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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2021

Abdul Wahid Mohamed Safith and Lalith De Silva

Vertical alignment in high-rise building is a very important aspect. The architects are nowadays interested in improvising untypical complicated morphology in building…

Abstract

Purpose

Vertical alignment in high-rise building is a very important aspect. The architects are nowadays interested in improvising untypical complicated morphology in building designs which increase the difficulty in surveying for vertical alignments. Although the GNSS survey techniques are widely applied in constructions, there is a lack of data sources to explicitly expose their applicability in high-rise buildings and the challenges to be considered. This study has been oriented to find out the best suitable GPS survey technique for the vertical alignment in high-rise buildings and the practical challenges to be considered.

Design/methodology/approach

The findings have been attained by analyzing the reliable data gained through experts' comments through structured questionnaire survey, case studies and experiments on different GPS survey techniques.

Findings

The findings express that the GPS techniques can be used for vertical alignments in high-rise buildings except for direct setting out for which only RTK GPS can be used. There are some practical challenges to be considered in such GPS applications.

Research limitations/implications

The findings encourage the research community to further focus on the GNSS survey applications in the constructions of high-rise buildings.

Practical implications

The research expresses applicability of easier and less time-consumed modern GNSS survey techniques instead of traditional survey methods for expediting building constructions.

Social implications

The knowledge on such modern rapid survey techniques with accuracy, efficiency and reliability highly affects the process of infrastructure development.

Originality/value

The research presents a useful new knowledge on applying GNSS survey techniques for precise survey requirements in the construction industry and exposes the gateways for further researches and development.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 24 August 2004

Cesar Quiroga

Abstract

Details

Handbook of Transport Geography and Spatial Systems
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-615-83253-8

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Book part
Publication date: 24 August 2004

Jean Wolf

Abstract

Details

Handbook of Transport Geography and Spatial Systems
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-615-83253-8

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Article
Publication date: 31 August 2020

Kamil Krasuski and Janusz Ćwiklak

The purpose of this paper is to present the problem of implementation of the differential global navigation satellite system (DGNSS) differential technique for aircraft…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the problem of implementation of the differential global navigation satellite system (DGNSS) differential technique for aircraft accuracy positioning. The paper particularly focuses on identification and an analysis of the accuracy of aircraft positioning for the DGNSS measuring technique.

Design/methodology/approach

The investigation uses the DGNSS method of positioning, which is based on using the model of single code differences for global navigation satellite system (GNSS) observations. In the research experiment, the authors used single-frequency code observations in the global positioning system (GPS)/global navigation satellite system (GLONASS) system from the on-board receiver Topcon HiperPro and the reference station REF1 (reference station for the airport military EPDE in Deblin in south-eastern Poland). The geodetic Topcon HiperPro receiver was installed in Cessna 172 plane in the aviation test. The paper presents the new methodology in the DGNSS solution in air navigation. The aircraft position was estimated using a “weighted mean” scheme for differential global positioning system and differential global navigation satellite system solution, respectively. The final resultant position of aircraft was compared with precise real-time kinematic – on the fly solution.

Findings

In the investigations it was specified that the average accuracy of positioning the aircraft Cessna 172 in the geocentric coordinates XYZ equals approximately: +0.03 ÷ +0.33 m along the x-axis, −0.02 ÷ +0.14 m along the y-axis and approximately +0.02 ÷ −0.15 m along the z-axis. Moreover, the root mean square errors determining the measure of the accuracy of positioning of the Cessna 172 for the DGNSS differential technique in the geocentric coordinates XYZ, are below 1.2 m.

Research limitations/implications

In research, the data from GNSS onboard receiver and also GNSS reference receiver are needed. In addition, the pseudo-range corrections from the base stations were applied in the observation model of the DGNSS solution.

Practical implications

The presented research method can be used in a ground based augmentation system (GBAS) augmentation system, whereas the GBAS system is still not applied in Polish aviation.

Social implications

The paper is destined for people who work in the area of aviation and air transport.

