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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2008

Steven Lysonski and Srinivas Durvasula

Illegal downloading of music has become an inexorable and rampant activity particularly among college students who have been little deterred by industry legal actions. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Illegal downloading of music has become an inexorable and rampant activity particularly among college students who have been little deterred by industry legal actions. The purpose of this research is to examine the present state of downloading and how ethical orientation and attitudes towards MP3 piracy impact such activities. The paper also aims to use ethical scenarios as a way of understanding the ethical reasoning in illegal downloading.

Design/methodology/approach

Key research questions are proposed that are related to illegal downloading. A sample of 364 university students was used to examine each research question. Statistical results are reported.

Findings

The results clearly show that downloading continues at a high rate today driven by a strong belief that it is not ethically wrong. Ethical orientation was found to be positively associated with awareness of the social cost of downloading, consequences of downloading, and ethical belief in downloading. Ethical scenarios show that ethical orientation is also associated with downloading activities and with stealing. Other results indicate that respondents believe that their peers are more prone to stealing music and downloading MP3s illegally. Fear of consequences does seem to have an impact on the propensity to download illegally.

Practical implications

The paper contributes to inform industry representatives that appeals to ethics or guilt are not likely to deter illegal downloading measurably. The use of punishment for downloaders may have a short‐term effect but other (more positive) measures are required.

Originality/value

No research has examined downloading of MP3s in the manner developed in this paper. The paper contributes to a better understanding of consumer behavior among those who download. The results provide insight into a serious problem in the recording industry that is likely to persist in the distant future unless sound measures are developed.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2014

Kate Pascoe and Kathleen Mortimer

This paper aims to explore, and is the first in a series, whether it is possible to use risk-taking activities as way of identifying potential entrepreneurs. The research…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore, and is the first in a series, whether it is possible to use risk-taking activities as way of identifying potential entrepreneurs. The research examines the motivations of individuals to engage in deviant consumer behaviour, in this case illegal downloading and the link between this behaviour and possible entrepreneurial characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology approach was of a quantitative nature using a 32-item questionnaire disseminated to 215 undergraduate students at a UK university.

Findings

Although there was strong evidence of entrepreneurial traits existing across the participants, including risk-taking propensity, no relationship could be found between risk-taking propensity and illegal downloading. Reasons put forward for these findings were that the level of risk involved was too low to be identified as such by the downloaders, even though the non-downloaders were worried about being caught and, therefore, were not participating in it. Attitudes towards this misbehaviour change when it is not for their own consumption and very few students participated in that activity.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited to a cohort of undergraduate students at only one university. This study begins to understand the potential link between misbehaviour and entrepreneurial traits.

Originality/value

This paper examines the possible link between consumer misbehaviour, in this case illegal downloading and the display of entrepreneurial risk-taking characteristics. The implication of “consumer misbehaviour” through illegal downloading being “entrepreneurial” has, to our knowledge, not been previously tested and could be a useful and inexpensive way of identifying future entrepreneurs and consequently directing relevant support and training to the right people.

Details

Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-5201

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Kate Daellenbach, Rachael Kusel and Michel Rod

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between musician’s social network sites (SNS), the tie that fans may develop via these sites, and music…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between musician’s social network sites (SNS), the tie that fans may develop via these sites, and music acquisition, via legal and illegal means.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative approach was taken, gathering 352 responses from young adults via an online survey.

Findings

Perceptions of interactivity and sincerity on musicians’ SNS are found to lead to stronger ties, enhancing the fan’s feeling of closeness to the musician, the fan’s inclination to spread positive word-of-mouth, and the time a fan spends on the site. Pathways are found between the fan activity, sense of closeness and time spent on the SNS. In terms of acquisition, the tie strength indicator of time spent on the SNS holds a positive relationship with purchase intent. While a sense of closeness holds a negative relationship to illegal downloading activity, the fan’s activity recommending the musician has a positive influence on illegal downloading.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations of this study include a limited amount of information on the musician and extent of fandom, suggesting future research to tease out the effects of SNS on fans with varying levels of existing commitment to musicians.

Practical implications

Stronger ties between fans and musicians may be developed via interactive and sincere SNS. Activities which encourage the fan to give recommendations and spread positive word-of-mouth are especially influential in driving purchase intent.

Originality/value

These results provide theoretical and practical implications in relation to how SNS may influence the online fan-celebrity “tie” and music acquisition – three elements which have not to date been examined.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2012

Ian Phau and Johan Liang

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how personal and social factors influence attitudes towards downloading pirated games from the internet. It also examines the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how personal and social factors influence attitudes towards downloading pirated games from the internet. It also examines the moderators between attitudes and intention to download pirated digital video games.

