Search results

1 – 10 of 157
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 2 August 2010

Andy Mantell

This paper explores the unique blend of social, emotional and practical issues faced by family members of people with Huntington's disease (HD), highlighting how social…

Abstract

This paper explores the unique blend of social, emotional and practical issues faced by family members of people with Huntington's disease (HD), highlighting how social workers can provide support. It is based on doctoral research into the experiences of carers of people with Huntington's disease. This was a qualitative study of 31 participants in single semi‐structured interviews, using a grounded theory methodology.After a brief introduction to Huntington's disease, the focus shifts to how Huntington's disease impacts on family members from pre‐diagnosis to death. The discussion then considers how practitioners could assist at various stages in this process. As well as providing practitioners with an insight into carers' experiences, the paper highlights how social workers can ameliorate some of the impacts on their relationships. The paper concludes that services' preoccupation with the practical and emotional burden of caring neglects the social relationships that form the context in which illness and disease are experienced and meanings are generated. The sense that is made from a situation has a significant impact on the degree to which people feel able to continue to care.

Details

Social Care and Neurodisability, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-0919

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Case study
Publication date: 8 April 2004

Jenny Mead and Andrew C. Wicks

This case presents the dilemma faced by Danville Airlines’ management when one of its best pilots is found to have the inherited gene for Huntington’s disease. Although he…

Abstract

This case presents the dilemma faced by Danville Airlines’ management when one of its best pilots is found to have the inherited gene for Huntington’s disease. Although he inevitably will develop the physically and mentally debilitating disease, the pilot, who has yet to experience symptoms, does not want to step down from his position. Danville Airlines explores the complicated issues of employee rights versus public safety, employee rights to privacy, and genetic testing and its effects on employees and management.

Details

Darden Business Publishing Cases, vol. no.
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2474-7890
Published by: University of Virginia Darden School Foundation

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 28 April 2010

Keith Jenkins and Louise Birkett‐Swan

This paper sets out to provide a brief guide to brain function and the main causes of brain dysfunction likely to be encountered in social care and neurodisability…

Abstract

This paper sets out to provide a brief guide to brain function and the main causes of brain dysfunction likely to be encountered in social care and neurodisability practice. For the first issue of Social Care and Neurodisability, it was felt that such an overview paper serving both as a self‐contained aide memoire, and as a ‘signpost’ for other relevant resources, would be a useful tool to sit alongside any subsequent articles published in the Journal and provide some relevant brain function context. We have drawn on clinical experience, key references and the growing area of internet‐based resources in order to provide what is hopefully an accessible paper in the spirit of the ubiquitous ‘Made Simple’ series.

Details

Social Care and Neurodisability, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-0919

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 August 2001

Anne‐Katrin Bock, Dolores Ibarreta, Karine Lheureux, Monique Libeau and Hans Nilsagård

In February this year the sequence of the human genome was published, opening a new chapter in medicine. Soon genetic testing will be at the heart of diagnosis…

Abstract

In February this year the sequence of the human genome was published, opening a new chapter in medicine. Soon genetic testing will be at the heart of diagnosis, epidemiology, drug development and even regenerative medicine. Before we are born there will be new opportunities to remedy genetic defects, and afterwards to make almost lifelong prognoses. The debate will intensify on the use of human embryos in medical research, while the prospect of human cloning will fascinate some scientists and horrify others. Europe needs to be in the vanguard of this new industrial revolution, but a host of ethical concerns must first be addressed – because genomics is as much about privacy as Petri dishes.

Details

Foresight, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 January 2021

R. Curtis Ellison, Morten Grønbæk and Erik Skovenborg

This paper aims to evaluate the use of Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses for judging the effects of alcohol consumption on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the use of Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses for judging the effects of alcohol consumption on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents a review of methodology for MR and describes its early application to judging health effects of alcohol, current uses and a recommended approach of combining MR results with those from observational and experimental studies.

Findings

Early applications of MR to health effects of alcohol consumption were inadequate for providing unbiased results, but newer attempts using polygenic scores show promise. It is important to combine data from MR analyses with those from observational and experimental studies to obtain an unbiased and scientifically sound estimate of alcohol’s effects on health.

