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Article
Publication date: 27 November 2020

Sarita Prasad, Milen Baltov, Neelakanteswara Rao A. and Krishnanand Lanka

The paper aims to analyse the contextual relationship and dependency amongst enablers for lean manufacturing implementation in Bulgarian small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to analyse the contextual relationship and dependency amongst enablers for lean manufacturing implementation in Bulgarian small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the interpretive structural modelling (ISM) technique was used to develop a hierarchical structural model for enablers. Also, the interpretive ranking process (IRP) was used to analyse and rank enablers with reference to performance variables. For the ISM approach, a structural self- integration matrix was developed with the help of experts’ suggestions and opinions. Cross-impact matrix multiplication applied to classification (MICMAC) analysis was used to analyse the relationship amongst enablers. A total of nine experts were chosen for collecting the primary data in which seven experts belong to the industry and two experts were academicians. The dominant relationship amongst the enablers was analysed through IRP modelling.

Findings

A total of 11 enablers were identified for the purpose of this study. The model shows that “leadership and commitment by management”, “human resource management”, “customer relation management”, “supplier relation management” and “information technology system” are the most significant enablers for lean implementation in Bulgarian SMEs as these are positioned at the bottom levels in ISM model. MICMAC analysis shows that five enablers fall in the independent factor, two enablers in linkage factor and four enablers in the dependant factor while there is no enabler in the autonomous factor. ISM and IRP models show that “continuous improvement” is an essential enabler for the successful implementation of lean in Bulgarian SMEs. This study also helps to explain the comparative analysis of ISM and IRP, which indicates that IRP is a more robust modelling approach than ISM, as it incorporates the relationship of enablers with performance variables.

Research limitations/implications

ISM and IRP modelling approaches are based solely on expert opinions and responses. This limitation can be overcome with the help of empirical study.

Practical implications

This study supports the professionals/experts to prioritise and manage enablers at strategic and tactical levels while implementing lean manufacturing practices in Bulgarian SMEs. The models developed in the study will be helpful for practitioners to understand and analyse the interdependence of enablers for lean manufacturing implementation.

Originality/value

This study helps to identify and prioritise enablers that affect lean manufacturing adoption using ISM and IRP approaches. Literature shows that numerous authors have used the ISM approach but the use of IRP approach is limited. The models were developed in the study, totally dependent on data collected from the experts to ensure their real-life validity.

Details

International Journal of Lean Six Sigma, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-4166

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Article
Publication date: 8 March 2013

Alok Kumar Singh and Sushil

The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze the interactions among different enablers of total quality management (TQM) and its outcome variables in service…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze the interactions among different enablers of total quality management (TQM) and its outcome variables in service sector specific to Indian domestic airline industry. No study has been done regarding the implementation of TQM in Indian domestic aviation sector. To fill this gap interpretive structural modeling (ISM) and total interpretive structural modeling (TISM) based quality framework model has been developed to understand the mutual interactions among the variables and to identify the driving and dependence power of these variables.

Design/methodology/approach

An ISM and TISM based approach have been used to study and analyze the interactions between identified variables.

Findings

In this research work, a total of 14 variables have been identified based on extensive literature review, brainstorming and experts opining from the Indian airline industry and academia. The result showed that top management commitment, training, continuous improvement, benchmarking, employee involvement and commitment have strong driving power and weak dependence power and are at the lowest level in hierarchy in the ISM and TISM model, while the outcome variables of TQM have low driving power but have high dependence power.

Practical implications

Top management must stress on variables having strong driving power for efficient implementation of TQM. By implementation of TISM model in the Indian airline industry, organizations would become more productive, competitive and would eventually become more profitable.

Originality/value

In this research work, ISM and TISM based quality framework structural model have been proposed for Indian domestic aviation industry which is a new effort in the area of TQM implementation in this sector.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 62 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

J. Jena, Sumati Sidharth, Lakshman S. Thakur, Devendra Kumar Pathak and V.C. Pandey

The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the methodology of total interpretive structural modeling (TISM) in order to provide interpretation for direct as well as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the methodology of total interpretive structural modeling (TISM) in order to provide interpretation for direct as well as significant transitive linkages in a directed graph.

