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Article
Publication date: 26 September 2019

Leiyu Zhang, Jianfeng Li, Shuting Ji, Peng Su, Chunjing Tao and Run Ji

Upper-limb joint kinematics are highly complex and the kinematics of rehabilitation exoskeletons fail to reproduce them, resulting in hyperstaticity and human–machine

Abstract

Purpose

Upper-limb joint kinematics are highly complex and the kinematics of rehabilitation exoskeletons fail to reproduce them, resulting in hyperstaticity and human–machine incompatibility. The purpose of this paper is to design and develop a compatible exoskeleton robot (Co-Exos II) to address these problems.

Design/methodology/approach

The configuration synthesis of Co-Exos II is completed using advanced mechanism theory. A compatible configuration is selected and four passive joints are introduced into the connecting interfaces based on optimal configuration principles. A Co-Exos II prototype with nine degrees of freedom (DOFs) is developed and still owns a compact structure and volume. A new approach is presented to compensate the vertical glenohumeral (GH) movements. Co-Exos II and the upper arm are simplified as a guide-bar mechanism at the elevating plane. The theoretical displacements of passive joints are calculated by the kinematic model of the shoulder loop. The compatible experiments are completed to measure the kinematics of passive joints.

Findings

The compatible configuration of the passive joints can effectively reduce the gravity influences of the exoskeleton device and the upper extremities. The passive joints exhibit excellent compensation effect for the GH joint movements by comparing the theoretical and measured results. Passive joints can compensate for most GH movements, especially vertical movements.

Originality/value

Co-Exos II possesses good human–machine compatibility and wearable comfort for the affected upper limbs. The proposed compensation method is convenient to therapists and stroke patients during the rehabilitation trainings.

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2021

Fashu Xu, Rui Huang, Hong Cheng, Min Fan and Jing Qiu

This paper aims at the problem of attaching the data of doctors, patients and the real-time sensor data of the exoskeleton to the cloud in intelligent rehabilitation…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims at the problem of attaching the data of doctors, patients and the real-time sensor data of the exoskeleton to the cloud in intelligent rehabilitation applications. This study designed the exoskeleton cloud-brain platform and validated its safety assessment.

Design/methodology/approach

According to the dimension of data and the transmission speed, this paper implements a three-layer cloud-brain platform of exoskeleton based on Alibaba Cloud's Lambda-like architecture. At the same time, given the human–machine safety status detection problem of the exoskeleton, this paper built a personalized machine-learning safety detection module for users with the multi-dimensional sensor data cloned by the cloud-brain platform. This module includes an abnormality detection model, prediction model and state classification model of the human–machine state.

Findings

These functions of the exoskeleton cloud-brain and the algorithms based on it were validated by the experiments, they meet the needs of use.

Originality/value

This thesis innovatively proposes a cloud-brain platform for exoskeletons, beginning the digitalization and intelligence of the exoskeletal rehabilitation process and laying the foundation for future intelligent assistance systems.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 41 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

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Book part
Publication date: 6 May 2004

Neville Moray

Constraints on human-machine systems’ performance are generally treated as due to anatomy, physiology, and cognitive or behavioral limits. It is assumed that research…

Abstract

Constraints on human-machine systems’ performance are generally treated as due to anatomy, physiology, and cognitive or behavioral limits. It is assumed that research findings can be universally applied to the design of such systems. It is now clear that social and cultural constraints are equally important, even in simple work systems. Context and culture are at least as important as limits of cognitive ability, and in many situations social and cultural factors are the dominant constraints on performance. This is particularly true in the cross-cultural transfer of advanced technological systems. A particularly clear example is given by population stereotypes of stimulus-response relations.

Details

Cultural Ergonomics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-049-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1991

Steven L. Johnson and O. Felix Offodile

The history, successes, failures and future needs that relate tothe allocation of functions to humans and/ or machines in manufacturingenvironments are presented. The…

Abstract

The history, successes, failures and future needs that relate to the allocation of functions to humans and/ or machines in manufacturing environments are presented. The various methodologies that have been proposed for performing function allocation are discussed. The basic process involves matching the capabilities and limitations of the particular human or automated system with the requirements imposed by the manufacturing operation. This process can range from a global, systems approach down to the delineation of specific capabilities of humans and automated systems. Both recent advances and obstacles to the effective allocation of tasks to humans or machines based on the capabilities of each are presented. The current status and the areas where future research and development are needed are discussed.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 11 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2006

Chetan Kapoor and Delbert Tesar

The objective of this work was to demonstrate a novel approach to human machine interaction that seamlessly uses teleoperation and automation in a complex environment.

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this work was to demonstrate a novel approach to human machine interaction that seamlessly uses teleoperation and automation in a complex environment.

