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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2017

Fu Jia, Guido Orzes, Marco Sartor and Guido Nassimbeni

The purpose of this paper is to develop a synthesised conceptual framework for global sourcing (GS) strategy and structure.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a synthesised conceptual framework for global sourcing (GS) strategy and structure.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors adopt a systematic literature review method and analyse through content analysis techniques 52 peer-reviewed journal articles focussed on GS strategy and structure. Based on these analyses, a conceptual model is developed.

Findings

A synthesised construct of GS strategy, consisting of three dimensions, i.e., supply internationalisation, internal integration and external integration, is proposed. The GS structure construct is further broken down into structural design and control and coordination, consisting of three dimensions for each. Propositions for GS strategy, GS structure and, in particular, the relationships between them are developed for future empirical validation.

Originality/value

This is the first study which synthesises various dimensions of GS strategy and GS structure and advances/extends the theory of the strategy-structure nexus to a GS context. The conceptual model provides a comprehensive framework for future empirical work and opens avenues of research on this topic.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 37 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2016

Yadong Luo and Qinqin Zheng

This article is a commentary on The “Global Implications of the Indigenous Epistemological System from the East: How to Apply Yin-Yang Balancing to Paradox Management”…

Abstract

Purpose

This article is a commentary on The “Global Implications of the Indigenous Epistemological System from the East: How to Apply Yin-Yang Balancing to Paradox Management” (Li, 2016), which is a timely and important piece. Li (2016) offers epistemological insights into what Yin-Yang is, why Yin-Yang can serve as a guiding frame of thinking, and how to apply this frame of thinking to paradoxical issues to organizations that compete in a complex cross cultural world. Western management philosophies and perspectives have dominated the mainstream theories in organization and management around the world over the past five decades, paying very limited attention and appreciation to Eastern philosophies that exist already for over 2500 years (e.g., 551–479 BC’s Confucianism). In this commentary, we added more explanations, suggesting that given intensified complex and competing needs to fulfil for today’s businesses, the indigenous Eastern epistemological wisdom of Yin-Yang balancing is an important guide to understand paradoxes and tensions. Yin-Yang balancing provides a holistic comprehension concerning our complex reality. It treats two opposite elements of any paradox as partial trade-off as well as partial synergy within a spectrum of holistic and dynamic balancing. We reinforce that the duality perspective has good potential to help us better understand the process of a multitude of conflictual and competing needs organizations must simultaneously accomplish. This potential is deemed to work not merely for firms competing in the East or other developing countries but can extend to organizations, large or small, in the West or developed countries as well.

Design/methodology/approach

This commentary echoes Li’s point (2016) that Yin-Yang balancing has significant and extensive applications when a growing number of organizations, local and foreign, are compelled to become ambidextrous when facing complex new business realities and having to deal with intensified competing needs they have to simultaneously, interactively and dynamically satisfy. This commentary discusses some distinctive characteristics of Eastern philosophies, followed by articulation of some critical lacuna, we think, concerning the Yin-Yang duality that should be answered. In this commentary, we amplify Li’s main points, along with our suggested agenda for future research that can further develop Yin-Yang balancing to a theory of managing paradox.

Findings

Eastern philosophies have long been dominated by five pillars or five schools of mastery thoughts originating mainly from China – Confucianism (Ru Jia), Taoism (Tao Jia), Legalism (Fa Jia), Militarism (Bing Jia), and Buddhism (Fu Jia). The Yin-Yang philosophy is one of the central notions of Taoism which teaches us how to act in accordance with nature. Founded by Laozi and Zhuangzhi, Taoism is rooted in an understanding of the “way” (i.e., Tao), which is the shapeless force that brings all things into existence and then nurtures them. That is, Tao means the natural course, which is spontaneous, eternal, nameless, and indescribable. Unlike Confucianism, Taoism favors philosophical anarchism and pluralism. Tao manifests itself through natural principles or philosophies, including Yin-Yang duality, circular nature of changes, wu-wei (natural course of action), and harmony with internal and external environments.

Research limitations/implications

We endorse Li's view (2016) that Western and Eastern management philosophies have their respective strengths and weaknesses, neither one alone is sufficient to manage all types of problems. Thus, a better solution is the one that can integrate Eastern and Western epistemological systems into a geocentric meta-system. The world is entering into a globally-interconnected era, requiring both the organic complexity and ambiguity and the mechanistic simplicity and clarity. Increased global interconnectivity accentuates complexity and interdependence while increased competition fortifies dynamism and uncertainty. This will cause more, not less, paradoxes than before. To this end, Yin-Yang balancing is an audacious and judicious frame of thinking toward paradoxes because this philosophy embodies a unique ability to address the key challenges of ambiguity, complexity, and uncertainty and embraces multiplicity, diversity and inter-penetrability.