Practical implications

Giving advice to the public regarding alcohol consumption must be based on accurate, unbiased scientific data; this paper describes attempts to use MR for achieving this goal.

Social implications

Given that light-to-moderate alcohol intake is associated with a lower risk of CHD, type II diabetes mellitus and total mortality, it is important to be able to evaluate both the benefits and harms from alcohol before giving advice regarding drinking.

Originality/value

This is part of a group of three papers dealing with the potential health benefits and harms associated with alcohol consumption.

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 28 November 2019

Shawna Chan and Robert Bota

Noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) such a transcranial magnetic stimulation, intermittent theta burst stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation and…

Abstract

Purpose

Noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) such a transcranial magnetic stimulation, intermittent theta burst stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation and electroconvulsive therapy have emerged as an efficacious and well-tolerated therapy for treatment-resistant psychiatric disorders. While novel NIBS techniques are an exciting addition to the current repertoire of neuropsychiatric therapies, their success is somewhat limited by the wide range of treatment responses seen among treated patients.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the authors will review the studies on relevant genetic polymorphisms and discuss the role of RNA genotyping in personalizing NIBS.

Findings

Genome studies have revealed several genetic polymorphisms that may contribute for the heterogeneity of treatment response to NIBS where the presence of certain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with responders versus nonresponders.

Originality/value

Historically, mental illnesses have been arguably some of the most challenging disorders to study and to treat because of the degree of biological variability across affected individuals, the role of genetic and epigenetic modifications, the diversity of clinical symptomatology and presentations and the interplay with environmental factors. In lieu of these challenges, there has been a push for personalized medicine in psychiatry that aims to optimize treatment response based on one’s unique characteristics.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 24 October 2018

Azadeh Ranjbar Nedamani, Elham Ranjbar Nedamani and Azadeh Salimi

Human health is strongly affected by diet. By the increased use of food industries products, public knowledge about health factors and side effects of chemical additives…

Abstract

Purpose

Human health is strongly affected by diet. By the increased use of food industries products, public knowledge about health factors and side effects of chemical additives, the concepts of human health founded an important aspect during past years, and application of natural-based ingredients such as coloring, flavoring, texturizing and anti-oxidative agents was increased.

Design/methodology/approach

The aim of the present paper is to review the published scientific research studies about lycopene health benefits in different human disease or disorders and bold the necessity of study the health effects of lycopene after its formulation in food industrial products. About 190 papers were searched in Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science databases and 72 relevant papers were used. It was found that in medical studies, the lycopene oleoresin or powder is used directly to the subjects. However, it is necessary to study the effectiveness of lycopene in diet food products.

Findings

According to the literature, it has beneficial effects on cancers, glands, reproductive system, bone, gastric system, liver and fat reduction in the body. Also, it was concluded from the literature that lycopene oxidative cleavages make also its chemo protective effects which is a lost key element to study different food processing on lycopene products or its isomers in final food products and on human health.

Originality/value

Many ingredients in food formulations are substituted by natural products. Lycopene is a colorant but also, according to the literature, has a strong antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effect to reduce the risk of most important human disease and disorders. Future research in food science can emphasize the effect of different unit operations or formulations on lycopene effects on human health.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2004

Martin Jones and Carol O'Beney

The physical health benefits of exercise are well established but there is also growing research evidence of links between physical activity and mental health benefits…

Abstract

The physical health benefits of exercise are well established but there is also growing research evidence of links between physical activity and mental health benefits, including mood elevation, better cognitive functioning and improved self‐perception, self‐esteem and selfefficacy. Physical activity has also been shown to enhance the effectiveness of psychological therapies and to have a role in improving quality of life and symptom management for people with a wide range of mental health problems. Physical activity has a double benefit, since people with mental health problems are also at increased risk of a range of physical health problems, including cardiovascular disease, endocrine disorders and obesity. However referral to a physical activity specialist is rarely available in psychiatric settings. This paper gives two examples of how provision of physical activity facilities and programmes staffed by qualified specialists can contribute towards improving mental health and quality of life for people with mental health problems.