Design/methodology/approach

This study begins by unfolding the concepts and advantages of TISM. The step-by-step methodology of TISM is exemplified by employing it to analyze the mutual dependence among inhibitors of smartphone manufacturing ecosystem development (SMED). Cross-impact matrix multiplication applied to the classification analysis is also performed to graphically represent these inhibitors based on their driving power and dependence.

Findings

This study highlights the significance of TISM over conventional interpretive structural modeling (ISM). The inhibitors of SMED are explored by reviewing existing literature and obtaining experts’ opinions. TISM is employed to classify these inhibitors in order to devise a five-level hierarchical structure based on their driving power and dependence.

Practical implications

This study facilitates decision makers to take required actions to mitigate these inhibitors. Inhibitors (with strong driving power), which occupy the bottom level in the TISM hierarchy, require more attention from top management and effective monitoring of these inhibitors can assist in achieving the organizations’ goals.

Originality/value

By unfolding the benefits of TISM over ISM, this study is an endeavor to develop insights toward utilization of TISM for modeling inhibitors of SMED. This paper elaborates step-by-step procedure to perform TISM and hence makes it simple for researchers to understand its concepts. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that analyzes the inhibitors of SMED by utilizing TISM approach.

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2015

Prasanth S. Poduval, V. R. Pramod and Jagathy Raj V. P.

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the application of Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) to analyze the barriers in implementation of Total Productive…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the application of Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) to analyze the barriers in implementation of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM). TPM is explained in brief with emphasis on maintenance programs to improve quality of products, reliability of processes and reduction in cost. Barriers in implementation of TPM are also discussed. Concept of ISM and steps in developing ISM are described in detail. The authors then illustrate the research methodology which involves applying ISM to analyze barriers in TPM.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper starts off by describing the concepts of TPM and ISM. Barriers in implementation of TPM are discussed. It explains ISM as a methodology to understand the underlying interrelationship among the inhibiting factors. The authors draw up an action plan to carry out research on the usage of ISM to study the TPM inhibitors, to develop an integrated model to establish the relationship among the different TPM inhibiting factors and to suggest action plan to mitigate these factors.

Findings

Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) can be used to analyze the driving and dependence power of the variables inhibiting implementation of TPM. The barriers to implement TPM are described with detailed explanation. The complexity of the problem and the degree of interconnection among the variables can be found out. This will help Managers take action on mitigating the barriers.

Practical implications

By analyzing the interrelationships among the barriers and their strengths, management can chalk out the strategy to implement TPM in an organization. Management will become aware of the barriers which have the maximum influence and then can act accordingly to mitigate these barriers. This will help in implementing TPM faster and in an organized manner.

Originality/value

Many authors have used ISM to study various issues. A couple of authors have used ISM to determine barriers in implementation of TPM. The authors feel that most of the papers describe ISM in brief making it slightly difficult for readers to understand. This paper aims to explain elaborately step-by-step on how to develop an ISM making it easier for researchers to understand the ISM concept. Even though there are papers on TPM and difficulties in implementation of TPM, this paper explains the barriers in implementing TPM based on the experience of the corresponding author having worked in the refinery industry.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2020

Esraa Osama Zayed and Ehab A. Yaseen

Recently, sustainability aspects are gaining importance among supply chain management (SCM) research field, hence this study aims to explore barriers to sustainable supply…

Abstract

Purpose

Recently, sustainability aspects are gaining importance among supply chain management (SCM) research field, hence this study aims to explore barriers to sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) implementation in Egyptian industries and the interrelationships among these barriers to provide a structured detailed model for barriers and suggest recommendations to deal with these barriers.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is an empirical study with a descriptive research approach using qualitative methodology. Data were collected through interviewing experts involved in sustainability implementation within supply chain functions. Afterward interpretive structural modeling (ISM) for barriers was conducted to develop a structured model representing possible interrelationships between barriers.

Findings

Findings have reported slight differences among barriers to SSCM implementation in Egyptian industries other than those stated previously. ISM analysis helped in shaping barriers into a detailed structured model where interrelationships among barriers can be clearly defined. Additionally, based on the data collected and the ISM model, this study managed to offer recommendations to deal with these barriers.

Research limitations/implications

Future researches might consider developing ISM analysis for a smaller number of barriers, or focus on each of internal and external barriers individually to minimize ISM analysis complexity and enhance its accuracy. As ISM analysis technique is highly dependent on experts' opinions and experience, validation is highly recommended either by structural equation modeling (SEM) or linear structural relationship approach.