Design/methodology/approach

This work leverages developments in the area of operational software Operational Software Components for Advanced Robotics (OSCAR), decision making, human‐machine interface, and motion planning. This demonstration uses a 17 degrees‐of‐freedom (DOF) dual arm robot that is equipped with modern tool changers, crash protectors, force‐torque sensors and electrical and pneumatic power at the tools. Four different end‐effector tools are also provided. These are electric grippers, electric rotary saw, electric drill, and a pneumatic spray gun. The system can be used both in teleoperation and automation mode. In teleoperation mode, the user has a choice of five different input devices. These are computer keyboard, spaceball and spacemouse, RSI manual controller and kraft force feedback controller. Automation is performed using a novel graphical user interface with 3D graphics used for previewing and verifying manipulator motion. Automation tasks that are demonstrated include automatic grasping, sawing, drilling, spray painting, point‐to‐point motion, and teaching. The controller for the dual arm system is developed using OSCAR and supports a variety of decision‐making algorithms and obstacle avoidance. The integration of this controller with the input devices and human machine interface is done using a novel protocol that is based on Extensible Markup Language (XML) for maximum reuse and distributed integration. This protocol is further based on a well‐defined and scalable XML schema that can be easily extended as controller functionality is changed and/or additional input devices are added.

Findings

It is necessary to combine automation with teleoperation to reduce worker fatigue and also provide higher value robotic functions. This is possible as most remote tasks can be broken down into structured and unstructured components. On the integration front, we see XML‐based integration providing a loosely coupled system that can make interoperability between various robot systems possible. For end‐effector tooling, it is better to have special purpose tools that can be switched out versus the use of a general purpose tool such as a robotic hand.

Research limitations/implications

This research was done in a laboratory environment, and as such, its application in the field will require partnering with a commercial entity. Force‐feedback on manual controllers during teleoperation was not very effective. In fact, providing visual queues to the operator about the forces were a better guide to the operator.

Practical implications

The software for this work provides obstacle avoidance capability. The obstacle avoidance is based on a known world model that is derived from a CAD environment. In reality, this model will have to be sensed in real‐time, and decoded into a geometric model. Significant work in this area needs to be done.

Originality/value

The software developed for this work was based on the OSCAR software framework. This is a unique framework that at its core uses performance criteria to control the behavior of the robot during teleoperation and automation. The value of this work is that it shows as completely feasible the control of a 17 DOF dual arm system using the latest integration technologies (such as XML), integrated simulation, multiple tools and multiple input devices. It also shows that all these choices can be provided to an operator through a single user interface.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2001

Eamon Cahill

Manufactured artefacts will always be needed to satisfy human needs, but the business of manufacturing faces a range of challenges in the emerging knowledge economy. Six…

Abstract

Manufactured artefacts will always be needed to satisfy human needs, but the business of manufacturing faces a range of challenges in the emerging knowledge economy. Six main areas are identified where manufacturing must develop and excel: concurrency, integrating human and technological resources, the conversion of information to knowledge, environmental compatibility, developing reconfigurable enterprises and innovative processes. There are many emerging technologies which can assist, but if Europe is to remain a force in manufacturing it needs to take positive action to enhance its strengths and alleviate its weaknesses – and nowhere more so than in the field of research.

Details

Foresight, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2008

Yasemin Claire Erensal and Yıldız Esra Albayrak

This work attempts briefly to identify factors affecting the success of technology transfer in order to reduce the potential of incompatibilities in respect to micro‐ and…

Abstract

Purpose

This work attempts briefly to identify factors affecting the success of technology transfer in order to reduce the potential of incompatibilities in respect to micro‐ and macro‐ergonomics and to optimize the decision process of managers in DCs.

Design/methodology/approach

Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was selected as appropriate technique. The decision model developed in this research is specified in the context of micro‐ and macro‐ergonomics view of technology transfer in DCs.

Findings

Based on the AHP, it is possible to determine the global priority weights of different technology alternatives and examine the critical factors and benefits that affect the appropriateness of technology transfer based on micro‐ and macro‐ergonomics considerations. In its general form, the model provides a useful conceptual framework for evaluating alternative technologies in respect to ergonomics and suggests the ergonomics choices which must be made.

Originality/value

As noted above, this study is unique in its provides a holistic analysis of the risk factors that are expected to contribute to the inappropriateness of technology transfer, also provides a useful conceptual framework for evaluating alternative technologies and identifying incompatibility problems in respect to human factors, and can be extended to suggesting action for improving the decision process of managers.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2019

Guangkai Sun, Yang Hu, Mingli Dong, Yanlin He, Mingxin Yu and Lianqing Zhu

Soft robotics is a burgeoning field owing to its high adaptability and safety in human–machine interaction and unstructured environments. However, the feedback control of…

Abstract

Purpose

Soft robotics is a burgeoning field owing to its high adaptability and safety in human–machine interaction and unstructured environments. However, the feedback control of soft actuators with flexible sensors is still a challenge.