Details

Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 15 May 2017

Juliet Harland, Peter A. Bath, Ann Wainwright and Jeremy Seymour

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the information behaviours of patients newly diagnosed with dementia.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the information behaviours of patients newly diagnosed with dementia.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a cross-sectional qualitative study, using in-depth interviews with 13 people recently diagnosed with dementia.

Findings

Reactions to a diagnosis of dementia varied and these influenced the perception of the value of information when making sense of the diagnosis. Information was avoided if participants did not feel that they could influence their situation; instead, participants relied on internal explanations to normalise their memory loss. Barriers to information seeking and use included not knowing who to speak to, perceived stigma associated with dementia and difficulty of applying generic information to own situation. Some participants valued information that confirmed their suspicions and provided explanations.

Research limitations/implications

This study was based on a small sample size (n=13), the findings may not be generalisable to all people with dementia; however, the findings may be transferable to people who have recently been diagnosed with dementia.

Practical implications

There is not a one-size-fits-all approach to information provision for people with dementia at diagnosis, information should be tailored to individuals.

Social implications

There is a need to address the feeling of powerlessness and futility that some people with dementia experience at diagnosis, as this precludes independent information seeking and use. People receiving a diagnosis may need additional support and information pertinent to their specific circumstances, separate from the information needs of their carer(s).

Originality/value

The study provides a new understanding of the information behaviours of people recently diagnosed with dementia and how these differ from those of informal carers.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. 69 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Charles C. Broz and Rhonda K. Hammond

The purpose of this study was to survey current culinary, hospitality and nutrition students to determine their level of knowledge about dysphagia, or swallowing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to survey current culinary, hospitality and nutrition students to determine their level of knowledge about dysphagia, or swallowing impairment, and the dysphagia diet. In addition, the study provided a means by which to gauge current students’ awareness of health-care foodservice as a career option.

Design/methodology/approach

A pilot study conducted in 2009 indicated that health-care foodservice workers were unaware of many of the risks associated with the dysphagia diet. A second study was conducted in 2012 to obtain an idea of the perceptions and knowledge levels of culinary, hospitality and nutrition students about dysphagia. Subjects included students across the three disciplines at two large universities in the Midwestern USA, and a private culinary school on the east coast of the USA. The instrument consisted of a traditional paper survey containing 18 questions. A total sample size of n = 139 surveys was collected and analyzed.

Findings

Results of the survey suggests that current university students are lacking in some areas of knowledge concerning dysphagia patients and their dietary needs. Education and training are indicated, as the number of patients suffering from some degree of dysphagia is only going to increase as the US population ages. Findings also indicate that many introductory-level students are unaware of health-care foodservice as a viable career choice in industry.

Research limitations/implications

The primary limitations to this research were the relatively small sample size, and the fact that most students surveyed were not interested or aware of health-care foodservice as a viable industry career choice. This study would be greatly enhanced by contacting professors/instructors at several universities representing the Northeast, Midwest, and east and west coasts of the USA. Educating future foodservice professionals at the introductory level would allow industry leaders to make students aware of this large and necessary sector of the foodservice industry. Likewise, there is no doubt that food preparers, food deliverers and foodservice managers in health care will come in contact with a patient with some level of dysphagia as our population ages. More research to strengthen this body of data is indicated, as are similar studies across broader ranges of the population.

Practical implications

The occurrence of dysphagia is growing as the US population ages. That fairly little research has been done is somewhat alarming. There is a need for standardization of recipe formulas, benchmarking viscosities of dietary liquids and solids and training of food preparers. The symptom is found in very large populations in the USA, as well as in Europe. Also, the fact that dysphagia has so many potential causes makes the symptom that much more of a health issue. More research is certainly called for to better prepare potential institutional foodservice employees for the next 20 years.

Originality/value

Millions of Americans currently suffer from at least some degree of dysphagia. This number is expected to increase as the Baby Boomer generation reaches retirement age. The USA will be populated by more elderly people than ever before, and will thus host more individuals suffering from swallowing impairment. Health-care foodservice, including hospital and long-term care foodservice will certainly become a viable career choice for current students of culinary arts, nutrition and hospitality.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 44 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

1 – 10 of 157