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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2018

Guihai Huang and Wai Ming To

Employees play a significant role in implementing corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices. This paper aims to examine the perceived importance of CSR practices and…

Abstract

Purpose

Employees play a significant role in implementing corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices. This paper aims to examine the perceived importance of CSR practices and identifies improvement areas of CSR practices using the importance-performance analysis from Macao’s casino employees’ perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a literature review of CSR in the hospitality industry and ISO 26000, a comprehensive set of CSR practices including responsible gaming practices was identified. Data were collected from 298 casino employees. Importance-performance analysis as well as exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were used to identify important CSR practices and the factor structure of CSR in Macao’s gaming industry.

Findings

Employees rated “providing good wages and health insurance” as the most important practice, followed by “creating a health and safe working environment” and “be fair and honest with employees.” The importance-performance analysis shows that employees perceived their firms performing well in “providing good wages and health insurance,” “protecting consumer data and consumer privacy” and “providing good consumer service and support.” The results of confirmatory factor analysis indicate that CSR in Macao’s gaming industry encompasses seven factors, namely, “Labor Practices,” “The Environment,” “Fair Operating Practices,” “Consumer Issues,” “Human Rights,” “Community Involvement” and “Responsible Gaming”.

Originality/value

Casino employees shape customer experience, recognizing and understanding how employees view CSR practices can help casino operators refine their CSR initiatives.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 30 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1994

John C. Keyt, Ugur Yavas and Glen Riecken

Presents an application of importance‐performance analysis. Usingrestaurants as a case in point, illustrates the derivation of a modifiedimportance‐performance matrix. The…

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6288

Abstract

Presents an application of importance‐performance analysis. Using restaurants as a case in point, illustrates the derivation of a modified importance‐performance matrix. The findings indicate that more precise strategies emerge if a competitive dimension is included in the analysis.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2020

Matti Haverila, Kai Christian Haverila and Jenny Carita Twyford

Relying on the importance-performance theory first established by Martilla and James (1977), this research paper utilizes a unique statistical analysis instrument embedded…

Abstract

Purpose

Relying on the importance-performance theory first established by Martilla and James (1977), this research paper utilizes a unique statistical analysis instrument embedded into the SmartPLS software. It explores the importance and performance of key project management constructs and indicators with a purpose to make practical and actionable recommendations for project managers to identify and improve project management practices.

Design/methodology/approach

The data used were derived from 3,130 system delivery projects in the facilities management industry. The data was analyzed with Partial Least Squares Modelling (PLS) software SmartPLS, using its embedded importance-performance functionality.

Findings

The findings indicate the importance and performance of the project management constructs and their respective indicator variables in an importance-performance (IPMA) map. All three project management phases (constructs); proposal, installation and commissioning, were significantly related to satisfaction. The installation phase (construct) showed the highest potential for performance improvement in project management. With regard to the specific indicator variables, the variable “Coordinating their work with other contractors (or the owner's staff)” received a strong “Do better” recommendation.

Originality/value

The approach and results provide an easy to use and visual tool for project managers to assess the importance and performance of the various elements of project management. The instrument provides a project management direction for the identification of strategic enhancement areas as it is essential to recognize what facets of project management contribute most to the improvement of project management performance over a longer period of time (Cronin and Taylor, 1992; Palmer, 1998).

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Fraser McLeay, Andrew Robson and Mazirah Yusoff

The constantly evolving higher education (HE) sector is creating a need for new business models and tools for evaluating performance. In this paper, an overview of the…

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1047

Abstract

Purpose

The constantly evolving higher education (HE) sector is creating a need for new business models and tools for evaluating performance. In this paper, an overview of the importance-performance analysis (IPA) model and its applicability as a management tool for assessing student satisfaction in the HE sector is provided. The purpose of this paper is to apply IPA in a new and novel manner, undertaking analysis at three levels; the individual student, for individual attributes and at a construct or factor level which combines individual attributes that are correlated. A practical application is illustrated, assessing the gap between the importance placed on specific student satisfaction attributes and corresponding levels of student-perceived performance realised.

Design/methodology/approach

The “service product bundle” (Douglas et al., 2006) is refined based on focus group evaluation. Survey responses from 823 students studying across four Malaysian private universities are analysed using factor analysis and the IPA model utilised to identify importance-performance gaps and explore the implication of the iso-rating line as well as alternative cut-off zones.

Findings

Factor reduction of 33 original measurement items results in eight definable areas of service provision, which provides a refined and extended management tool of statistically reliable and valid constructs.

Research limitations/implications

The research is undertaken in a private business school context in Malaysia. Further research could focus on other universities or countries, as well as faculties such as computing and engineering or explore other elements of education-based performance.

Practical implications

The research method and study outcomes can support HE managers to allocate resources more effectively and develop strategies to improve quality and increase student satisfaction.