Design/methodology/approach

To address this issue, this study proposes an optical fibre-based sensing membrane for the posture measurement of soft pneumatic bending actuators. The major contribution is the development of a flexible sensing membrane with a high sensitivity and repeatability for the feedback control of soft actuators. The characteristics of sensing membrane were analysed. The relationship between wavelength shift and bending curvature was derived. The curvatures of soft actuator were measured at four bending status, and the postures were reconstructed.

Findings

The results indicate that the measurement error is less than 2.1% of the actual bending curvature. The sensitivity is up to 212.8 pm/m−1, and the signal fluctuation in repeated measurements is negligible. This approach has broad application prospects in soft robotics, because it makes the optical fibre achieve more strength and compatible with soft actuators, thus improving the sensing accuracy, sensitivity and reliability of fibre sensors.

Originality/value

Different from previous approaches, an optical fibre with FBGs is embedded into a multilayered polyimide film to form a flexible sensing membrane, and the membrane is embedded into a soft pneumatic bending actuator as the smart strain limited layer which is able to measure the posture in real time. This approach makes the optical fibre stronger and compatible with the soft pneumatic bending actuator, and the sensing accuracy, sensitivity and reliability are improved. The proposed sensing configuration is effective for the feedback control of the soft pneumatic bending actuators.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. 46 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 November 2010

Hen‐I Yang, Chao Chen, Bessam Abdulrazak and Sumi Helal

A decade and a half after the debut of pervasive computing, a large number of prototypes, applications, and interaction interfaces have emerged. However, there is a lack…

Abstract

Purpose

A decade and a half after the debut of pervasive computing, a large number of prototypes, applications, and interaction interfaces have emerged. However, there is a lack of consensus about the best approaches to create such systems or how to evaluate them. To address these issues, this paper aims to develop a performance evaluation framework for pervasive computing systems.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the authors' experience in the Gator Tech Smart House – an assistive environment for the elderly, they established a reference scenario that was used to guide the analysis of the large number of systems they studied. An extensive survey of the literature was conducted, and through a thorough analysis, the authors derived and arrived at a broad taxonomy that could form a basic framework for evaluating existing and future pervasive computing systems.

Findings

A taxonomy of pervasive systems is instrumental to their successful evaluation and assessment. The process of creating such taxonomy is cumbersome, and as pervasive systems evolve with new technological advances, such taxonomy is bound to change by way of refinement or extension. This paper found that a taxonomy for something so broad as pervasive systems is very complex. It overcomes the complexity by focusing the classifications on key aspects of pervasive systems, decided purely empirically and based on the authors own experience in a real‐life, large‐scale pervasive system project.

Originality/value

There are currently no methods or frameworks for comparing, classifying, or evaluating pervasive systems. The paper establishes a taxonomy – a first step toward a larger evaluation methodology. It also provides a wealth of information, derived from a survey of a broad collection of pervasive systems.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 April 2020

Rajasekhar B, Kamaraju M and Sumalatha V

Nowadays, the speech emotion recognition (SER) model has enhanced as the main research topic in various fields including human–computer interaction as well as speech…

Abstract

Purpose

Nowadays, the speech emotion recognition (SER) model has enhanced as the main research topic in various fields including human–computer interaction as well as speech processing. Generally, it focuses on utilizing the models of machine learning for predicting the exact emotional status from speech. The advanced SER applications go successful in affective computing and human–computer interaction, which is making as the main component of computer system's next generation. This is because the natural human machine interface could grant the automatic service provisions, which need a better appreciation of user's emotional states.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper implements a new SER model that incorporates both gender and emotion recognition. Certain features are extracted and subjected for classification of emotions. For this, this paper uses deep belief network DBN model.

Findings

Through the performance analysis, it is observed that the developed method attains high accuracy rate (for best case) when compared to other methods, and it is 1.02% superior to whale optimization algorithm (WOA), 0.32% better from firefly (FF), 23.45% superior to particle swarm optimization (PSO) and 23.41% superior to genetic algorithm (GA). In case of worst scenario, the mean update of particle swarm and whale optimization (MUPW) in terms of accuracy is 15.63, 15.98, 16.06% and 16.03% superior to WOA, FF, PSO and GA, respectively. Under the mean case, the performance of MUPW is high, and it is 16.67, 10.38, 22.30 and 22.47% better from existing methods like WOA, FF, PSO, as well as GA, respectively.

Originality/value

This paper presents a new model for SER that aids both gender and emotion recognition. For the classification purpose, DBN is used and the weight of DBN is used and this is the first work uses MUPW algorithm for finding the optimal weight of DBN model.

Details

Data Technologies and Applications, vol. 54 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9288

Keywords

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