Search results

1 – 10 of 73
Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 13 October 2020

Zoi G. Ralli and Stavroula J. Pantazopoulou

Important differentiating attributes in the procedures used, the characteristic mineral composition of the binders, and the implications these have on the final long term…

Abstract

Purpose

Important differentiating attributes in the procedures used, the characteristic mineral composition of the binders, and the implications these have on the final long term stability and physico-mechanical performance of the concretes produced are identified and discussed, with the intent to improve transparency and clarity in the field of geopolymer concrete technologies.

Design/methodology/approach

This state-of-the-art review covers the area of geopolymer concrete, a class of sustainable construction materials that use a variety of alternative powders in lieu of cement for composing concrete, most being a combination of industrial by-products and natural resources rich in specific required minerals. It explores extensively the available essential materials for geopolymer concrete and provides a deeper understanding of its underlying chemical mechanisms.

Findings

This is a state-of-the-art review introducing the essential characteristics of alternative powders used in geopolymer binders and the effectiveness these have on material performance.

Practical implications

With the increase of need for alternative cementitious materials, identifying and understanding the critical material components and the effect they may have on the performance of the resulting mixes in fresh as well as hardened state become a critical requirement to for short- and long-term quality control (e.g. flash setting, efflorescence, etc.).

Originality/value

The topic explored is significant in the field of sustainable concrete technologies where there are several parallel but distinct material technologies being developed, such as geopolymer concrete and alkali-activated concrete. Behavioral aspects and results are not directly transferable between the two fields of cementitious materials development, and these differences are explored and detailed in the present study.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 5 May 2020

Niragi Dave, Vaishali Sahu and Anil Kumar Misra

The purpose of this work is to study the in-situ performance of ternary geopolymer concrete in road repair work. Geopolymer cement concrete is an attractive alternative to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this work is to study the in-situ performance of ternary geopolymer concrete in road repair work. Geopolymer cement concrete is an attractive alternative to Portland cement concrete owing to environmental, economic and performance benefits. Industrial wastes, such as fly ash (FA) and ground granular blast furnace slag (GGBS), have been extensively used to manufacture unitary and binary geopolymer concrete with heat activation (at different temperature); however, it has indicated a limitation for its application in precast industry only.

Design/methodology/approach

In the present study, efforts have been made to produce a ternary geopolymer concrete mix, using GGBS, FA and Silica fumes (SF) in varied proportion mixed with 8 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as alkali activator and cured at ambient temperature. Total ten geopolymer concrete mixes have been prepared and tested for strength and durability properties and compared with control mix of ordinary Portland cement (OPC). Based on the mechanical properties of various mixes, an optimum geopolymer concrete mix has been identified. The control mix and optimum geopolymer have been studied for microstructural properties through scanning electron microscopy.

Findings

The in situ performance of the optimum mix has been assessed when used as a road repair material on a stretch of road. The ternary geopolymer concrete mixes (a) 65% GGBS + 25% FA + 10% SF, (b) 70% GGBS + 20% FA + 10% SF, and (c) 75% GGBS + 15% FA + 10% SF have resulted in good strength at ambient temperature and the mix 75% GGBS + 15% FA + 10% SF have shown good in situ performance when tested for road repair work.

Originality/value

Geopolymer concrete is gaining interest in many fields as an alternative to conventional concrete, as it not only reduces carbon footprint due to huge cement production but also provides a sustainable disposal method for many industrial wastes. This paper focuses on finding some alternative of OPC concrete to reduce dependency on the OPC.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Ali Mohamed Ali Aboshia, Riza Atiq Rahmat, Muhammad Fauzi Mohd Zain and Amiruddin Ismail

The purpose of this paper is to develop an alternative new ternary geopolymer mortar (MKSP) to resolve a traditional mortar problem which exhibits several disadvantages…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop an alternative new ternary geopolymer mortar (MKSP) to resolve a traditional mortar problem which exhibits several disadvantages, including poor strengths and surface microcracks and the CO2 air pollution.

Design/methodology/approach

The MKSP ternary binder was produced using metakaolin (MK), slag (S), and palm oil fuel ash (POFA) activated with an alkaline mixture of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) and 10 M NaOH in a mass ratio of 2.5. Seven different mix proportions of MK, slag, and POFA were used to fabricate MKSP mortars. The water-to-binder ratio was varied between 0.4 and 0.5. The mortars were heat cured for 2 h at 80°C and then aged in air. Flexural stress and strain, mortars flow and compressive strength were tested. Furthermore, the mortars were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses.