Originality/value

The study presents the DGNSS differential technique as a precise method for recovery of aircraft position in civil aviation and this method can be also used in the positioning of aircraft based on GPS and GLONASS code observations.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 40 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2000

Vidal Ashkenazi, David Park and Mark Dumville

Presents an overview of how satellite‐based positioning techniques could be used to develop novel navigational methods for use on mobile robotic platforms. Details are…

Abstract

Presents an overview of how satellite‐based positioning techniques could be used to develop novel navigational methods for use on mobile robotic platforms. Details are given of the major terrestrial techniques, both internal and external to the robot, which have been traditionally used to meet positioning requirements. A descriptive summary of the global positioning system of navigation satellites (GPS) is followed by an introduction to Galileo, the European project on the development of a comparable system. A small number of examples, either near to market or in use now, are used to illustrate the use of robotic systems that use GPS as a source of 3D absolute position information, but also velocity, attitude and time. Concludes that GPS is likely to become the universal positioning standard for outdoor applications, with future augmentations and developments enhancing the reliability, integrity and accuracy of the system. Nevertheless, in most cases it will still be necessary to use GPS in combination with alternative positioning sensors.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 29 January 2013

Birgit Kohla and Michael Meschik

Purpose — In order to analyse applicability, comparability and limitations of GPS technology in travel surveys, different mobility survey techniques were tested in an…

Abstract

Purpose — In order to analyse applicability, comparability and limitations of GPS technology in travel surveys, different mobility survey techniques were tested in an Austrian pilot study.

Methodology/approach — Four groups of voluntary respondents recorded their travel behaviour over a time period of three consecutive days. The groups were assigned to three different and combined methods of data collection: Paper–pencil trip diaries, passive GPS tracking, active GPS tracking and prompted recall interviews.

Findings — The resulting mobility parameters show that self-reported paper– pencil surveys yield accurate sociodemographic information on the respondents as well as trip purposes and modes of transportation, although too few trips are reported. Passive GPS-based methods minimize the strain for respondents. Methods that combine GPS-based data collection and questionnaire provide the most reliable mobility data at the moment.

Research limitations/implications — Due to funding restrictions the sample sizes had to be relatively small (235 participants). Further development in research methodology will increase the effectiveness of automated data analysis, for example more accurate detection of activities and transport modes. The usefulness of GPS-based data collection in a large-scale surveys is planned to be tested in the next Austrian national travel survey.

Originality/value of paper — The pilot study allows a detailed comparison of traditional and GPS-based travel survey methods for the first time, due to data collection combined with prompted recalls.

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2018

Kamil Krasuski

The purpose of this paper is based on implementation of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) technique in civil aviation for recovery of aircraft position using…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is based on implementation of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) technique in civil aviation for recovery of aircraft position using Single Point Positioning (SPP) method in kinematic mode.

Design/methodology/approach

The aircraft coordinates in ellipsoidal frame were obtained based on Global Positioning System (GPS) code observations for SPP method. The numerical computations were executed in post-processing mode in the Aircraft Positioning Software (APS) package. The mathematical scheme of equation observation of SPP method was solved using least square estimation in stochastic processing. In the experiment, airborne test using Cessna 172 aircraft on September 07, 2011 in the civil aerodrome in Mielec was realized. The aircraft position was recovery using observations data from Topcon HiperPro dual-frequency receiver with interval of 1 second.

Findings

In this paper, the average value of standard deviation of aircraft position is about 0.8 m for Latitude, 0.7 m for Longitude and 1.5 m for ellipsoidal height, respectively. In case of the Mean Radial Spherical Error (MRSE) parameter, the average value equals to 1.8 m. The standard deviation of receiver clock bias was presented in this paper and the average value amounts to 34.4 ns. In this paper, the safety protection levels of Horizontal Protection Level (HPL) and Vertical Protection Level (VPL) were also showed and described.

Research limitations/implications

In this paper, the analysis of aircraft positioning is focused on application the least square estimation in SPP method. The Kalman filtering operation can be also applied in SPP method for designation the position of the aircraft.