Practical implications

This study provides insights for managers about internal and external barriers to SSCM implementation in Egyptian industries, a detailed structured model for interrelationships among these barriers and recommendations to deal with these barriers.

Originality/value

This study is one of the very first studies to implement ISM for barriers to SSCM on data collected from Egyptian industries. Consequently, it will direct further research focusing on developing strategies or recommendations to overcome these barriers.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 22 October 2019

Adel Alferaih

The purpose of this paper is to identify and develop a hierarchy of corporate social responsibility (CSR) dimensions and their interrelationships using interpretive

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify and develop a hierarchy of corporate social responsibility (CSR) dimensions and their interrelationships using interpretive structural modelling (ISM) methodology.

Design/methodology/approach

This research used ISM for framework development. ISM is, however, a sound method for developing insight into the collective understanding of the relationships between dimensions of corporate social responsibility (CSR) identified from the literature review. The steps involved in the ISM technique are structural self-interaction matrix, reachability matrix, level partitions, developing the canonical matrix, classification of dimensions for CSR and formation of ISM.

Findings

The findings indicate that company size is the only key driver for the other dimensions of CSR and is hence placed at the very bottom of the ISM model. Above this, at Level II, the key dimensions are corporate governance, diversity and corporate profile. These act as mediating dimensions between company size and the topmost level (i.e. Level III), which comprises 15 dimensions including CSR.

Research limitations/implications

Some limitations of this research indicate the need for further research. First, the proposed ISM model has only been conceptualised and has not been empirically tested using primary data. Future research is needed to validate the model in whole or part, to understand the perceived CSR of a company. Second, the methodology was limited to the use of ISM to model the CSR dimensions; it was not extended to fuzzy MICMAC analysis or to interpretive ranking.

Practical implications

The proposed ISM-based model for the identification and ranking of CSR dimensions and their interrelationships offers decision makers and practitioners a more convincing representation of the problems affecting the exploration of CSR dimensions. The utility of the proposed ISM method lies in imposing order and direction on the complexity of relationships among these dimensions, which will help top management and decision makers to better use their available resources in optimising their CSR practices. The framework allows policymakers to effectively incorporate these dimensions into their practising of CSR.

Originality/value

This is the first research on CSR to conceptualise a framework of causal interactions among its key dimensions using ISM methodology.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 16 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

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Article
Publication date: 22 March 2021

Mahipal Singh and Rajeev Rathi

Lean six sigma (LSS) has attained a prominent position in mature organizations but small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are struggling in the proper implementation…

Abstract

Purpose

Lean six sigma (LSS) has attained a prominent position in mature organizations but small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are struggling in the proper implementation of LSS in their core business. This study aims to make a comprehensive analysis of LSS implementation barriers in SMEs so that LSS execution can be much fluent in SMEs.

Design/methodology/approach

This research work is carried out based on investigation of LSS barriers through extensive literature review. For validating the identified barriers, a questionnaire survey was conducted, and out of 400 samples, 260 responses received back. The collected responses are analyzed statistically and found 16 significant barriers. The finalized barriers are modeled using interpretive structural modeling (ISM) and clustered them through matrice d’impacts croisés-multiplication appliquée a un classement (MICMAC) analysis. Furthermore, to check the consistency of results, ISM-MICMAC outcomes are validated through structural equation modeling (SEM).

Findings

The result reveals that 16 LSS implementation barriers are finalized through expert’s opinion and validated through statistical reliability test with Cronbach’s alpha value of 0.820. The ISM model reveals that the management relevant barriers are exhibiting the leading role to influence the implementation of LSS in SMEs. Moreover, the obtained results validated through SEM are found in good agreement.

Research limitations/implications

During pairwise comparisons, there may be some prejudice and subjectivity as human judgments are engaged.

Practical implications

This study provides impetus to practitioners and consultant for the initiation of LSS in the business organization through tackling the LSS barriers as per their driving and dependence power.

Originality/value

In the past, limited studies had explored the LSS barriers, but a few studies analyzed the mutual relationship between barriers. No such study is reported in literature that validates the mutual interaction model of LSS barriers. Hence, this paper presents the original research work of identification and modeling of barriers associated with LSS implementation in SMEs through hybrid ISM-SEM approach.

