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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1991

K. Gustafsson, G. Flodman and M. Bakszt

System performance can be improved by the use of MCM (multi‐chip module) technology. Better signal transmission properties, lower power dissipation if C‐MOS chips are used…

Abstract

System performance can be improved by the use of MCM (multi‐chip module) technology. Better signal transmission properties, lower power dissipation if C‐MOS chips are used and decreased physical volume will be obtained. Today MCM is an expensive technique, but the authors' cost analysis shows that it has the potential to become more cost‐effective than the standard technique of using single chip packages. It can also become more cost‐effective to use the MCM technique than to increase the number of gates on the silicon chip over a certain level. In order to study the properties of MCM technology, a project has been started at the authors' company in which a processor application is built up on three different types of MCM substrates.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1985

G. Flodman

A new central processor for the AXE telephone switching system was developed. Using surface mounting on a metal base board a large reduction of size was obtained coupled…

Abstract

A new central processor for the AXE telephone switching system was developed. Using surface mounting on a metal base board a large reduction of size was obtained coupled to an improvement in electrical and thermal performance.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1985

The CCA is a non‐profit organisation composed of member companies within the state of California, aimed at providing an environment for information exchange between…

Abstract

The CCA is a non‐profit organisation composed of member companies within the state of California, aimed at providing an environment for information exchange between individuals involved in the printed circuit industry. Each branch holds monthly meetings on state‐of‐the‐art technology. Other benefits of CCA membership include: free admission to Nepcon technical sessions; educational and employment information; reduced fees for the annual fall symposium; and a monthly newsletter.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1988

L.‐G. Liljestrand and L.‐O. Andersson

Telecom equipment is subject to thermal cycles caused by both variations in temperature between day and night and variations in the telephone traffic. To simulate such…

Abstract

Telecom equipment is subject to thermal cycles caused by both variations in temperature between day and night and variations in the telephone traffic. To simulate such thermal excursions, accelerated thermal cycle testing between — 10°C and 100°C has been established as a standard method within Ericsson Telecom. Thermal cycle tests have been carried out for frequencies ranging from one cycle per day to 30 cycles per hour in order to cover the different thermal excursions that occur in telecom equipment. It has been found that the life of a surface mounted PWB assembly can be predicted from the accelerated testing results using a frequency modified Coffin‐Manson relation. Factors which influence the fatigue life of solder joints such as solder material, compliant leads, compliant surface layers and mismatch between package and board are discussed. Based on results from accelerated testing it is suggested that the optimal PWB design for leadless ceramic chip carriers should be a moderate TCE matching combined with a compliant surface layer.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1989

K. Gustafsson, U. Andersson, S. Ek and L.‐G. Liljestrand

The choice of high pin count ASIC packages has a major impact on the total cost and performance of the whole packaging system. Six different types of ASIC packages have…

Abstract

The choice of high pin count ASIC packages has a major impact on the total cost and performance of the whole packaging system. Six different types of ASIC packages have been compared with respect to production aspects, availability, reliability, thermal and electrical properties and cost. Recommendations for the proper choice of packages for different types of applications are given. All packages have been directly assembled to PWBs in order to study problems with handling, solder process, testing and repairability. Some of the assembled packages have been temperature cycled in order to test the solder joint reliability. The pin grid array packages are the most frequently used high pin count packages today. However, they are expensive and through‐hole mounting reduces the routing capability of the board. Pad area array packages are a hermetic alternative with a lower price for the package as well as very good thermal and electrical properties, but they need to be mounted on expensive PWBs. Another surface mountable package which is hermetic is the ceramic leaded chip carrier with fine lead pitch. This package is even more expensive than the pin grid array package and is difficult to handle. In the future, non‐hermetic alternatives will probably predominate. Plastic quad flat pack and TapePak can be used below 160–180 leads, while direct assembled TAB would be the best alternative for very high pin counts. Before one can use non‐hermetic packages in telecom products, a large qualification programme must be performed to evaluate the long‐term reliability.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1990

A. Sihlbom and H. Svärd

IVF has developed two new temperature measurement methods for PC boards and microelectronic devices as a result of Swedish national research programmes. This paper…

Abstract

IVF has developed two new temperature measurement methods for PC boards and microelectronic devices as a result of Swedish national research programmes. This paper presents and explains how one can achieve a reliable temperature map using an IR scanner. First a method to compensate the large measurement errors due to variation of local factors of emissivity of the object surface is described. The second method makes it possible to use an IR scanner to measure a temperature map over a printed board assembly located inside a narrow cabinet.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Yuliya G. Zabyelina

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of and comment on various aspects of reverse money laundering, whereby, instead of “washing” criminal proceeds to make…

1216

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of and comment on various aspects of reverse money laundering, whereby, instead of “washing” criminal proceeds to make them legal, legitimate funds are withdrawn from formal circulation and pumped into the informal sector to evade taxes, hand in bribes, pay “under-the-table” salaries and sidestep paperwork.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is divided into two parts. The theoretical part reviews the relevant academic literature and discusses the role of cash as a dominant medium of exchange in the underground economy. The empirical part is grounded on a qualitative analysis of several case studies of fraudulent encashment schemes all of which illustrate how reverse money laundering works.

Findings

The findings suggest that fraudulent encashment, a type of reverse money laundering, is performed via bank and non-bank institutions. Importantly, methods and techniques used in conventional forms of money laundering are also used in reverse money laundering schemes.

Originality/value

Despite a large volume of literature on money laundering, reverse money laundering remains an understudied area. This paper discusses the peculiarities of illegal transfers of non-cash assets into cash, which have been the pronounced problem in Russia and other post-Soviet countries since the 1990s.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1984

Brian Waterfield, B. Herod and Peter Moran

The ISHM—Japan Chapter, comprising some 500 members, was represented at ISHM '84 by 60 members, 30 of whom attended as a group. Twelve papers were presented by Japanese…

Abstract

The ISHM—Japan Chapter, comprising some 500 members, was represented at ISHM '84 by 60 members, 30 of whom attended as a group. Twelve papers were presented by Japanese delegates at the Conference held in the Loews Anatole Hotel from 17–19 October.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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