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1 – 10 of over 1000
Book part
Publication date: 4 May 2021

Bikramjit Rishi and Sapna Popli

A customer's journey of searching for a product or service, evaluating it, purchasing it, using it, recommending it, rebuying it or rejecting it is unique in itself…

Abstract

A customer's journey of searching for a product or service, evaluating it, purchasing it, using it, recommending it, rebuying it or rejecting it is unique in itself. Organisations always have dreamt of getting inside the customers' minds and trying to understand what's happening inside at each of these steps. This chapter explains the customer journey concept and the analysis of the various components of the customer journey. We highlight that the firms need to understand the customer journeys and the multiple touchpoints they interact with to create a worthwhile customer experience. The chapter lists out the various touchpoints, including social/external touchpoints, customer-owned touchpoints, partner-owned touchpoints and brand-owned touchpoints. We discuss three frameworks that can be used by a firm to understand design a customer journey. These frameworks include AIDA (awareness, interest, desire and action), MAI (measure, analyse and improve) and journey maps. The chapter recommends the various steps which a firm can use to create a journey map. In the end, we create a linkage between the customer journey and business transformation. The chapter builds a case for the application of customer journey management by pointing out that it is a complex phenomenon, and the firms should use a structured approach to design and manage the customer journey.

Article
Publication date: 20 December 2021

Lily (Xuehui) Gao, Iguácel Melero-Polo, Miguel Á. Ruz-Mendoza and Andreea Trifu

The purpose of this study is to examine how and to what extent customer-provider service touchpoints impact business customer perceptions and outcomes in the context of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine how and to what extent customer-provider service touchpoints impact business customer perceptions and outcomes in the context of long-term business-to-business (B2B) service relationships. To this end, the authors will assess the chain of effect path for different service touchpoints between business customers and service providers – and the long-term impact both on customer perceptions and financial, behavioral and relational outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

Enabled by a five-year panel data set, seemingly unrelated regression model methodology is applied to test the proposed conceptual framework. Data are obtained for a sample of 2,175 B2B insurance service companies between 2013 and 2017.

Findings

Study results shed light on the significance of the sales force in B2B settings, as one of several key service touchpoints – together with firm expertise, service reliability and excellence – driving robust relationships, profitability and cross-buying. Firm-initiated contacts and tangible touchpoints are proven to be ineffective – even damaging in some instances – in terms of driving business customer perceptions.

Originality/value

The paper delivers empirical evidence providing insight on how service touchpoints and business customer perceptions have a long-term impact on customer outcomes. This has yet to be addressed in B2B service settings – despite being of vital interest to marketers, as the longitudinal approach of the research aids service firms in gaining a better understanding of company-customer touchpoints and the extent to which different factors have a decisive, lasting impact on B2B customer outcomes.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 37 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 July 2011

Donelda S. McKechnie, Jim Grant and Fatema Shabbir Golawala

This paper aims to discuss partitioning an air travel service encounter into touchpoints according to elements and phases, which are depth and breadth, respectively, using…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discuss partitioning an air travel service encounter into touchpoints according to elements and phases, which are depth and breadth, respectively, using the conceptual framework of Le Bel. The empirical findings further the dialogue about the service encounter construct.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 12 distinctive touchpoints within the joining and intensive phases of any air travel service encounter are reviewed for importance using travel purpose and nationality as segmentation variables. Respondents participated through an online questionnaire and face‐to‐face approach from a fieldworker; they were not engaged in an air travel service encounter at the time of the study. Data analysis includes descriptive statistics, independent sample t‐tests and paired sample t‐tests where the latter considered a named airline from the region.

Findings

The findings indicate touchpoints to be sufficiently distinctive that partitioning a service encounter provides opportunities for quality improvements directed at customer satisfaction outcomes. Notably, greater importance is typically given to the intensive phase touchpoints than those in the joining phases thus placing more emphasis on activities within service encounters' simultaneous production/consumption. Touchpoint preference is evident for travel purpose and passenger nationality segmentation criteria. When an airline is named, respondents appear more discriminating about touchpoint quality compared to those in generic service encounters.

Originality/value

Academically, partitioning strengthens the links between the service encounter construct and service quality and provides additional information beyond expectations‐perceptions results. Industry value is derived for practitioner marketers when distinctive touchpoints are taken from a partitioned service encounter providing opportunities for segmenting and targeting consumers accordingly.

Details

International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-669X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 July 2018

Marco Ieva and Cristina Ziliani

The explosion in the number of touchpoints is putting pressure on companies to design omnichannel customer experiences aimed at achieving long-term customer loyalty. The…

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Abstract

Purpose

The explosion in the number of touchpoints is putting pressure on companies to design omnichannel customer experiences aimed at achieving long-term customer loyalty. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relative importance of 24 touchpoints in contributing to customer loyalty intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected by means of a survey on almost 6,000 subjects belonging to the Nielsen consumer panel. Two ordinary least squares regression models with clustered standard errors estimate the relationship between touchpoint exposure – measured in terms of reach, frequency and positivity – and customer loyalty intentions in the mobile service sector.

