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Book part

Jonas Flodén and Edith Sorkina

One of the main difficulties in developing new intermodal transport solutions is finding the right business model. Though business models have received limited attention…

Abstract

Purpose

One of the main difficulties in developing new intermodal transport solutions is finding the right business model. Though business models have received limited attention in the existing intermodal research, several authors have pointed out the importance of business models in the intermodal context.

Existing intermodal literature discusses several types of different business. The current study takes an in-depth look at The Own-Account Model, its strengths and weaknesses through two empirical examples.

The chapter investigates this model by analysing the business model in practice, for example actors, roles and responsibilities, risk distribution and contracts.

Methodology

Research is conducted using a qualitative approach with two case studies. Osterwalder’s (2004) framework for business models is applied to analyse the empirical cases.

Findings

The roles and responsibilities of the actors are described. For the parties to be willing to “invest into” the new intermodal solution, long-term contracts are required. The shipper controls the channel, but has to rely heavily on the transport operators for their expertise and resources.

The analysis has found that the model can be used to avoid many of the difficulties in setting up a new intermodal solution, such as ensuring the base volume or having the overall control over the intermodal chain.

Research implications

Better understanding of this type of business model allows authorities to better support the development of intermodal transport through policy measures. The results obtained also improve the understanding of how intermodal transport is performed in practice.

Details

Sustainable Logistics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-062-9

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Book part

Dries Meers, Tom Vermeiren and Cathy Macharis

In the last two decades, different policy initiatives have been set up to increase the share of intermodal freight transport through a modal shift. In the design of these…

Abstract

Purpose

In the last two decades, different policy initiatives have been set up to increase the share of intermodal freight transport through a modal shift. In the design of these policies, often critical break-even distances are set, showing the cost or price competitiveness of intermodal transport to delineate transport routes that qualify for such a modal shift. In this chapter, we discuss to which extent such break-even distances can be generalized on a larger scale and how they are calculated.

Methodology

We use two price-based models to calculate break-even distances for an intermodal rail and an intermodal barge transport case. General break-even values do not show the price variation in the transport market and vagueness in the calculation of these values adds to this problem.

Findings

We find that for the inland waterway case, intermodal barge transport shows potential on shorter distances as well. In addition, different ways to lower the break-even distance are discussed and a framework for calculating break-even distances is suggested.

Research limitations

The research elaborates on break-even distances in a European context using price data which are fluctuating over time, location specific and often not publicly available.

Practical implications

Policy initiatives promoting intermodal transport should not focus solely on long distance transport. Moreover, evaluating the competitiveness of the intermodal sector solely on a price comparison dishonours its true potential.

Originality/value

This chapter challenges the current European policy on intermodal transport by showing the price competitiveness of intermodal transport in two cases.

Details

Sustainable Logistics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-062-9

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Article

EunSu Lee

The purpose of this study is to address an importance of an intermodal terminal regarding container drayage trips, which have a major concern for agricultural product…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to address an importance of an intermodal terminal regarding container drayage trips, which have a major concern for agricultural product exporters in the Upper Great Plains. Thus, this study aims to develop a geospatial model considering travel distance and total logistics costs for determining an alternative intermodal terminal location.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper develops a spatial model integrating integer linear programming to determine an intermodal facility location that minimizes total logistics costs. This research considers travel distance and total logistics costs including highway, rail and transshipment costs.

Findings

The results shows that a Dilworth, Minnesota, terminal reduces vehicle miles of travel on both the highways and rail networks and decreases system-wide total logistics costs compared to the do-nothing scenario while decreasing urban congestion costs in metropolitan areas.

Research limitations/implications

The major contribution of the study is that it provides an integrated tool of spatial and economic analyses to support regional decision-making. The paper will be of interest to regional planners and to those in the private business sectors including farmers and manufacturers. The future study should address demand forecasting on the containerized freight in the region.

Originality/value

The novel approach of this paper is to use a link blocking constraint, considering the directions of the freight flow in a p-hub intermodal problem.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article

Rommert Dekker, Eelco van Asperen, Geerten Ochtman and Walter Kusters

The purpose of this paper is to consider the use of temporary storage offered by intermodal transshipment points to position some stock of fast moving consumer goods in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to consider the use of temporary storage offered by intermodal transshipment points to position some stock of fast moving consumer goods in advance of demand; this floating stock concept combines transport and inventory management. Intermodal transport is compared with direct road transport for a supply chain.

