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Article
Publication date: 19 February 2018

Caroline Sabina Wekullo, Elise Catherine Davis, Fredrick Muyia Nafukho and Bita A. Kash

This paper aims to critically analyze the empirical literature on health and human development in high-, middle- and low-income countries to develop a sustainable model…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to critically analyze the empirical literature on health and human development in high-, middle- and low-income countries to develop a sustainable model for investing in human health. The model is critical in building a comprehensive health-care system that fosters the stakeholders’ financial stability, economic growth and high-quality education for the local community.

Design/methodology/approach

A comprehensive literature review was carried out on health, human development and sustainable health investment. After thoroughly examining theoretical frameworks underlying the strategies of successful human health systems, a summary of empirical articles is created. Summaries provided in this paper represent relevant health-care strategies for Kenya.

Findings

Based on the empirical review of literature, a Nexus Health Care model focusing on human development, social and cultural development, economic development and environmental development in high-, middle- and low-income countries is proposed. The goal of this model is to enhance sustainable development where wealth creation is accompanied with environmental uplifting and protection of social and material well-being.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is limited to a comprehensive literature review presenting empirical evidence of human development and sustainability.

Originality/value

Kenya like other developing nations aspires to contribute significantly in improving health through development of health products but the approaches used have been limiting. In most cases, the use of Western theories, lack of empowering the community and dependence on donor support have hindered the country from achieving comprehensive health and human development. This papers seeks to develop a model for health-care investment and provide strategies, operations and structure of successful health systems and human development for a developing country, such as Kenya.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 42 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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Article
Publication date: 31 July 2019

Sedef Akgungor, Kamiar Alaei, Weng-Fong Chao, Alexandra Harrington and Arash Alaei

The purpose of this paper is to explore the correlation among health outcomes, and civil and political rights (CPR) and also economic, social and cultural rights.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the correlation among health outcomes, and civil and political rights (CPR) and also economic, social and cultural rights.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses cross-sectional data from 161 countries. The authors use health outcomes and human rights variables in the model. In order to combine dimensions of human rights, this paper uses factor analysis and obtains proxy variables that measure economic, social and cultural rights and CPR. The two proxy variables are used as independent variables to explain variations in health in a regression model. The paper then classifies countries by cluster analysis and explores the patterns of different components of human rights and health outcomes across country clusters.

Findings

The regression model demonstrates that the economic, social and cultural rights variables explain variations in all health outcomes. The relationship between CPR and health is weaker than that of the economic, social and cultural rights. Cluster analysis further reveals that despite the country’s commitment to CPR, those that highly respect economic, social and cultural rights lead to superior health outcomes. The more respect a country has for economic, social and cultural rights, the better the health outcomes for the citizens of that country.

Practical implications

National policies should consider equal emphasis on all dimensions of human rights for further improvements in health.

Originality/value

The sole promotion of CPR such as democracy and empowerment, absence of adequate support of economic, social and cultural rights such as rights to housing, education, food and work can only contribute partially to health.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

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Article
Publication date: 16 December 2019

Juan Smart and Alejandra Letelier

The purpose of this paper is to do a systematic assessment and testing of identified human rights norms alongside social determinant approaches in relation to identified…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to do a systematic assessment and testing of identified human rights norms alongside social determinant approaches in relation to identified health issues of concern in four Latin American countries (Argentina, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay) to show how social determinants and human rights frameworks improve population health.

Design/methodology/approach

To do so, in the first part the authors analyze the inequalities both between and within each of the selected countries in terms of health status and health determinants of the population. Then, in the second section, the authors analyze the level of recognition, institutionalisation and accountability of the right to health in each country.

Findings

From the data used in this paper it is possible to conclude that the four analysed countries have improved their results in terms of health status, health care and health behaviours. This improvement coincides with the recognition, institutionalisation and creation of accountability mechanisms of human rights principles and standards in terms of health and that a human rights approach to health and its relation with other social determinants have extended universal health coverage and health systems in the four analysed countries.