Design/methodology/approach

The research was conducted using convenience samples in a large university in Western Australia. The data were analysed mostly through regression models.

Findings

Self‐efficacy, affect and moral judgement have significant influences upon attitudes towards downloading pirated games from the internet. Conversely, habits, facilitating conditions and social factors do not have significant influences upon attitudes towards downloading pirated games from the internet. In addition, attitudes towards downloading pirated digital video games from the internet have a significant influence upon the intention to download pirated digital video games from the internet. It is also found that the level of internet usage, the level of internet time spent and the internet speed do not moderate the relationship between attitudes and intention to download pirated games from the internet.

Research limitations/implications

The major limitation is the use of a convenience sample. Therefore, future research should replicate and extend this study by using more valid random samples. In addition, qualitative approach, field experiment and foolspeed campaign analysis need to be considered to gain a better understanding of why internet users indulge in games piracy.

Practical implications

Authorities should create awareness campaigns about digital video games piracy to alert the public about the risk of being caught and the consequence of unethical behaviour. Managers, marketers and policy makers should collaborate to combat piracy to prevent illegal downloading of free pirated games in the future.

Originality/value

The paper assesses the impact of six antecedents and the attitudes towards downloading pirated digital video games from the internet that will lead to the intention to download pirated digital video games from the Internet.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 30 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 12 January 2015

Yu-An Huang, Chad Lin, Hung-Jen Su and Mei-Lien Tung

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of parental and peer norms on idol worship as well as the effect of idol worship on the intention to purchase and obtain…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of parental and peer norms on idol worship as well as the effect of idol worship on the intention to purchase and obtain the idol’s music products legally and illegally.

Design/methodology/approach

A stratified, two-stage, cluster sampling procedure was applied to a list of high schools obtained from the Ministry of Education in Taiwan. A return rate of 80 per cent yielded 723 usable questionnaires, the data from which were analysed by the LISREL structural equation modelling software.

Findings

The results suggest that both social worship and personal worship have a significant and positive impact on the intention to purchase music. However, personal worship has a negative impact on the intention to pirate music while social worship appears to strengthen it.

Research limitations/implications

The findings suggest that idol worship is more complex than previously understood. The constructs chosen in this research should be seen only as a snapshot but other variables such as vanity trait, autonomy, romanticism or involvement are not taken into account. Future studies would benefit from inclusion of these variables and a wider geographical scope.

Practical implications

The findings contain many implications to help marketing executives and planners better revise their existing marketing and communication strategies to increase their revenue.

Originality/value

Existing research has tended to examine the impact of idol worship as a whole on the reduction of music piracy, but overlook the two-dimensional aspects of idol worship, hence ignoring the fact that many music firms have not properly utilised idol worship to deal with the challenges associated with music piracy. The findings broaden existing understanding about the causes of two different dimensions of idol worship and their different impacts on the intention to music piracy.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2017

Fandy Tjiptono, Denni Arli and Warat Winit

This study aims to examine and compare ethical perceptions between genders on various potentially unethical consumer situations in Indonesia and Thailand.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine and compare ethical perceptions between genders on various potentially unethical consumer situations in Indonesia and Thailand.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was conducted by distributing self-administered questionnaires to a convenience sample of university students in two large cities in Indonesia and Thailand. There are 278 respondents in Indonesia 158 participants for Thailand. Most respondents aged between 18-24 years.

Findings

Indonesian youths were found to believe that “passively benefiting”, “questionable action” and “downloading” are more unethical than Thai youths do. The relationship between gender and consumer ethics is not consistent in Indonesia and Thailand. Female youths in Indonesia tended to be more ethical in four out of seven dimensions of Consumer Ethics Scales than their counterparts, while no gender differences were found in Thailand.

Practical implications

The results show the different consumer ethics between Indonesia and Thailand that may reflect cultural variations, where Indonesia is more multicultural than Thailand. The mixed findings of the gender differences may suggest that there are no intrinsic gender differences in consumer ethics. Further, the results also provide implications for educators and public policy makers in both countries to encourage more active roles played by universities in building ethical sensitivity among future leaders.