Design/methodology/approach

First an analytical comparison is made which shows that the floating stock concept has advantages in inventories over pure road and intermodal transport. Next, a simulation study of a real case is made which quantifies the cost‐differences in detail.

Findings

It is found that both storage costs can be lowered and shorter response times be gotten by sending shipments in advance to intermodal terminals. The advance positioning can offset the disadvantage of a longer transit time in intermodal transport.

Research limitations/implications

Demand needs to be somewhat predictable. The pooling effects depend on geographical layout of the customers. The availability of intermodal transport options is based on the situation in Western Europe.

Practical implications

The floating stock concept considers both the transport and inventory issues. By positioning some of the stock at transshipment points close to the customer in anticipation of demand, the concept can yield lower inventory costs as well as a lower customer lead time. The benefit for logistics service providers is a more regular supply chain. Using intermodal transport provides an opportunity to green the supply chain as the environmental impact per ton/kilometer is lower than road transport.

Originality/value

This paper draws on the areas of logistics and inventory management to consider the choice of transport mode; most studies look at these issues in isolation. Considering the holding and storage costs in addition to the distribution strategy enables a more thorough comparison of the transport modes.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 39 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

Content available
Article

Amir Gharehgozli, Henk de Vries and Stephan Decrauw

This paper aims to study the function of standardisation in intermodal transport. It identifies where standardisation helps to improve intermodal transport, who is active…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the function of standardisation in intermodal transport. It identifies where standardisation helps to improve intermodal transport, who is active in intermodal transport standardisation, what types of standards are needed and what the decision-making process and implementation of standards should be like to positively influence the performance of intermodal transportation.

Design/methodology/approach

An empirical study is designed to carry out this research project. The empirical study starts with a review of the organisations that are responsible for standardisation and intermodal transport, together with the standards that they have developed, and are developing, so far. It continues with analysing the topics where standardisation helps to improve the performance of intermodal transport. The analysis is based on 12 interviews, followed by desk research, to validate the respondents’ statements.

Findings

The results show that intermodal transportation should be distinguished in continental and maritime transport, which require different standards. In maritime transport, the hardware aspects of the system are highly standardised. However, further standardisation of information exchange offers potential to improve the quality of transport. For continental transport, challenges appear in the heterogeneity of infrastructure and loading units used in Europe. For both systems, openness and consensus are main requirements for the development of successful standards.

Originality/value

Standards facilitate interoperability, quality and safety of intermodal transportation, which leads to better performance. This has drawn little attention in the literature. This study addresses this gap and focuses on Europe.

Details

Maritime Business Review, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2397-3757

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Article

Violeta Roso

A close dry port with direct rail connection to a seaport is a potential solution for seaport terminal congestion as well as for better seaport inland access. The purpose…

Abstract

Purpose

A close dry port with direct rail connection to a seaport is a potential solution for seaport terminal congestion as well as for better seaport inland access. The purpose of this paper is to investigate and define impediments to a close advanced intermodal terminal – dry port implementation.

Design/methodology/approach

Comparative case studies through face‐to‐face interviews and a literature review have been carried out in order to accomplish the purpose. In addition, secondary sources such as reports, internal documents and web pages were used.

Findings

The most common factors that impede dry port implementation are infrastructure, land use, environment and regulations. Hence, the same reduce the efficiency of freight movements on land access routes to and from seaports. An advanced intermodal terminal must fit into a complex system where the necessary infrastructure is in place and the regulatory systems are properly designed to optimize the involvement of both the public and the private sector.

Research limitations/implications

Empirical data for the case studies are collected at Port Botany, Sydney, and its close intermodal terminals. A more comprehensive view of the problem could be obtained through additional case studies on other countries' seaports' intermodal terminals.

Originality/value

The idea behind the study is to contribute to a better understanding of the concept of close dry port through the factors that influence the implementation of the same and thereby to improve knowledge of the implementation of the concept.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 38 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

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Article

Glen D’Este

Global sourcing, just‐in‐time inventory control and the growth of the global marketplace have made intermodal transport an increasingly important aspect of distribution…

Abstract

Global sourcing, just‐in‐time inventory control and the growth of the global marketplace have made intermodal transport an increasingly important aspect of distribution and logistics. Discusses intermodal system modelling from the perspective of intermodalism as an integrated transport service rather than as a technology. Reviews current modelling paradigms and implementations and proposes an innovative approach based on the abstract concept of logistical events and treating intermodalism as a sequence of linked events. Addresses some of the technical issues involved in embedding the proposed framework in a traditional network model.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 26 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