Details

International Journal of Lean Six Sigma, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-4166

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Taher Kalantari and Farid Khoshalhan

The evaluation of readiness provides insight into the readiness of its individual components for successful accomplishment of tasks. This study aims to evaluate readiness…

Abstract

Purpose

The evaluation of readiness provides insight into the readiness of its individual components for successful accomplishment of tasks. This study aims to evaluate readiness in leagility of supply chains based on the design and analysis of fuzzy cognitive maps (FCM) and interpretive structural modeling (ISM).

Design/methodology/approach

On the basis of the purpose of this study, data are gathered via the Delphi method. Moreover, FCM and ISM are also used to evaluate readiness.

Findings

Findings initially demonstrate a categorization of factors influencing leagility into static and dynamic variables according to the degree of their influence derived from the resultant behavior of FCM and ISM. It is also found that evaluating readiness in leagility of supply chains with ISM and FCM was done with respect to the type and role of the study variables, which were determined within the minimum and maximum ranges of 20 to 100 per cent, respectively.

Originality/value

The evaluation of the readiness using the FCM and ISM is proved to be more efficient than other classical methods. Experimental results of the study contribute to improve readiness of leagility of supply chain as well as develop functional areas of business.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2011

Hans‐Christian Pfohl, Philipp Gallus and David Thomas

The aim of this paper is the structural analysis of potential supply chain risks. It will demonstrate how interpretive structural modeling (ISM) supports risk managers in…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is the structural analysis of potential supply chain risks. It will demonstrate how interpretive structural modeling (ISM) supports risk managers in identifying and understanding interdependencies among supply chain risks on different levels (e.g. 3PL, first‐tier supplier, focal company, etc.). Interdependencies among risks will be derived and structured into a hierarchy in order to derive subsystems of interdependent elements with corresponding driving power and dependency.

Design/methodology/approach

ISM was used to identify inter‐relationships among supply chain risks and to classify the risks according to their driving and dependence power. The theoretical findings of the modeling and the applicability for practical use has been tested in two case studies with two German industry and trade companies.

Findings

ISM was proven as a useful methodology to structure supply chain risks in an easy and distributed approach that can also be carried out in a step‐by‐step process on several manufacturing stages. The input to the algorithm has to be well‐defined to give the user an exact understanding of all risks that have to be assessed, i.e. the better the input to ISM is prepared the better the outcome and representation will be. Finally, when applying the method, a moderated process proved to be more reliable than an assessment based on paper questionnaires only.

Originality/value

This model's insight would assist supply chain (risk) managers in the effective allocation of risk management resources in the subsequent risk management phases.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 41 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Vikram Sharma, Amit Rai Dixit and Mohd. Asim Qadri

The purpose of this research paper is to identify the enablers for Lean implementation in the manufacturing sector, to establish a relationship among them using…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research paper is to identify the enablers for Lean implementation in the manufacturing sector, to establish a relationship among them using interpretive structural modeling (ISM) and to rank them using interpretive ranking process (IRP).

Design/methodology/approach

The research paper presents a blend of theoretical framework and practical applications. In the paper, eight enablers of Lean production are identified from literature survey and experts’ opinion. These include 5S, value stream mapping (VSM), just in time, single minute exchange of die, computer-integrated manufacturing, concurrent engineering, training and enterprise resource planning. ISM is used to obtain a structural relationship among these enablers of Lean. MICMAC analysis is used to identify the driving power and dependence of the variables. Further, IRP is used to rank the lean enablers with respect to key performance areas.

Findings

The ISM- and IRP-based models indicate that “training” is the most significant factor for the Lean implementation process in manufacturing sector. The MICMAC analysis also shows that “training” has the maximum driving power and the least dependence and hence has strong managerial significance. The management should place high priority on tackling this criterion. VSM occupies the top level in the ISM hierarchy, indicating that all other Lean enablers should act in unison to make VSM implementation a success.

Originality/value

Enablers are the building blocks for deployment of the Lean concept. To know the key enablers and relationship among them can help many organizations to develop Lean competencies. This study is perhaps among the first few that focuses on two modeling procedures based on interpretive logic, i.e. ISM and IRP. The paper provides useful insights to the Lean production implementers, consultants and researchers.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

Keywords

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