Originality/value

Distinct from other IPA-based studies, analysis is undertaken at three levels; the individual participant, for individual items and at the factor level.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1986

Alvin C. Burns

The marketing manager has little or no guidance in formulating competitive strategies. This article presents a marketing strategy planning tool based on customers'…

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1325

Abstract

The marketing manager has little or no guidance in formulating competitive strategies. This article presents a marketing strategy planning tool based on customers' perceptions of the positions of competing brands across various product attributes. The method, called “Simultaneous Importance‐Performance Analysis,” advocates focusing attention on relevant competitors' positions and attacking or defending market territory selectively. An example of its application is provided to illustrate its usefulness. The tool provides a framework for prioritizing alternative marketing strategies and is helpful in deciding on the allocation of limited marketing resources to design an efficient short‐range marketing plan. We will first discuss the nature of competitive advantage strategy and look at the marketing manager's dilemma on how to select tactics to develop a competitive advantage. We will then describe and illustrate “simultaneous importance — performance analysis,” based on importance‐performance analysis. Finally, we will suggest how this technique might be integrated into a company's strategic planning system.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 12 January 2018

Nigel Hemmington, Peter Beomcheol Kim and Cindie Wang

Importance-performance analysis (IPA) is an effective tool for firms to prioritise service quality attributes, but has limitations in evaluating and enhancing service…

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1159

Abstract

Purpose

Importance-performance analysis (IPA) is an effective tool for firms to prioritise service quality attributes, but has limitations in evaluating and enhancing service quality within a competitive environment. The purpose of this paper is to present an evolved model of IPA – importance-performance benchmark vectors (IPBV) – as a benchmarking tool and investigate its applicability in the context of hotel service quality.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical studies based on self-completion survey data from 150 customers of two full-service hotels in Taiwan were conducted in to examine the practical utility of IPBV.

Findings

Eight key benchmark typologies were identified and expressed as vectors in the IPBV model which are as follows: “sustainable advantage”, “potential strength”, “false advantage or outstanding advantage”, “cease-fire competition”, “false disadvantage or on-hand disadvantage”, “potential weakness”, “dangerous warning” and “head-on competition”.

Research limitations/implications

The paper extends the methodology to more cases, and other service industries to test further the discriminatory power of the model and to explore the descriptors in the IPBV vector model. Alternative seven-point or nine-point Likert scales could be explored to test the discriminant validity using means. The alternative IPA diagonal approach focussing on GAP analysis may reveal alternative interpretations for the IPBV vector model. Other extended models of IPA, which include competitor analysis, should be compared in practice using a data set where both quantitative and qualitative data could be generated.

Practical implications

The paper proposes the two-dimensional IPBV model which retains the advantages of IPA, but also includes competitor or benchmark comparisons which enable organisations to analyse their relative competitive position. The two-part model provides both quantitative information and qualitative interpretation of relativities. The graphical matrix models provide simple quantitative analysis of attributes, whilst the IPBV vector model provides qualitative interpretations of the eight competitive market positions. Vector analysis enables the development of competitive strategies relative to benchmarks, or within a competitive set. Importance is retained and means that organisations can benchmark against a range of competitors prioritising specific attributes for resource allocation.

Social implications

The interpretive utility of the model should be explored with practitioners and decision makers in the service industries. The model has been designed for practical use in industry to inform operational and strategic decision making, its usefulness in practice should be explored and the attitudes of practitioners to the model should be tested.

Originality/value

Traditional approaches to benchmarking have adopted a one-dimensional approach that does not include a measure of the relative importance of the service quality dimensions in specific markets. This research develops a two-dimensional advanced model of IPA, called IPBV, which is based on vector relationships between key attributes of service quality. These vectors are explored and described in competitive terms and the model is discussed with regard to its implications for industry, practitioners and researchers.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2016

Dawood Sulaiman Al Jahwari, Ercan Sirakaya-Turk and Volkan Altintas

The purpose of this research is to evaluate the communication competency of tour guides using a modified importance–performance analysis (MIPA). Tour guides are cultural…

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4132

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to evaluate the communication competency of tour guides using a modified importance–performance analysis (MIPA). Tour guides are cultural ambassadors of a country; their communication skills can make or break tourists’ experiences with guided tours and memories of a destination.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 387 professional tour guides representing 38 per cent of all tour guides in Antalya, Turkey. The study further performs factor analysis using 32 communication competency items to determine underlying performance dimensions. This is followed by an MIPA to statistically identify the gap between factors that tour guides consider important and their perceptions of how they perform on these factors.

Findings

The study reveals that tour guides need improvement in verbal skills such as grammar, manner of speech and choice of words, as well as non-verbal behaviors such as approachability and the ability to remain friendly while maintaining a certain personal space.

Research limitations/implications

Due to the nature of this study and certain time limitations, the most effective method proved to be collecting data from a convenient sample of tour guides during their annual workshop. The theory of behavioral communication competency details theoretical and practical implications.