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Article

Anu Bask and Mervi Rajahonka

Transport is the European Union (EU) sector that produces the second highest amount of greenhouse gas emissions. In its attempts to promote the environmentally sustainable…

Abstract

Purpose

Transport is the European Union (EU) sector that produces the second highest amount of greenhouse gas emissions. In its attempts to promote the environmentally sustainable development of transport, the EU has focussed on intermodal transport in particular – but with limited success. It is important to understand how freight transport is selected, which criteria are used and what role environmental sustainability and intermodal transport play in the selection. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to focus on the role of environmental sustainability and intermodal transport in transport mode decisions. The authors look at this issue from the perspective of logistics service providers (LSPs) and buyers, as they are important stakeholders in guiding this process.

Design/methodology/approach

To gain a holistic view of the current state of research, the authors have conducted a systematic literature review of the role of environmental sustainability and intermodal transport in transport mode decisions. The authors have further examined the findings concerning requests for quotations (RfQs), tenders and transport contracts, as these are also linked to decisions on transport choice.

Findings

The findings from the literature review include the results of descriptive and structured content analysis of the selected articles. They show that the discussion on environmental sustainability and intermodal transport as a sustainable mode, together with the transport mode selection criteria, RfQs/tenders and transport contracts, is still a rather new and emerging topic in the literature. The main focus related to the selection of transport mode has been on utility and cost efficiency, and only recently have issues such as environmental sustainability and intermodal transport started to gain greater attention. The findings also indicate that the theoretical lenses most typically used have been preference models and total cost theories, although the theoretical base has recently become more diversified.

Research limitations/implications

There is still a need to extend the theoretical and methodological base, which could then lead to innovative theory building and testing. Such diverse application of methodologies will help in understanding how environmental sustainability can be better linked to mode choice decisions.

Practical implications

The findings will be of interest to policy makers and companies opting for environmentally sustainable transport solutions.

Social implications

If the EU, shippers and LSPs take a more active stance in promoting environmentally sustainable transformation models, this will have long-lasting societal impacts.

Originality/value

It seems that this systematic literature review of the topic is one of the first such attempts in the current body of literature.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 47 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

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Book part

Helga Jonuschat, Korinna Stephan and Marc Schelewsky

This chapter focuses on strategies to initiate a shift in mobility behaviour away from private cars towards a combination of more environmentally friendly transport modes…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter focuses on strategies to initiate a shift in mobility behaviour away from private cars towards a combination of more environmentally friendly transport modes including public transport, ride- and car sharing or even completely carbon-free modes like walking and cycling. The requirement for such a shift is that people must be able to actually choose between different travelling options and combine them within an intermodal mobility network. Here, shared mobility has a considerable potential to fill the gap between public and individual transport options.

Methodology/approach

This chapter summarises results from different studies on shared mobility from the providers’, the users’ and the political perspective. The user’s perspective is based on an empirical study comparing car sharers’, car drivers’ and public transport users’ attitudes and mobility patterns.

Findings

The empirical findings from the case study have shown that shuttle trips by car in general, and to the train station in particular, are an important field of action for improving the environmental impact of intermodal trips. The study has also shown that car sharing enables people to live without a private car by using different transport modes for different purposes. As the majority of car sharers report needing a car only one to three times a month, they have a very small carbon footprint compared to the average car owner.

Social implications

Mobility patterns are determined by local transport options as well as by personal routines. Hence, current changes due to new shared mobility options seem to have a considerable direct impact on how people organise their daily lives on the one hand and an indirect impact on their living costs on the other hand, since private cars have an important share of private household costs.

Originality/value

From an environmental perspective, any incentives to encourage people to choose alternative forms of transport over their private cars would seem to be particularly effective. Thus, understanding the behaviour and needs of multi- and intermodal travellers is an important step towards sustainable mobility. Acknowledging that most travellers still need a car every now and then, car sharing is an essential addition to public transport systems, supporting both public transport use and carbon-free mobility like walking and cycling.

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Book part

Martin Ruesch

This contribution describes the urban freight structure in the Zurich area, the possibilites and the potential for rail and intermodal transport. It contains results from…

Abstract

This contribution describes the urban freight structure in the Zurich area, the possibilites and the potential for rail and intermodal transport. It contains results from studies made for the authorities of the city and the canton of Zurich and also from European research projects. It also notes supporting measures and framework conditions to reach a modal shift from road to rail based transport.

Details

Logistics Systems for Sustainable Cities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-044260-0

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