Findings

Reach has a significant relationship with customer loyalty intentions as far as eight touchpoints are concerned. Positivity, when controlling for frequency of exposure, is related to customer loyalty intentions as far as nine touchpoints are concerned.

Practical implications

Results provide guidance for mobile service providers on customer experience management strategies and specifically on touchpoint prioritization, adaptation, monitoring and design.

Originality/value

This study addresses two relevant research gaps. First, most studies focus on single or a few touchpoints without considering the variety of touchpoints within the customer journey (Lemon and Verhoef, 2016). Second, no studies focus on the relative contribution of touchpoints to customer loyalty intentions (Homburg et al., 2017).

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2019

Virginia Vannucci and Eleonora Pantano

Prior research highlights the extent to which consumers largely appreciate the possibility to choose among different digital touchpoints during the in-store experience…

3083

Abstract

Purpose

Prior research highlights the extent to which consumers largely appreciate the possibility to choose among different digital touchpoints during the in-store experience, which results in a pervasive introduction of digital touchpoints as the first point of contact between retailers and consumers. However, consumers also give value to the human interactions in the service channels. The previous studies do not conclusively indicate the best balance of digital and human services. The purpose of this paper is to understand consumer-facing in-store services in new technology-enriched retail settings.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative approach involving face-to-face semi structured interviews was applied. To this end, the authors recruited 26 participants in Northern Italy between October and November 2017.

Findings

Results reveal motivations, preferences and discouraging factors leading consumers’ interactions with digital or human touchpoints. Findings ultimately provide useful guidelines to managers on understanding consumers’ attitudes toward digital vs human touchpoints phenomenon.

Originality/value

By identifying the key drivers of either digital and human touchpoints selection in offline retail settings, the present study figured out the attributes playing the crucial role in determining consumers’ preference regarding the in-store alternatives. Findings allow a further greater clarification of the practical issues, with emphasis on the new of human–machine integration.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 June 2015

Karla Straker, Cara Wrigley and Michael Rosemann

This study aims to gain a clearer understanding of digital channel design. The emergence of new technologies has revolutionised the way companies interact and engage with…

6276

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to gain a clearer understanding of digital channel design. The emergence of new technologies has revolutionised the way companies interact and engage with customers. The driver for this research was the suggestion that practitioners feel they do not possess the skills to understand and exploit new digital channel opportunities. To gain a clearer understanding of digital channel design, this paper addresses the research question: What digital channels do companies from a wide range of industries and sectors use?

Design/methodology/approach

A content analysis of 100 international companies was conducted with multiple data sources to form a typology of digital “touchpoints”. The appropriateness of a digital channel typology for this study was for developing rigorous and useful concepts for clarifying and refining the meaning of digital channels.

Findings

This study identifies what digital channels companies globally currently employ and explores the related needs across industries. A total of 34 digital touchpoints and 4 typologies of digital channels were identified across 16 industries. This research helps to identify the relationship between digital channels and enabling the connections with industry.

Research limitations/implications

The findings contribute to the growing research area of digital channels. The typology of digital channels is a useful starting point for developing a systematic, theory-based study for enabling the development of broader, comprehensive theories of digital channels.

Practical implications

Typologies and touchpoints are outlined in relation to industry, company objectives and customer needs to allow businesses to seize opportunities and optimise performance through individual touchpoints. A digital channel model as a key outcome of this research guides practitioners on what touchpoint to implement through an interrelated understanding of industry, company and customer needs.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to explore a range of industries in relation to their use of digital channels using a unique content analysis. Contributions include clarifying and refining digital channel meaning; identifying and refining the hierarchical relations among digital channels (typologies); and establishing typology and industry relationship model.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 November 2016

Ragnhild Halvorsrud, Knut Kvale and Asbjørn Følstad

The purpose of this paper is to propose a framework based on customer journeys for a structured portrayal of service delivery from the customer’s point of view. The paper…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a framework based on customer journeys for a structured portrayal of service delivery from the customer’s point of view. The paper also introduces customer journey analysis (CJA) for empirical investigation of individual service experiences in a multichannel environment.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents case studies for onboarding new customers on broadband services. CJA starts with modeling of the service process in terms of touchpoints. The individual customer journeys are reconstructed through methodological triangulation of interviews, diary studies, and process tracking.

Findings

The paper provides empirical insights into individual customer journeys. Four types of deviations during service delivery are identified: occurrence of ad hoc touchpoints, irregularities in the sequence of logically connected touchpoints, occurrence of failures in touchpoints, and missing touchpoints. CJA seems effective in revealing problematic and incoherent service delivery that may result in unfavorable customer experiences.