Practical implications

The SPP method can be applied in civil aviation for designation the position of the aircraft in Non-Precision Approach (NPA) GNSS procedure at the landing phase. The typical accuracy of aircraft position is better than 220 m for lateral navigation in NPA GNSS procedure. The limit of accuracy of aircraft position in vertical plane in NPA GNSS procedure is not available.

Social implications

This paper is destined for people who works in the area of aviation and air transport.

Originality/value

The work presents that SPP method as a universal technique for recovery of aircraft position in civil aviation, and this method can be also used in positioning of aircraft based on Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) code observations.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 90 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 2 November 2009

Catherine T. Lawson

New computer-assisted techniques for visualizing data are evolving in a number of areas in transportation. For example, in engineering, 3D visualization and…

Abstract

New computer-assisted techniques for visualizing data are evolving in a number of areas in transportation. For example, in engineering, 3D visualization and microsimulation techniques are being applied for the identification and evaluation of geometric and operational solutions for improving visually impaired pedestrian access to roundabouts and channelized turn lanes. For planning, visualization is being used for corridor analysis. Data visualization is being used as a tool for improving decision-making within transit agencies, as well as a tool for understanding truck trip generation on highways. Many of these new techniques take advantage of archived intelligent transportation systems (ITS) data. Examples of other innovative data sources include global positioning systems (GPS), geographic information systems (GIS), computer-aided design (CAD), and a variety of visualization tools available for use with travel survey data. As these various techniques and software applications move forward, consideration needs to be given to how the “lessons learned” from these applications can facilitate the use of data visualization techniques for travel survey data analysis and decision-making.

Details

Transport Survey Methods
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84-855844-1

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Book part
Publication date: 2 November 2009

Stacey Bricka

Over the past decade, transportation researchers have leveraged global positioning system (GPS) technology to improve the accuracy and increase the depth of spatial and…

Abstract

Over the past decade, transportation researchers have leveraged global positioning system (GPS) technology to improve the accuracy and increase the depth of spatial and temporal details obtained through household travel surveys. While earlier studies used GPS as a supplement to traditional household travel survey methods, measuring the accuracy of trips reported (Wolf et al., 2006), studies are now underway to identify the methods and tools that will allow us to do away with paper diaries entirely and simply rely on GPS to obtain trip details. This paper finds that while GPS clearly helps to improve participation among some groups, it decreases participation among others. Thus, it should be considered a tool in the household travel survey toolbox and not “the” solution to non-response issues in household travel surveys.

Details

Transport Survey Methods
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84-855844-1

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2021

Ruihao Lin, Junzhe Xu and Jianhua Zhang

Large-scale and precise three-dimensional (3D) map play an important role in autonomous driving and robot positioning. However, it is difficult to get accurate poses for…

Abstract

Purpose

Large-scale and precise three-dimensional (3D) map play an important role in autonomous driving and robot positioning. However, it is difficult to get accurate poses for mapping. On one hand, the global positioning system (GPS) data are not always reliable owing to multipath effect and poor satellite visibility in many urban environments. In another hand, the LiDAR-based odometry has accumulative errors. This paper aims to propose a novel simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) system to obtain large-scale and precise 3D map.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed SLAM system optimally integrates the GPS data and a LiDAR odometry. In this system, two core algorithms are developed. To effectively verify reliability of the GPS data, VGL (the abbreviation of Verify GPS data with LiDAR data) algorithm is proposed and the points from LiDAR are used by the algorithm. To obtain accurate poses in GPS-denied areas, this paper proposes EG-LOAM algorithm, a LiDAR odometry with local optimization strategy to eliminate the accumulative errors by means of reliable GPS data.

Findings

On the KITTI data set and the customized outdoor data set, the system is able to generate high-precision 3D map in both GPS-denied areas and areas covered by GPS. Meanwhile, the VGL algorithm is proved to be able to verify reliability of the GPS data with confidence and the EG-LOAM outperform the state-of-the-art baselines.

Originality/value

A novel SLAM system is proposed to obtain large-scale and precise 3D map. To improve the robustness of the system, the VGL algorithm and the EG-LOAM are designed. The whole system as well as the two algorithms have a satisfactory performance in experiments.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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