Originality/value

Despite of the importance of the relation between human rights and social determinants of health, there are few human right scholars working on the issues of social determinants of health and human rights. Most of the literature of health and human rights has been focussed specific relations between specific rights and the right to health, but less human right scholar working on social determinants of health. On the other hand, just a few epidemiologists and people working on social medicine have actually started to use a universal human rights frame and discourse. In fact, according to Vnkatapuram, Bell and Marmot: “while health and human rights advocates have from the start taken a global perspective, social medicine and social epidemiology have been slower to catch up”.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

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Article
Publication date: 27 August 2021

Varsha Agarwal, Avnish Sharma, Aneesya Panicker, Syeda Shifa and Rohit Rammurthy

This research aims to discuss the key civil rights problems in mental well-being and the solutions to those challenges in standard-setting and institutional practice, as…

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to discuss the key civil rights problems in mental well-being and the solutions to those challenges in standard-setting and institutional practice, as well as proposes an integrated approach to adapting the emerging principles of practice to divisive mental health concerns.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on review of literature focused on mental health and human rights with special reference to international standards and clinical practices. Recent articles related to mental health and human rights and mechanisms suggested by United nations were included to draw conclusion.

Findings

Review of literature suggested to switch from reactive to a constructive and pragmatic approach, which is community-based, emphasizing alliance, rather than action, when the client is still too damaged to agree. Treatment should go hand in hand with mental health and civil rights education in the neighbourhood, as well as opportunities for engagement in shared interests in the group and interaction of other individuals with living experience.

Originality/value

While consent to care is a vital issue for human rights, the view of individuals with psychiatric illnesses as dangerous and “out of reach” is perpetuated by a disproportionate emphasis on it. Treatment should go hand in hand with mental health and civil rights education in the neighbourhood, as well as opportunities for engagement in shared interests in the group and interaction of other individuals with living experience.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2008

Rick Lines

This paper explores the health rights of prisoners as defined in international law, and the mechanisms that have been used to ensure the rights of persons in detention to…

Abstract

This paper explores the health rights of prisoners as defined in international law, and the mechanisms that have been used to ensure the rights of persons in detention to realise the highest attainable standard of health. It examines this right as articulated within United Nations and regional human rights treaties, non‐binding or so‐called soft law instruments from international organisations and the jurisprudence of international human rights bodies. It explores the use of economic, social and cultural rights mechanisms, and those within civil and political rights, as they engage the right to health of prisoners, and identifies the minimum legal obligations of governments in order to remain compliant with human rights norms as defined within the international case law. In addressing these issues, this article adopts a holistic approach to the definition of the highest attainable standard of health. This includes a consideration of adequate standards of general medical care, including preventative health and mental health services. It also examines the question of environmental health, and those poor conditions of detention that may exacerbate health decline, disease transmission, mental illness or death. The paper examines the approach to prison health of the United Nations human rights system and its various monitoring bodies, as well as the regional human rights systems in Europe, Africa and the Americas. Based upon this analysis, the paper draws conclusions on the current fulfilment of the right to health of prisoners on an international scale, and proposes expanded mechanisms under the UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment to monitor and promote the health rights of prisoners at the international and domestic levels.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

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Article
Publication date: 5 November 2019

Wolfgang A. Markham

The purpose of this paper is to extend a theory of health promoting schools (Markham and Aveyard, 2003) that draws heavily upon Nussbaum’s Aristotelian interpretation of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to extend a theory of health promoting schools (Markham and Aveyard, 2003) that draws heavily upon Nussbaum’s Aristotelian interpretation of good human functioning (Nussbaum, 1990). This theory of health promoting schools proposed that health is grounded in the meeting of identified fundamental human needs and the realisation of identified essential human capacities (Markham and Aveyard, 2003).

Design/methodology/approach

The extension of this theory is achieved through the application of influential social theories with practical tenets to Nussbaum’s insights (Nussbaum, 1990). This extension includes additional essential human capacities, a description and definition of how good human functioning may be recognised, potential limitations of the capabilities approaches and a discussion of major factors inhibiting good human functioning.

Findings

The potential contribution of the outlined framework to discussions of health and health promotion is highlighted in two ways. First, this paper considers how the outlined framework may contribute to discussions of quality of life, morbidity/premature mortality and health-related behaviours. Second, this paper briefly considers how the outlined framework may contribute to discussions of public health policy, and the planning, delivery and evaluation of health promotion initiatives. Basic exemplar pre- and post-questionnaires for a hypothetical health promoting community development programme are offered.

