Search results

1 – 10 of 786
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 15 August 2019

Isaac Ferreira, Margarida Machado, Fernando Alves and António Torres Marques

In industry, fused filament fabrication (FFF) offers flexibility and agility by promoting a reduction in costs and in the lead-time (i.e. time-to-market). Nevertheless…

Abstract

Purpose

In industry, fused filament fabrication (FFF) offers flexibility and agility by promoting a reduction in costs and in the lead-time (i.e. time-to-market). Nevertheless, FFF parts exhibit some limitations such as lack of accuracy and/or lower mechanical performance. As a result, some alternatives have been developed to overcome some of these restrictions, namely, the formulation of high performance polymers, the creation of fibre-reinforced materials by FFF process and/or the design of new FFF-based technologies for printing composite materials. This work aims to analyze these technologies.

Design/methodology/approach

This work aims to study and understand the advances in the behaviour of 3D printed parts with enhanced performance by its reinforcement with several shapes and types of fibres from nanoparticles to continuous fibre roving. Thus, a comprehensive survey of significant research studies carried out regarding FFF of fibre-reinforced thermoplastics is provided, giving emphasis to the most relevant and innovative developments or adaptations undergone at hardware level and/or on the production process of the feedstock.

Findings

It is shown that the different types of reinforcement present different challenges for the printing process with different outcomes in the part performance.

Originality/value

This review is focused on joining the most important researches dedicated to the process of FFF-printed parts with different types reinforcing materials. By dividing the reinforcements in categories by shape/geometry and method of processing, it is possible to better quantify performance improvements.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 July 2014

Krzysztof Majerski, Barbara Surowska, Jarosław Bieniaś, Patryk Jakubczak and Monika Ostapiuk

The purpose of this paper is to present microstructural and fractographic analysis of damage in aluminum (2024T3)/carbon-fiber reinforced laminates (AlC) after static…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present microstructural and fractographic analysis of damage in aluminum (2024T3)/carbon-fiber reinforced laminates (AlC) after static tensile test. The influence of fiber orientation on the failure was studied and discussed.

Design/methodology/approach

The subject of examination was AlC. The fiber–metal laminates (FMLs) were manufactured by stacking alternating layers of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy (0.3 mm per sheets) and carbon/epoxy composites made of unidirectional prepreg tape HexPly system (Hexcel, USA) in [0], [± 45] and [0/90]S configuration. The fractographic analysis was carried out after static tensile test on the damage area of the specimens. The mechanical tests have been performed in accordance to ASTM D3039. The microstructural and fractographic analysis of FMLs were studied using optical (Nikon SMZ1500, Japan) and scanning electron microscope (Zeiss Ultra Plus, Germany).

Findings

FMLs based on aluminum and carbon/epoxy composite are characterized by high tensile properties depending on their individual components and the orientation of the reinforcing fibers, failure of hybrid laminates indicates the complexity process of degradation of these materials. The nature of damage in FML layers is similar to that typical in polymer composites with interlaminar delaminations, transverse cracks of the composite layers, degradation of fiber/matrix interface, damage process in FMLs is also associated mainly with interface between metal and fiber reinforced composite. The mixed damage – cohesive and adhesive – was observed.

Originality/value

One of the most important aspect in the designing and manufacturing process in the service life of composite structures is damage mechanisms. The damage processes in composite materials, particularly in FMLs, are more complex in comparison to metal materials and fiber reinforced polymers.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology: An International Journal, vol. 86 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 22 June 2012

Salvatore Brischetto and Erasmo Carrera

The purpose of this paper is to consider the static analysis of nanocomposite plates. Nanocomposites consist of a small amount of nanoscale reinforcements which can have…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to consider the static analysis of nanocomposite plates. Nanocomposites consist of a small amount of nanoscale reinforcements which can have an observable effect on the macroscale properties of the composites.

Design/methodology/approach

In the present study the reinforcements considered are non‐spherical, high aspect ratio fillers, in particular nanometer‐thin platelets (clays) and nanometer‐diameter cylinders (carbon nanotubes, CNTs). These plates are considered simply supported with a bi‐sinusoidal pressure applied at the top. These conditions allow the solving of the governing equations in a closed form. Four cases are investigated: a single layered plate with CNT reinforcements in elastomeric or thermoplastic polymers, a single layered plate with CNT reinforcements in a polymeric matrix embedding carbon fibers, a sandwich plate with external skins in aluminium alloy and an internal core in silicon foam filled with CNTs and a single layered plate with clay reinforcements in a polymeric matrix. A short review of the most important results in the literature is given to determine the elastic properties of the suggested nanocomposites which will be used in the proposed static analysis. The static response of the plates is obtained by using classical two‐dimensional models such as classical lamination theory (CLT) and first order shear deformation theory (FSDT), and an advanced mixed model based on the Carrera Unified Formulation (CUF) which makes use of a layer‐wise description for both displacement and transverse stress components.