Findings

The results showed that the sample MKSP6, which contained 40 percent MK, 40 percent slag, and 20 percent POFA, exhibited high compressive strength (52 MPa) without any cracks and flexural strength (6.9 MPa) at 28 days after being cured for 2 h at 80°C; however, the MKSP7 mortar with optimal strength of 55 MPa showed some surface cracks . Further, the results of the XRD, SEM, and FTIR analyses indicated that the MKSP mortars primarily consisted of a crystalline (Si+Al) phase (70 percent) and a smaller amorphous (Si+Ca) phase (30 percent).

Research limitations/implications

The MKSP ternary geopolymer mix has three limitations as an importance of heat curing for development early strength, POFA content less than 20 percent to gain high normal strength and delaying the sitting time by controlling the slag content or the alkali activator type.

Practical implications

The use of geopolymer materials binder in a real building is limited and it still under research, Thus, the first model of real applied geopolymer cement in 2008 was the E-Crete model that formed by Zeobond company Australia to take the technology of geopolymer concrete to reality. Zeobond Pty Ltd was founded by Professor Jannie S.J. van (van Deventer et al., 2013), it was used to product precast concrete for the building structure. The second model was PYRAMENT model in 2002 by American cement manufacturer Lone Star Industries which was produced from the development carried out on inorganic alumino-silicate polymers called geopolymer (Palomo et al., 1999). In 2013 the third model was Queensland’s University GCI building with three suspended floors made from structural geopolymer concrete containing slag/fly ash-based geopolymer (Pathak, 2016). In Australia, 2014, the newly completed Brisbane West Wellcamp airport becomes the greenest airport in the world. Cement-free geopolymer concrete was used to save more than 6,600 tons of carbon emissions in the construction of the airport. Therefore, the next century will see cement companies developing alternative binders that are more environmentally friendly from a sustainable development point of view.

Originality/value

Production of new geopolymer binder of mortar as alternative to traditional cement binder with high early and normal strength from low cost waste materials, less potential of cracking, less energy consumption need and low carbon dioxide emission.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 35 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 11 July 2019

Gopalakrishnan Rajagopalan

The durability of concrete structures, especially built-in corrosive environments, starts to deteriorate after 20–30 years, even though they have been designed for more…

Abstract

Purpose

The durability of concrete structures, especially built-in corrosive environments, starts to deteriorate after 20–30 years, even though they have been designed for more than 60 years of service life. The durability of concrete depends on its resistance against a corrosive environment. Inorganic Polymer concrete, or geopolymer concrete, has been emerging as a new engineering material with the potential to form an alternative to conventional concrete for the construction industry. The purpose of this paper is to conduct the investigation on corrosion of the geopolymer materials prepared using GGBS blended with low calcium fly ash in different percentages and sodium hydroxide, sodium silicate as activators and cured in ambient conditions (25±5°C).

Design/methodology/approach

GGBS was replaced by fly ash at different levels from 0 to 50 percent in a constant concentration of 12M. The main parameters of this study are the evaluation of strength characteristics of geopolymer concrete and resistance against corrosion by conducting accelerated corrosion test (Florida method).

Findings

From the test results it is observed that the strength of the geopolymer concrete with GGBS in ambient curing performs well compared to geopolymer concrete with GGBS blended with fly ash. The GPCE sample (40 percent replacement of fly ash to GGBS) shows better results and the resistance against corrosion was good, compared to all other mixes.

Research limitations/implications

The outcomes of this investigation will be useful for the researchers and the construction industry.

Practical implications

This paper results that optimum percentage of fly ash should be blended with GGBS against the corrosion attack. This investigation indicates that GGBS without the combination of fly ash can be utilized in a normal environment. These findings will definitely be useful for the ready-mix concrete manufacturers and the construction Industry.

Social implications

Disposal of industrial wastes causes pollution to the environment. Industrial wastes are utilized for the production of geopolymer concrete, which is the alternative material for the construction industry.

Originality/value

From the observation of the previous literature, till now there was no investigation on geopolymer concrete for corrosion under ambient curing conditions, as such this investigation could be considered as the new investigation.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 26 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 21 December 2021

Saranya P., Praveen Nagarajan and A.P. Shashikala

This study aims to predict the fracture properties of geopolymer concrete, which is necessary for studying failure behaviour of concrete.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to predict the fracture properties of geopolymer concrete, which is necessary for studying failure behaviour of concrete.

Design/methodology/approach

Geopolymers are new alternative binders for cement in which polymerization gives strength to concrete rather than through hydration. Geopolymer concrete was developed from industrial byproducts such as GGBS and dolomite. Present study estimates the fracture energy of GGBS geopolymer concrete using three point bending test (RILEM TC50-FMC) with different percentages of dolomite and compare with cement concrete having same strength.