Practical implications

After centuries of Western economic dominance, China, India and the rest of the East, alongside emerging economies more broadly, are beginning to challenge the West for positions of global industry leadership. At a deeper level, the transformation from “West Leads East” to “West Meets East” heralds the need for ambidextrous or ambicultural thinking: making simultaneous use of opposites, or simultaneously balancing seemingly contradictory forces and needs, such as efficiency and flexibility, competition and cooperation, stability and adaptation, exploitation and exploration, global and local, privatization and state-ownership, market-based and relationship-based strategies, individualism and collectivism, and long-term and short-term

Originality/value

Enlightened by Yin-Yang balancing, there is a great potential of co-evolution, convergence and co-reinforcement of different philosophies. It will not be easy for any single study to reveal a roadmap for this, but it is feasible for the management research community to finally make the trip with our continuous and collective efforts. Some Western management theories, such as organizational ambidexterity, loose coupling, collaborative competitive advantage, co-opetition, transnational solution (integrated global integration and local responsiveness), to name a few, share some core values of Yin-Yang balancing, even though such sharing has never been articulated explicitly. Similar to the same difficulty facing any other philosophies to be transformed into actionable theories, we have a long journey to navigate in quest for extending Yin-Yang balancing to a universally accepted theory of managing paradoxes. Li’s article (2016) sheds much light for us to forge ahead to this direction.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2019

Yan Jiang, Fu Jia, Constantin Blome and Lujie Chen

This paper aims to set out the development, based on the extant literature, an integrated conceptual framework for the emergent field of sustainable global sourcing (GS…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to set out the development, based on the extant literature, an integrated conceptual framework for the emergent field of sustainable global sourcing (GS) that synthesizes its antecedents, GS practices and sustainable performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Conceptual theory building combined with content analysis is used to develop a framework and propositions representing a middle-range theory of sustainable GS. A literature review of the 89 most influential papers is followed by a further discussion based on the resource orchestration perspective (ROP) to advance an integrated conceptual framework.

Findings

Three main themes are identified from the literature as antecedents, GS practices and sustainable performance, with each theme being detailed in a variety of constructs. Based on the ROP, the relationships between these constructs are revealed, and therefore, an integrated conceptual framework is advanced via three sets of propositions in recourse orchestration breadth, recourse orchestration depth and resource orchestration evolution, respectively. Eight directions for future research are further proposed.

Originality/value

First, this study provides a comprehensive framework for future study in the emergent field of sustainable GS. Second, the authors contribute to theory development by proposing a ROP to explore the GS practices towards sustainability. Third, the future research directions we proposed can benefit scholars interested in the overlapping areas of GS and sustainability.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

Keywords

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Abstract

Subject area

Operations and Logistics.

Study level/applicability

Senior undergraduate students and postgraduate students specialising in agricultural economics/agribusiness/supply chain management and can also be used for executive training for supply chain managers and corporate social responsibility (CSR) managers of food companies.

Case overview

This case presents an industry leading company – Nestlé’s sustainable initiative in its dairy supply chain in China. The case begins with the background of China’s dairy industry, followed by an introduction of the case company. The case then moves on to the comparison of Nestlé’s fresh milk supply chain operation before and after 2008 and different approaches to help the dairy suppliers’ transformation. The focus is on Nestlé’s innovative industry collaboration platform, the Dairy Farming Institute.

Expected learning outcomes

This case allows students to explore the following theoretical frameworks: sustainable supply chain management; supply chain leadership, supply chain learning and supply chain structure. By analysing this case, students should be able to gain an understanding of how multinational corporations (MNCs) play a supply chain leadership role in supply chain learning of sustainable supply chain initiatives.

Supplementary materials

Teaching Notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or email support@emeraldinsight.com to request teaching notes.

Subject code

CSS 9: Operations and Logistics.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2019

Gulnaz Shahzadi, Faisal Qadeer, Albert John and Fu Jia

Micro corporate social responsibility (CSR) is an emerging concept in management that relates to the examination of employees’ reaction to CSR initiatives. In this stream…

Abstract

Purpose

Micro corporate social responsibility (CSR) is an emerging concept in management that relates to the examination of employees’ reaction to CSR initiatives. In this stream of literature, this study aims to investigate the underlying mechanism and boundary conditions of CSR and employees’ organizational identification relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The data of middle managers (n =187) were collected from a large hospitality and real estate organization actively involved in CSR activities in Pakistan. The authors conducted two surveys using the self-administered questionnaire with a temporal break. Structural equation modeling was run using AMOS to analyze the data.

Findings

The authors found that organizational pride meditates while desire to have a significant impact through work (DSIW), gender and organizational tenure moderates the relationship between CSR and organizational identification.