Practical implications

The study findings provide tour operators and the Association of Professional Tour Guides with a platform from which they can launch educational seminars and workshops to enhance tour guides’ communication competency.

Originality/value

The study contributes two main findings: This research provides a first-of-its-kind examination of professional tour guides’ communication competency using MIPA. The study improves the efficacy of traditional importance–performance analysis (IPA) models by enhancing them with a gap analysis through a t-test and effect size analysis including a gap analysis takes the arbitrariness out of the process of determining the location of items within the IPA grid. Tourism service providers can use these findings to offer educational seminars that can increase the skill sets of tour guides.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2011

Salina Daud, Nurazariah Abidin, Noraina Mazuin Sapuan and Jegatheesan Rajadurai

This study seeks to investigate the potential gap between important dimensions of business graduates' attributes and the actual performance of these graduates in their…

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2637

Abstract

Purpose

This study seeks to investigate the potential gap between important dimensions of business graduates' attributes and the actual performance of these graduates in their post‐graduate employment. These graduates have completed a business‐related degree from the business management faculty of a higher education institution (HEI) located in Peninsular Malaysia. The dimensions of attributes and the performance of these graduates are considered in four broad areas, namely, knowledge, skills, abilities, and personality.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire seeking responses from managers reflecting their importance ratings of essential attributes for business graduates, and the corresponding performance ratings of the graduates in these attributes, was distributed to managers of all companies employing the graduates from the business school. Importance‐performance analysis was used to evaluate the managers' perceptions of these graduates and to determine their actual performance. The graduates' information was obtained from the records of the HEI's alumni.

Findings

The results of this study reveal that managers attach different weights to different aspects of graduates' performance. Therefore, curriculum development should be directed towards attributes that are expected of these graduates and are relevant to the needs of the market and industry. This will allow for corrective action to take place to improve perceived problem areas.

Research limitations/implications

Since this research is a case study of business management faculty graduates, future nationwide research could be carried out on graduates from all HEIs employed in different industries and involving different levels of management and employment to determine whether a consistent pattern is discernable.

Originality/value

There are only a few studies that have included employer research surveys with the intention of evaluating factors contributing to graduate performance and improving the business management curriculum of HEIs in Malaysia.

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2020

Aayush Singha Roy, Dipankar Bose and U.K. Bera

In this article, we identify various foodservice-related attributes that are important for undergraduate students residing in hostels and avail service from specific…

Abstract

Purpose

In this article, we identify various foodservice-related attributes that are important for undergraduate students residing in hostels and avail service from specific foodservice providers. We also investigate the performance of attributes to determine areas where the foodservice providers should maintain a high performance or where improvement is required.

Design/methodology/approach

We apply the Kano methodology to design the questionnaire for 24 different attributes. For each attribute, we construct three questions; namely, functional type, dysfunctional type, and performance of the hostel foodservice. We collect a total of 317 responses. We use multiple methods to determine the dominant category. Finally, combining the values of these methods, we study relative positions of the attributes in the importance–performance grid.

Findings

Based on the Kano categorization, quality-related attributes are most important, followed by hygiene, comfort, availability, variety, and time, in the descending order. The gender of the respondent plays an important role in categorization of some attributes. Using the importance–performance analysis, we identify the attributes where the foodservice provider should maintain a high performance or where improvement is required. Improvements in some attributes are difficult due to foodservice provider's self-assessment of high performance or high difficulty for improvement.

Originality/value

In this study, we examine the importance of various foodservice attributes among undergraduate residential students. We combine multiple methods of Kano categorization to compute importance values of the attributes. We also investigate the reasons behind the gap between student's and foodservice manager's perception of the performance of these attributes.

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2019

Jorge Vera-Martinez and Sidney Ornelas

Product performance measurements have been used to explain other business performance variables. The purpose of this paper is to propose that, regarding Mexican consumers…

Abstract

Purpose

Product performance measurements have been used to explain other business performance variables. The purpose of this paper is to propose that, regarding Mexican consumers, the “comparison-based perceived attribute performance” (CAP) approach is a better predictor of outcomes, such as satisfaction, value and loyalty, compared with the traditional measurement of “non-comparison-based perceived attribute performance” (NCAP). These two forms of assessing attribute-level performance may be considered as different constructs.

Design/methodology/approach

Using these two approaches, empirical tests were performed to attribute performance measurement and were conducted on products from two different categories: tequila and liquid dishwashing detergent. Regression analyses were performed using Mexican consumer samples of n=295 and n=239, respectively.

Findings

As opposed to NCAP, CAP measurements yielded higher statistical levels of satisfaction, value and loyalty for both product categories. In the case of tequila, factor analysis indicated a clear separation between the two types of measurements, suggesting that they should be considered distinct constructs. However, this was not found for the other product category.

Originality/value

CAP, which has better potential to predict outcomes than NCAP, could have relevant implications in brand positioning assessment and importance-performance analyses.

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