Originality/value

This is one of the few studies examining the impact of gender on consumer ethical behavior in Southeast Asian countries, where various unethical behaviors (e.g. buying and using pirated products) are prevalent.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 22 May 2015

Stephen Dobson, Arun Sukumar and Lucian Tipi

There is little doubt that the explosive growth of the cyberspace has provided a wealth of opportunities for a broad range of legal and illegal enterprises. One of the…

Abstract

Purpose

There is little doubt that the explosive growth of the cyberspace has provided a wealth of opportunities for a broad range of legal and illegal enterprises. One of the characteristics of the cyberspace is that it removes many barriers (e.g. geographical, accessing potential customers, cost of entry) from the path of savvy entrepreneurs. As such, a new particular brand of entrepreneurs has been born – these are entrepreneurs working at the limits of legality or plainly outside any legal frameworks. The purpose of this work is to explore the area of illegal cyber-entrepreneurship and to illustrate some of the factors that have contributed to its explosive growth over the last two decades.

Approach

The work is utilising case studies drawn from literature and news sources to illustrate the theoretical concepts that are being explored. The literature consulted in this work supports the discussion around the areas of entrepreneurship, cyberspace and various aspects related to illegal exploitation of the cyberspace.

Findings

The positioning of illegal enterprises within existing theoretical frameworks is explored and a modelling of the characteristics of such enterprises is being proposed. The duality of the opportunities available within the cyberspace is illustrated, with an emphasis on the fact that there will always be a ‘gap’ between the opportunities offered by the cyberspace and the possible illegal nature of some of the entrepreneurial activities that are taking place in this space.

Originality/value

This work explores and positions the illegal entrepreneurial activities taking place in the cyberspace. This contributes to the advancement of knowledge in this area. Given the fast moving nature of this area, there are opportunities for updating this work on a regular basis.

Details

Exploring Criminal and Illegal Enterprise: New Perspectives on Research, Policy & Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-551-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2014

Ian Phau, Aaron Lim, Johan Liang and Michael Lwin

The purpose of this paper is to identify the antecedents affecting digital piracy of movies, and evaluate them in the context of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). It…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the antecedents affecting digital piracy of movies, and evaluate them in the context of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). It will also determine via a proxy measurement, if individuals’ intentions to engage in digital piracy will translate into actual engagement in digital piracy of movies.

Design/methodology/approach

In all, 404 students at a large Western Australian University were surveyed using self-administered surveys. The data were analysed via a path analysis using structural equation modelling in order to identify the influences of antecedent factors on individual attitudes and intentions to engage in digital piracy. Finally, through the proxy measurement, actual engagement in digital piracy of movies was evaluated against consumer intentions to perform that behaviour.

Findings

The results confirm the identified antecedents (affect, moral judgement, social habit and self-efficacy) as appropriate in evaluating an individual's intentions to engage in digital piracy of movies. The findings indicated that social habit, self-efficacy and attitude towards digital piracy had a positive effect on individual intentions to engage in digital piracy of movies. It also showed that affect is an antecedent factor to attitudes towards digital piracy but also directly influences individual intentions to engage in digital piracy. Moral judgement and social habits was also found to have negative and positive influences on an individual's engagement in digital piracy of movies.

Practical implications

This study reinforces previous studies in showing that the neutralisation theory and TPB are effective in explaining attitudes towards digital piracy of movies and intentions to engage in it. It has also sought to ascertain if intentions to engage in digital piracy of movies would significantly influence behaviour to engage in digital piracy of movies via a proxy measurement.

Originality/value

This study adds to the literature of piracy in software and music downloads. In terms of digital movies, this study uncovers other possible factors that may affect engagement in digital piracy of movies, which could serve as the basis for future research into the phenomenon of digital piracy.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2011

Martin Zimerman

The purpose of this paper is to describe how the acts of piracy in the publication field are viewed by the industry, and possible student involvement in e‐book piracy.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe how the acts of piracy in the publication field are viewed by the industry, and possible student involvement in e‐book piracy.

Design/methodology/approach

The searches encompassed articles on the issue of e‐book piracy.

Findings

There is a definite problem between the needs of the publishing industry and students in colleges and universities.

Research limitations/implications

The author has only seen small indicators of the overall problem. Much more has to be investigated and learned.

Practical implications

Libraries in particular will have to be watchful in terms of e‐book readers and e‐book piracy.

Originality/value

Owing to the litigious nature of the publishing industry, librarians must be wary of e‐book piracy as it regards to the library.

Details

New Library World, vol. 112 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1985

Rosemary Gray

Downloading as a means of capturing data sent to a computer from another computer and storing it on local magnetic disk has become an important auxiliary technique in both…

Abstract

Downloading as a means of capturing data sent to a computer from another computer and storing it on local magnetic disk has become an important auxiliary technique in both data processing and online information searching. It has also become a controversial issue within the information industry, raising economic and legal problems for database producers and end‐users alike.

Details

Program, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0033-0337

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