Originality/value

This paper attempts to contribute to discussions of the application of Nussbaum’s Aristotelean interpretation of good human functioning to both public health and health promotion.

Details

Health Education, vol. 119 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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Book part
Publication date: 9 November 2006

George J. Annas

The modern human rights movement, like American bioethics, was born from the devastation of World War II. The multinational trial of the major Nazi war criminals at…

Abstract

The modern human rights movement, like American bioethics, was born from the devastation of World War II. The multinational trial of the major Nazi war criminals at Nuremberg following World War II was held on the premise that there is a higher law of humanity (derived from natural law rules based on an understanding of the essential nature of humans), and that individuals may be properly tried for violating that law. Universal criminal law includes crimes against humanity, such as murder, genocide, torture, and slavery. Obeying the orders of superiors is no defense: the state cannot shield its agents from prosecution for crimes against humanity.

Details

Ethics and Epidemics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-412-6

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Book part
Publication date: 1 October 2013

Jennifer Thomson

This chapter examines the historical development of different conceptions of health among environmental activists in the postwar United States.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter examines the historical development of different conceptions of health among environmental activists in the postwar United States.

Methodology/approach

The historical analysis combines archival research with oral history interviews.

Findings

This study argues that applications of “health” to describe the environment are more diverse than generally acknowledged, and that environmental activists were at the forefront of connecting the two terms within broader public discourse.

Originality/value of chapter

This study provides a historical context for understanding the contemporary diversity of perspectives on the links between ecology and health. It illustrates the cross-fertilization between scientists, philosophers, and environmental activists in the 1970s that led to this contemporary diversity.

Details

Ecological Health: Society, Ecology and Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-323-0

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2021

Mohammed R.M. Elshobake

The purpose of this paper is to explore the most prominent human rights violations during the COVID-19 pandemic in accordance with international human rights law.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the most prominent human rights violations during the COVID-19 pandemic in accordance with international human rights law.

Design/methodology/approach

Through doctrinal and legal study and content analysis, this paper analyses the important relevant legal provisions under International human rights law and applies these provisions to the reality of managing the COVID-19 crisis to identify the most prominent human rights violations during the COVID-19 outbreak. This research paper considered as a review paper in that it provides a review of the most prominent measures taken during the COVID-19 crisis, which constitutes violations of international human rights law.

Findings

It is concluded that some measures that have been taken by countries to confront the COVID-19 pandemic have constituted violations of human rights and did not comply with the legal conditions to restrict human rights. Indeed, the COVID-19 pandemic has shown the ugly fractures in health-care systems, health inequities, racism and discrimination, Undermining the right to freedom of expression and the right to access information, gross negligence in protecting detainees from COVID-19 infection, all of these constitute clear violations of the principles of international human rights law.

Research limitations/implications

The spread of COVID-19 has not stopped, and its effects still continue, including human rights violations. Therefore, this paper cannot enumerate all human rights violations that occur during the spread of COVID-19.

Practical implications

Based on the results in this paper, governments need to be more prepared to face any health crisis at all levels including health care, which would reduce human rights violations.

Social implications

This research paper reflects positively on the social reality, as the adoption of its recommendations leads to the provision of adequate health care to all members of society in accordance with the principles of human rights, granting them the right to access information, protecting their right to freedom of expression, reducing the phenomenon of racism and discrimination and providing adequate health care to all detainees.

Originality/value

This paper studies an up-to-date topic that we are still living and seeing its effects. The benefit of this paper is to provide recommendations that protect human rights during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1997

Rajendra Ramlogan

Focuses on the direct and indirect impact of environmental abuse on human wellbeing. In some instances, the impact of environmental abuse on human health is not still…

Abstract

Focuses on the direct and indirect impact of environmental abuse on human wellbeing. In some instances, the impact of environmental abuse on human health is not still unknown, merely being subject to scientific suspicion. This would suggest caution and the need for preventive measures to be applied. The threat to human health from environmental factors is not an isolated problem that exists on a national level. There are environmental factors that affect human health on a global level or are so widespread as to be considered global problems. Other environmental problems cross national boundaries and achieve regional importance.

Details

Environmental Management and Health, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-6163

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