Findings

The paper has two aims: to demonstrate that the use of classical theories, originally developed for traditional plates, is inappropriate to investigate the static response of nanocomposite plates and to quantify the beneficial effect of the nanoreinforcements in terms of static response (displacements and stresses).

Originality/value

In the literature these effects are usually given only in terms of elastic properties such as Young moduli, shear moduli and Poisson ratios, and not in terms of displacements and stresses.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 20 November 2020

S. Madhu and M. Balasubramanian

The purpose of this study is for solving many issues in production that includes processing of complex-shaped profile, machining of high-strength materials, good surface…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is for solving many issues in production that includes processing of complex-shaped profile, machining of high-strength materials, good surface finish with high-level precision and minimization of waste. Among the various advanced machining processes, abrasive jet machining (AJM) is one of the non-traditional machining techniques used for various applications such as polishing, deburring and hole making. Hence, an overview of the investigations done on carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) and glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GRFP) composites becomes important.

Design/methodology/approach

Discussion on various approaches to AJM, the effect of process parameters on the glass fiber and carbon fiber polymeric composites are presented. Kerf characteristics, surface roughness and various nozzle design were also discussed.

Findings

It was observed that abrasive jet pressure, stand-off distance, traverse rate, abrasive size, nozzle diameter, angle of attack are the significant process parameters which affect the machining time, material removal rate, top kerf, bottom kerf and kerf angle. When the particle size is maximum, the increased kinetic energy of the particle improves the penetration depth on the CFRP surface. As the abrasive jet pressure is increased, the cutting process is enabled without severe jet deflection which in turn minimizes the waviness pattern, resulting in a decrease of the surface roughness.

Research limitations/implications

The review is limited to glass fiber and carbon fiber polymeric composites.

Practical implications

In many applications, the use of composite has gained wide acceptance. Hence, machining of the composite need for the study also has gained wide acceptance.

Social implications

The usage of composites reduces the usage of very costly materials of high density. The cost of the material also comes down.

Originality/value

This paper is a comprehensive review of machining composite with abrasive jet. The paper covers in detail about machining of only GFRP and CFRP composites with various nozzle designs, unlike many studies which has focused widely on general AJM of various materials.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 January 1976

T. Tsukizoe and N. Ohmae

Tribology of the carbonfibrereinforced plastics has been investigated. The wear‐resistance of carbonfibrereinforced plastics was found to be much better than those of…

Abstract

Tribology of the carbonfibrereinforced plastics has been investigated. The wear‐resistance of carbonfibrereinforced plastics was found to be much better than those of other plastics reinforced with fibres of glass and stainless steel and was affected by the fibre‐orientation relative to sliding. Law of mixture in the frictional coefficient of composite materials was deduced; a comparison of calculated values with experimental data showed good agreements. Wear‐resistance of the carbonfibrereinforced plastics against fretting was also examined; good wear‐resistance was obtained when sliding within a region about 30° from the carbonfibre axis.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 10 April 2018

Rakesh Potluri

The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of the addition of silicon carbide (SiC) microparticles and their contributions regarding the tensile and shear properties…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of the addition of silicon carbide (SiC) microparticles and their contributions regarding the tensile and shear properties of the T800 fiber reinforced polymer composite at various fiber volume fractions. The tensile and shear properties of the hybrid composites where continuous T800 fibers are used as reinforcements in an epoxy matrix embedded with SiC microparticles have been studied.

Design/methodology/approach

The results were obtained by implementing a micromechanics approach assuming a uniform distribution of reinforcements and considering one unit cell from the whole array. Using the two-step homogenization process, the properties of the materials were determined by using the finite element analysis (FEA). The predicted elastic properties from FEA were compared with the analytical results. The analytical models were implemented in the MATLAB Software. The FEA was performed in ANSYS APDL.

Findings

The mechanical properties of the hybrid composite had increased when compared with the properties of the conventional FRP. The results suggest that SiC particles are a good reinforcement for enhancing the transverse and shear properties of the considered fiber reinforced epoxy composite. The microparticle embedment has significant effect on the transverse tensile properties as well as in-plane and out-of-plane shear properties.

Research limitations/implications

This is significant because improving the properties of the composite materials using different methods is of high interest in the materials community. Using this study people can work on the process of including different type of microparticles in to their composite designs and improve their performance characteristics. The major influence of the particles can be seen only at lower volume fractions of the fiber in the composite. Only FEA and analytical methods were used for the study.

Practical implications

Material property improvements lead to more advanced designs for aerospace and defense structures, which allow for high performance under unpredictable conditions.

Originality/value

This type of study proves that the embedment of different microparticles is a method that can be used for improving the properties of the composite materials. The improvement of the transverse and shear properties will be useful especially in the design of shell structures in the different engineering applications.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 10 October 2020

Sabiha Barour and Abdesselam Zergua

This paper aims to analyze the performance of reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened in shear with carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets subjected to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze the performance of reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened in shear with carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets subjected to four-point bending.