Findings

The fracture properties such as peak load, critical stress intensity factor, fracture energy and characteristic length are found to be higher for GGBS-dolomite geopolymer concrete, when their proportion becomes 70:30.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is an original experimental work.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 12 July 2021

Suresh Kumar Arunachalam, Muthukannan Muthiah, Kanniga Devi Rangaswamy, Arunkumar Kadarkarai and Chithambar Ganesh Arunasankar

Demand for Geopolymer concrete (GPC) has increased recently because of its many benefits, including being environmentally sustainable, extremely tolerant to high…

Abstract

Purpose

Demand for Geopolymer concrete (GPC) has increased recently because of its many benefits, including being environmentally sustainable, extremely tolerant to high temperature and chemical attacks in more dangerous environments. Like standard concrete, GPC also has low tensile strength and deformation capacity. This paper aims to analyse the utilization of incinerated bio-medical waste ash (IBWA) combined with ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) in reinforced GPC beams and columns. Medical waste was produced in the health-care industry, specifically in hospitals and diagnostic laboratories. GGBS is a form of industrial waste generated by steel factories. The best option to address global warming is to reduce the consumption of Portland cement production and promote other types of cement that were not a pollutant to the environment. Therefore, the replacement in ordinary Portland cement construction with GPC is a promising way of reducing carbon dioxide emissions. GPC was produced due to an alkali-activated polymeric reaction between alumina-silicate source materials and unreacted aggregates and other materials. Industrial pollutants such as fly ash and slag were used as raw materials.

Design/methodology/approach

Laboratory experiments were performed on three different proportions (reinforced cement concrete [RCC], 100% GGBS as an aluminosilicate source material in reinforced geopolymer concrete [GRGPC] and 30% replacement of IBWA as an aluminosilicate source material for GGBS in reinforced geopolymer concrete [IGRGPC]). The cubes and cylinders for these proportions were tested to find their compressive strength and split tensile strength. In addition, beams (deflection factor, ductility factor, flexural strength, degradation of stiffness and toughness index) and columns (load-carrying ability, stress-strain behaviour and load-deflection behaviours) of reinforced geopolymer concrete (RGPC) were studied.

Findings

As shown by the results, compared to Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) and 100% GGBS based Reinforced Geopolymer Concrete (GRGPC), 30% IBWA and 70% GGBS based Reinforced Geopolymer Concrete (IGRGPC) (30% IBWA–70% GGBS reinforced geo-polymer concrete) cubes, cylinders, beams and columns exhibit high compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength, load-carrying ability, ultimate strength, stiffness, ductility and deformation capacity.

Originality/value

All the results were based on the experiments done in this research. All the result values obtained in this research are higher than the theoretical values.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 26 February 2019

Debabrata Dutta and Somnath Ghosh

This paper aims to investigate the effect of delayed water curing on the mechanical and microstructural properties of fly ash-based geopolymer paste-blended with Ground…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the effect of delayed water curing on the mechanical and microstructural properties of fly ash-based geopolymer paste-blended with Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) with different rest periods.

Design/methodology/approach

The blended geopolymer paste was composed of GGBS (15 per cent of the total weight) and the base material, Fly Ash (FA). The blended mix was activated by activator solution (Sodium hydroxide and Sodium silicate) containing 6 per cent Na2O of total base material. The effect of delayed water curing has been studied by gradually increasing the aging period (Rest Period) from 2 hours to 24 hours in the formation of activated outcome along with Calcium Silicate Hydrate (CSH). To analyze the mechanical and microstructural properties of the resultant blended geopolymer paste, compressive strength test, FESEM and XRD have been carried out. Moreover, a long-term durability test subjected to sulphate exposure has been performed to evaluate the durability of the designed sustainable geopolymer paste.

Findings

The present paper shows that the delayed water curing incorporates secondary heat input enhancing the partial polymer formation along with CSH. Slag-blended AAFA-based geopolymer paste is seen to exhibit quick setting property. Also, AAFA-based geopolymer paste samples subjected to longer rest period show early strength gain at a high rate under water curing as compared to those subjected to the shorter rest period.

Originality/value

To the best of authors’ knowledge, the effect of delayed water curing on the mechanical and microstructural properties of slag-blended AAFA-based geopolymer paste has not been studied before.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 9 July 2021

K. Arunkumar, Muthukannan Muthiah, Suresh Kumar A., Chithambar Ganesh A. and Kanniga Devi R.

Inefficient waste disposal technique and cement production methodology caused significant environmental impacts, leading to global warming. The purpose of the research was…

Abstract

Purpose

Inefficient waste disposal technique and cement production methodology caused significant environmental impacts, leading to global warming. The purpose of the research was to invent an effective, sustainable technology to use the wastes and alternate for cement in concrete. Geopolymer technology could be the most desirable solution to use the wastes into an effective product.

