the relationships between the variables.

Objetivos

Analizamos la relación entre diferentes variables actitudinales de los consumidores y un número de variables relativas a la percepción de los consumidores con respecto al establecimiento y el comportamiento de compra, todo ello en surtidos compuestos exclusivamente por marcas de distribuidor.

Metodología

Desarrollamos un experimento online, basado en una encuesta, para testar las hipótesis planteadas. Utilizamos ecuaciones estructurales para determiner las relaciones causales del modelo.

Resultados

La imagen de los establecimientos que ofrecen exclusivamente su propia marca se configura, principalmente, por la conciencia de precio y por la actitud de los consumidores hacia la marca privada. La intención de compra de la marca de distribuidor está fuertemente influenciada por la imagen del establecimiento y por una actitud favorable hacia dicha marca, por lo que las estrategias de fidelización de clientes deberían estar orientadas a asegurar una clara percepción de proporcionar valor real a los consumidores.

Implicaciones prácticas

Para los minoristas que ofertan exclusivamente sus propias marcas, un surtido con marcas de distribuidor muy competitivas en precio es fundamental en su estrategia de diferenciación de sus competidores. Además, es razonable suponer que si los minoristas cuentan con una imagen favorable, los consumidores trasladarán este valor de marca a sus propias marcas propias y confiarán en ellas. Las estrategias de fidelización de este tipo de minoristas deberían ir enfocadas a asegurarse de que los consumidores perciben claramente el valor real que aporta su surtido y que, aunque limitado en términos de número de marcas y alternativas, les permite cubrir todas sus necesidades.

Originalidad/valor

Esta investigación supone una significativa contribución a la literatura sobre gestión de marcas al incluir, conjuntamente con la lealtad al establecimiento, su imagen y la intención de compra de la marca de distribuidor como variables respuesta del consumidor. Otro elemento diferenciador es la metodología empleada, ya que la estimación del modelo de ecuaciones estructurales permite la estimación simultánea de las relaciones entre las distintas variables.

Details

Spanish Journal of Marketing - ESIC, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2444-9709

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

José Luis Ruiz-Real, Juan Carlos Gázquez-Abad, Irene Esteban-Millat and Francisco J. Martínez-López

The purpose of this paper is to analyze consumers’ reaction to assortment composition.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze consumers’ reaction to assortment composition.

Design/methodology/approach

This study examines several scenarios: private label (PL)-only assortments; mixed assortments (PL and national brands (NBs)), and in the latter case both small and large assortments. Consumers’ reaction is measured through three dependent variables: store image, PL purchase intention and store-switching intentions. The authors ran a structural equation model (SEM) to analyze the influence of different explanatory aspects (product category involvement, attitude toward PL, value consciousness and assortment variety perception) on consumers’ reactions for each scenario. For this research, the authors carried out an online experiment with a sample of 1,400 individuals from a large panel of consumers.

Findings

Consumers react differently to different assortment compositions, giving importance to the differences between the three assortment models analyzed. The results show that the composition of the assortment, either according to its size or its structure, influences consumers’ response in a significant way. The results demonstrate that store image exclusively affects PL purchase intention in PL-only assortments. Only in mixed assortments is there a relationship between the assortment variety perception and store image, product category involvement and PL purchase intention, and both store image and value consciousness are related to store-switching intentions. Store-switching intentions decrease when consumers intend to purchase PL, but strictly in PL-only and large mixed assortments. Finally, value consciousness and variety perception are positively related to PL purchase intentions only in large mixed assortments.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation of this research is that it is restricted to the Spanish context. Second, the methodology is based on an online experiment, with the advantages and disadvantages that this entails. Third, the authors did not differentiate between high- and low-value PL which, if undertaken, could be of interest for observing how brand value affects the management of retail assortments. Finally, the authors did not differentiate regular buyers at these retail chains from those who are not.

Practical implications

The comparison between different assortment compositions helps the authors to draw some very interesting conclusions. The estimation of different consumers’ responses is ideal for providing retailers with recommendations on how to frame their assortment strategies. Thus, the main recommendation of this study for retailers is to look for a “balance” between PL and NBs, i.e., to offer mixed assortments.

Originality/value

Aside from mixed assortments, this study estimates the consequences of assortments that are exclusively PL. The authors proposed and deployed a SEM, so this paper contributes to the retailing field by including multiple dependent variables – store image, PL purchase intention and store-switching intentions. The authors conducted an online experiment containing “real” brands, which is another contribution as it enables consumers’ response to be estimated in a “real” environment.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 45 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2015

Francisco J. Martínez-López, Irene Esteban-Millat, Ana Argila and Francisco Rejón-Guardia

Psychological perspective has been omitted or considered a secondary issue by past studies focused on e-commerce recommendation systems (RS). However, this perspective is…

Abstract

Purpose

Psychological perspective has been omitted or considered a secondary issue by past studies focused on e-commerce recommendation systems (RS). However, this perspective is key to gaining a better understanding of consumer behaviours when these systems are used to support purchasing processes at online stores. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The field study consisted of a simulated online shopping process undertaken by a sample of internet users with a recommender system at a real online store (Pixmania). The authors applied rigorous and detailed exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to assess the empirical validity of the model.