Design/methodology/approach

ANSYS software is used to build six models. In addition, SOILD65, LINK180, SHELL181 and SOLID185 elements are used, respectively, to model concrete, steel reinforcement, polymer and steel plate support. A comparative study between the nonlinear finite element and analytical models, including the ACI 440.2 R-08 and FIB14 models as well as experimental data, is also carried out.

Findings

The comparative study of the nonlinear finite element results with analytical models shows that the difference between the predicted load capacity ranges from 4.44%–24.49% in the case of the ACI 440.2 R-08 model, while the difference for FIB14 code ranges from 2.69%–26.03%. It is clear that there is a good agreement between the nonlinear finite element analysis (NLFEA) results and the different expected CFRP codes.

Practical implications

This model can be used to explore the behavior and predict the RC beams strengthened in shear with different CFRP properties. They could be used as a numerical platform in contrast to expensive and time-consuming experimental tests.

Originality/value

On the basis of the results, a good match is found between the model results and the experimental data at all stages of loading the tested samples. Load capacities as well as load deflection curves are also presented. It is concluded that the differences between the loads at failure ranged from 0.09%–6.16% and 0.56%–4.98%, comparing with experimental study. In addition, the increase in compressive strength produces an increase in the ultimate load capacity of the beam. The difference in the ultimate load capacity was less than 30% when compared with the American Concrete Institute and FIB14 codes.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 2 September 2019

Efstathios E. Theotokoglou, Georgios Balokas and Evgenia K. Savvaki

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the buckling behavior of the load-carrying support structure of a wind turbine blade.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the buckling behavior of the load-carrying support structure of a wind turbine blade.

Design/methodology/approach

Experimental experience has shown that local buckling is a major failure mode that dominantly influences the total collapse of the blade.

Findings

The results from parametric analyses offer a clear perspective about the buckling capacity but also about the post-buckling behavior and strength of the models.

Research limitations/implications

This makes possible to compare the response of the different fiber-reinforced polymers used in the computational model.

Originality/value

Furthermore, this investigation leads to useful conclusions for the material design optimization of the load-carrying box girder, as significant advantages derive not only from the combination of different fiber-reinforced polymers in hybrid material structures, but also from Kevlar-fiber blades.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 10 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Martin Kadlec, Robin Hron and Liberata Guadagno

The purpose of this paper is to present the mechanical and morphological characterization of new multifunctional carbon fibre-reinforced composites (CFRCs) that are able…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the mechanical and morphological characterization of new multifunctional carbon fibre-reinforced composites (CFRCs) that are able to overcome two of the main drawbacks of aeronautical composite materials: reduced electrical conductivity and poor flame resistance. Multiwall carbon nanotubes and glycidyl POSS (GPOSS) were used to simultaneously enhance electrical conductivity and flame resistance. The effect of these two combined components on the mechanical and morphological properties of the manufactured CFRCs was analysed.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper describes the mechanical test results obtained for interlaminar shear strength, three-point bending, and tensile and fracture toughness in mode I tests. Carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy resin plates were manufactured in two series with blank resin and CNT+flame retardant GPOSS-enhanced resin.

Findings

The mechanical properties were decreased by no more than 10 per cent by combined influence of CNTs and GPOSS. Agglomerates of CNTs were observed using scanning electron microscopy. The agglomerates were large enough to be visible to the naked eye as black spots on the delaminated fracture surface. The decrease of the mechanical properties could be caused by these agglomerates or by a changed fibre volume content that was affected by the difficult infusion procedure due to high resin viscosity.

Originality/value

If we consider the benefit of CNTs as a nanofiller to increase electrical conductivity and the GPOSS as a component to increase the flame resistance of the resin, the decrease of strength seems to be insignificant.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 7 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 6 July 2020

Sathiyamoorthy Margabandu and Senthilkumar Subramaniam

This paper aims to deal with the influence of cutting parameters on drill thrust force, delamination and surface roughness in the drilling of laminated jute/carbon hybrid…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to deal with the influence of cutting parameters on drill thrust force, delamination and surface roughness in the drilling of laminated jute/carbon hybrid composites.

Design/methodology/approach

The hybrid composites were fabricated with four layers of fabrics, which are arranged in different sequences using the hand-layup technique. Drilling experiments involved drilling of 6 mm diameter holes on the prepared composite plates using high-speed steel and solid carbide drill materials. Analysis of variance was used to find the influence, percentage contribution and significance of drilling parameters on drilling-induced damages. Scanning electron microscopy analysis was also conducted to understand the fracture behavior and surface morphology of the drilled holes.

Findings

The experimental study reveals that the most significant effect was the feed rate influenced the drill thrust force and the drill speed influenced both delamination factor and surface roughness of hybrid fiber-reinforced composites. From observations, the suggested combination for drilling jute/carbon hybrid composites is carbide drill, spindle speed of 1,750 rpm and feed of 0.03 mm/rev.

Originality/value

The new lightweight and low-cost hybrid composites were developed by hybridizing jute with carbon fabrics in the epoxy matrix with interplay arrangements. The influence of cutting speed and feed rate on delamination damage and surface roughness in the drilling of hybrid composites have been experimentally evaluated.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

1 – 10 of 786