Practical implications

For a service company, the proposed framework may serve as a unifying language to ease cross-departmental communication and approach service quality in a systematic way. CJA discloses the gap between the planned and actual service delivery and can be used as a tool for service improvement.

Originality/value

The framework provides concepts, definitions, and a visual notation to structure and manage services in terms of customer journeys. CJA is a novel method for empirical studies of the service delivery process and the associated customer experience.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 26 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 March 2018

Marco Ieva and Cristina Ziliani

The purpose of this paper is to identify the patterns of customer exposure to touchpoints by segmenting consumers based on the frequency of their exposure, and to…

5120

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the patterns of customer exposure to touchpoints by segmenting consumers based on the frequency of their exposure, and to understand the relationship of patterns of exposure with customer loyalty intentions (relationship commitment, self-disclosure and positive word-of-mouth) and demographic characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey of almost 4,000 customers was employed in a supermarket retail setting. Customers were segmented based on their frequency of recalled exposure to multiple touchpoints, by means of a latent class cluster analysis, while considering the role of demographic characteristics. Afterwards, loyalty intentions variables were regressed on the resulting customer segments.

Findings

Based on the touchpoint exposure, six customer segments emerge. The main differences across segments relate to the intensity of frequency of exposure and the types of touchpoints customers have been exposed to. Sex, age, shopping role and geographic area of residence are related to segment membership. The identified patterns of exposure explain relationship commitment, self-disclosure and positive word-of-mouth: clusters displaying higher exposure to touchpoints display higher loyalty intentions than clusters displaying lower exposure.

Practical implications

The study offers actionable implications for brands and retailers on how to manage touchpoints for implementing omnichannel strategies.

Originality/value

As far as the authors know, this study is the first to identify exposure to multiple touchpoints and understand the role of demographics as far as touchpoint exposure is concerned. It also provides interesting findings on the relationship of different combinations of touchpoints with customer loyalty.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 46 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 February 2017

Marco Ieva and Cristina Ziliani

The purpose of this paper is to identify patterns of medium preference for loyalty programs (LPs) among members to support the case for segmenting customers based on their…

2785

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify patterns of medium preference for loyalty programs (LPs) among members to support the case for segmenting customers based on their medium preference.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of nearly 2,000 customers who are enrolled in at least one supermarket LP was employed. LP members are segmented based on a latent class clustering model and then profiled in terms of socio-demographic variables by means of a multinomial logit regression model.

Findings

Medium preference is heterogeneous and differs at the customer segment and at the LP touchpoint level. Five segments emerge which display different medium preference patterns. LP medium preference is associated with age, gender, affluency and number of different LPs the customer is enrolled in.

Practical implications

Retailers, e-tailers and brands can benefit from this customer segmentation when faced with the challenges of adding online features or migrating their LPs online. Marketers should differentiate their investment in online and offline LP touchpoints according to the medium preference for each LP touchpoint of the customer segments of interest.

Originality/value

Retailers, e-tailers and brands are today introducing online marketing strategies and tactics, such as LPs, that have been traditionally used offline. So far, however, they have failed to answer the question whether online and offline LPs and related touchpoints have the same preference among consumers. Literature on LPs has not explored customer preference for the LP medium or the consumer characteristics related to medium preference. This work is unique in providing an overview of medium preference for LPs and their touchpoints.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 45 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 May 2018

Andrew J. Dahl, Anthony M. D’Alessandro, James W. Peltier and Eric L. Swan

Social causes increasingly rely on omni-channel touchpoints involving personal discussions and grassroots digital marketing efforts to engage individuals via social…

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Abstract

Purpose

Social causes increasingly rely on omni-channel touchpoints involving personal discussions and grassroots digital marketing efforts to engage individuals via social referrals. This paper aims to examine digital natives’ perceived effectiveness of omni-channel touchpoints for increasing social cause engagement including social media, digital media, traditional and interpersonal communications, along with an individual’s social/digital media behaviors.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reports empirical results from an online survey of 924 digital natives. The paper uses multivariate and multiple regression analyses to examine the differential effects of a diverse range of media influencing the perceived effectiveness of social cause referrals from a family member versus a close friend.

Findings

The results identify the combination of omni-channel touchpoints most likely to be effective for enhancing organ donation support and registration efforts as part of social referral campaigns. The findings suggest differences exist based on whether the campaign targets family members or friends.

Research limitations/implications

The research focuses on digital natives and does not address differences that may vary by specific messages shared across generational groups or ethnicities. More research is also necessary, which examines the effects of digital consumption versus content creation behaviors.

Practical implications

The paper includes implications for social marketers looking at increasing viral reach and engagement via social referral campaigns. Marketers should integrate the omni-channel touchpoints deemed to be most effective for each target based on specific campaign goals.

Originality/value

This paper addresses a gap in marketers’ understanding of how digital natives perceive social referral campaigns targeting their social circle via various omni-channel touchpoints.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

Keywords

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