Findings

The proposed sequence of psychological outcomes is valid, with the exception of one hypothesized relationship. In particular, satisfaction with an online store’s recommender has a strong influence on a consumer’s willingness to purchase one of the items related to his/her shopping goal. However, this satisfaction has no direct effect on a consumer’s intention to make add-on purchases based on the recommender’s suggestions. On the contrary, the results support the idea that add-on purchases are conditioned by a previous purchase related to the consumer’s initial shopping goal. On the other hand, a consumer’s flow state while shopping improves all his/her psychological outcomes linked to an online store’s recommender. The influence of flow state is particularly interesting when seeking to gain a better understanding of consumers’ unplanned purchases based on the recommender’s suggestions. These findings have important implications for practitioners.

Originality/value

This paper discusses in detail and empirically test a set of psychological outcomes that emerge when an e-vendor’s recommender is used to assist a consumer’s shopping process. To the best of the knowledge, this is the first attempt that empirically tests most of the hypothesized relationships within an online store’s RS context.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2015

Francisco José Martínez-López, Irene Esteban-Millat, Claudia C. Cabal and Charles Gengler

e-Commerce recommenders have positive benefits both for consumers and the online stores using them. The focus of research in this topic has mostly been technical (e.g…

Abstract

Purpose

e-Commerce recommenders have positive benefits both for consumers and the online stores using them. The focus of research in this topic has mostly been technical (e.g. design, type of recommenders, inputs, or outputs). However, a prior key question is what leads a consumer to use an e-vendor’s recommender. The consumer process of adoption and use of such recommenders involves subjective factors which need a psychological approach. This perspective has been neglected so far. The purpose of this paper is to discuss and validate an integrative model which adapts various theories and models – i.e. the original formulation of the technology acceptance model (TAM), the integrated trust-TAM model, and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) – in order to explain such a process.

Design/methodology/approach

The field study consisted of a simulated online shopping process undertaken by a valid sample of 300 internet users with a recommender at a real online store (Amazon). Many of the constructs’ measurement scales have been adapted from previously validated scales never before applied to this study’s context, and the authors have consequently rigorously validated them here too; this also constitutes one of the research’s valuable contributions. Detailed exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses are applied to assess the empirical validity of the model.

Findings

The model’s core structure and its relationships are proved to be valid for explaining a consumer’s intention to use an e-vendor’s recommender In particular, trust and perceived usefulness of the recommender stand out as the determining factors of its use, though the consumer’s attitude toward the recommender and others’ opinion of its use also have significant influence too.

Originality/value

The consumer’s psychological angle has been overlooked by previous studies on the adoption and use of online stores’ recommendation systems. To the best of the knowledge, this is the first attempt to validate a model aimed at comprehensively approaching the consumer’s adoption of an e-vendor’s recommender. The findings provide several theoretical contributions and implications for practitioners.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 115 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2017

Marco Ieva and Cristina Ziliani

The purpose of this paper is to identify patterns of medium preference for loyalty programs (LPs) among members to support the case for segmenting customers based on their…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify patterns of medium preference for loyalty programs (LPs) among members to support the case for segmenting customers based on their medium preference.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of nearly 2,000 customers who are enrolled in at least one supermarket LP was employed. LP members are segmented based on a latent class clustering model and then profiled in terms of socio-demographic variables by means of a multinomial logit regression model.

Findings

Medium preference is heterogeneous and differs at the customer segment and at the LP touchpoint level. Five segments emerge which display different medium preference patterns. LP medium preference is associated with age, gender, affluency and number of different LPs the customer is enrolled in.

Practical implications

Retailers, e-tailers and brands can benefit from this customer segmentation when faced with the challenges of adding online features or migrating their LPs online. Marketers should differentiate their investment in online and offline LP touchpoints according to the medium preference for each LP touchpoint of the customer segments of interest.

Originality/value

Retailers, e-tailers and brands are today introducing online marketing strategies and tactics, such as LPs, that have been traditionally used offline. So far, however, they have failed to answer the question whether online and offline LPs and related touchpoints have the same preference among consumers. Literature on LPs has not explored customer preference for the LP medium or the consumer characteristics related to medium preference. This work is unique in providing an overview of medium preference for LPs and their touchpoints.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 45 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

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