Design/methodology/approach

The wood waste ash derived from nearby tea shops was used as an alternate binder for fly ash. The replacement of WWA with FA was varied from 0 to 100% at 10% intervals. In this research, setting and mechanical features of Geopolymer Concrete (GPC) along with Waste wood ash (WWA) was carried out. The influence of wood waste ash in the microstructure of the GPC was also assessed using scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction analysis.

Findings

The findings revealed that 30% replacement of wood waste ash was performed higher in all measured features. Besides, the formation of different phases was also observed with the inclusion of wood waste ash.

Research limitations/implications

The demand for fly ash was increased in recent years, and the fly-based GPC has required more alkaline solution and temperature curing. Hence, there was a research gap on finding an alternative binder for fly ash.

Originality/value

The research novelty was to use the wood waste ash, which has inbuilt alkaline compounds on the production of sustainable geopolymer. The finding showed that the wood waste ash could be alternate fly ash that eliminates the environmental impacts and economic thrust.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 13 September 2021

Vijaya Prasad B., Arumairaj Paul Daniel, Anand N. and Siva Kumar Yadav

Concrete is a building material widely used for the infrastructural development. Cement is the binding material used for the development of concrete. It is the primary…

Downloads
23

Abstract

Purpose

Concrete is a building material widely used for the infrastructural development. Cement is the binding material used for the development of concrete. It is the primary cause of CO2 emission globally. The purpose of this study is to develop sustainable concrete material to satisfy the present need of construction sector. Geopolymer concrete (GPC) is a sustainable concrete developed without the use of cement. Therefore, investigations are being conducted to replace the cement by 100% with high calcium fly ash (FA) as binding material.

Design/methodology/approach

High calcium FA is used as cementitious binder, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium silicates (Na2SiO3) are used as alkaline liquids for developing the GPC. Mix proportions with different NaOH molarities of 4, 6, 8 and 10 M are considered to attain the appropriate mix. The method of curing adopted is ambient and oven curing. Workability, compressive strength and microstructure characteristics of GPC are analysed and presented.

Findings

An increase of NaOH in the mix decreases the workability. Compressive strength of 29 MPa is obtained for Mix-I with 8 M under ambient curing. A polynomial relationship is obtained to predict the compressive strength of GPC. Scanning electron microscope analysis is used to confirm the geo-polymerisation process in the microstructure of concrete.

Originality/value

This research work focuses on finding some alternative cementitious material for concrete that can replace ordinary portland cement (OPC) to overcome the CO2 emission owing to the utilisation of cement in the construction industry. An attempt has been made to use the waste material (high calcium FA) from thermal power plant for the production of GPC. GPC concrete is the novel building material and alternative to conventional concrete. It is the ecofriendly product contributing towards the improvement of the circular economy in the construction industry. There are several factors that affect the property of GPC such as type of binder material, molarity of activator solution and curing condition. The novelty of this work lies in the approach of using locally available high calcium FA along with manufactured sand for the development of GPC. As this approach is rarely investigated, to prove the attainment of compressive strength of GPC with high calcium FA, an attempt has been made during the present investigation. Other influencing parameter which affects the strength gain has also been analysed in this paper.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 1 June 2021

Yushen Wang, Wei Xiong, Danna Tang, Liang Hao, Zheng Li, Yan Li and Kaka Cheng

Traditional simulation research of geological and similar engineering models, such as landslides or other natural disaster scenarios, usually focuses on the change of…

Abstract

Purpose

Traditional simulation research of geological and similar engineering models, such as landslides or other natural disaster scenarios, usually focuses on the change of stress and the state of the model before and after destruction. However, the transition of the inner change is usually invisible. To optimize and make models more intelligent, this paper aims to propose a perceptible design to detect the internal temperature change transformed by other energy versions like stress or torsion.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, micron diamond particles were embedded in 3D printed geopolymers as a potential thermal sensor material to detect the inner heat change. The authors use synthetic micron diamond powder to reinforced the anti-corrosion properties and thermal conductivity of geopolymer and apply this novel geopolymer slurry in the direct ink writing (DIW) technique.

Findings

As a result, the addition of micron diamond powder can greatly influence the rheology of geopolymer slurry and make the geopolymer slurry extrudable and suitable for DIW by reducing the slope of the viscosity of this inorganic colloid. The heat transfer coefficient of the micron diamond (15 Wt.%)/geopolymer was 50% higher than the pure geopolymer, which could be detected by the infrared thermal imager. Besides, the addition of diamond particles also increased the porous rates of geopolymer.

Originality/value

In conclusion, DIW slurry deposition of micron diamond-embedded geopolymer (MDG) composites could be used to manufacture the multi-functional geological model for thermal imaging and defect detection, which need the characteristic of lightweight, isolation, heat transfer and wave absorption.

1 – 10 of 73