Practical implications

The study implies that the management can take the opportunity to make use of the positive response of the employees by investing in social and environmental causes.

Originality/value

The study contributes to CSR, organizational behavior literature, and person-organization fit theory by explaining the complete path of CSR and identification. It unfolds the underlying mechanism and contingencies of CSR-Identification link that are overlooked in the literature .

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2018

Ying Kei Tse, Minhao Zhang and Fu Jia

Firms face critical challenges in managing product quality in a global supply chain. In many cases, these challenges could be regarded as an agency problem which is a…

Abstract

Purpose

Firms face critical challenges in managing product quality in a global supply chain. In many cases, these challenges could be regarded as an agency problem which is a result of the goal conflict between the supply chain members. To address such agency problem, the purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to explain how risk and reward sharing practices contribute to firms’ quality performance in the supply chain; and second, to identify the drivers of applying risk and reward sharing.

Design/methodology/approach

The hypothesised model, based on agency theory, is empirically verified by original survey data of 200 Chinese manufacturing companies using the structural equations modelling approach in a context of product recall.

Findings

Supplier involvement and task programmability are two significant antecedents of risk and reward sharing. Further, the paper shows that risk and reward sharing have a positive effect on quality performance, however, in terms of contribution to quality performance, risk sharing and reward sharing may be substitution practices.

Practical implications

This research explains how managers could embrace better preparedness for risk and reward sharing in their supply chains. It is also suggested that although risk and reward sharing are seen as efficient means to improve quality performance, such practices should not be treated as a bundle.

Originality/value

Building on supply partnership literature, this paper contributes to agency theory by providing a solution to the agency problem, i.e., risk and reward sharing and adding to the limited understanding of the antecedents of risk and reward sharing and examining the effects of risk and reward sharing on quality performance.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 38 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 June 2020

Fu Jia, Dun Li, Guoquan Liu, Hui Sun and Jorge E. Hernandez

This study explores how sharing platforms achieve platform loyalty through various operation management strategies.

Abstract

Purpose

This study explores how sharing platforms achieve platform loyalty through various operation management strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

A multiple case study method has been conducted in two Chinese sharing economy industries: ride- and bike-sharing. Data were collected through 30 semi-structured interviews with managers from four platform companies (DiDi, Uber China, ofo and Mobike). Individual case studies were developed from the triangulation of all existing data. Concurrent with the development of these individual case studies was a cross-case analysis. Emerging patterns have been identified and compared to previous findings in the literature to build upon and modify the existing knowledge base and to formulate a series of propositions.

Findings

Platform asset characteristics and mergers and acquisitions affect supply network readiness and operational capacity, respectively, and this effect would consequently contribute to achieving platform loyalty through user satisfaction. Moreover, externality, as a moderator, may influence the strength of the relationship between satisfaction and platform loyalty.

Practical implications

The proposed theoretical model provides an overarching framework for sharing platform companies to design and operate their businesses while carefully examining the situations, contexts and actions of users and other stakeholders and choosing an appropriate strategic mechanism to drive platform growth.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first to empirically explain how firms in a sharing economy sector could gain platform loyalty by adopting an expectation–confirmation theory perspective.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 40 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 May 2018

Yongyi Shou, Wen Che, Jing Dai and Fu Jia

Through examining the two constructs of inter-organizational complementarity and inter-organizational compatibility in supply chains, the purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

Through examining the two constructs of inter-organizational complementarity and inter-organizational compatibility in supply chains, the purpose of this paper is to develop a taxonomy of focal firms’ inter-organizational fit (IOF) configurations with their suppliers and customers, and examine the relationship between these configurations and environmental innovation (EI) in order to answer the question of “with whom” to collaborate for EI development.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey instrument was elaborated and data from a sample of 171 US firms were collected. The authors adopted cluster analysis to identify the IOF taxonomy. Canonical discriminant analysis was employed to uncover underlying dimensions between clustering variables and cluster membership. Then, ANOVA tests were conducted to investigate relationships between IOF configurations in the context of EI in supply chains.

Findings

Three configurations were identified based on the complementarity and compatibility between focal firms and their supply chain partners. It is observed that the overall IOF level is positively related to firms’ EI outcomes. Moreover, inter-organizational complementarity facilitates incremental EI while inter-organizational compatibility plays a more crucial role in radical EI. Both are required to achieve the best innovation outcome.

Originality/value

This research develops the first taxonomy for depicting IOF in a supply chain innovation context and also clarifies different rationale behind the development of incremental and radical EI through examining distinctive effects of the complementarity and compatibility with supply chain partners.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 38 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 November 2018

Yang Yang, Fu Jia and Zhiduan Xu

The purpose of this paper is to systematically review the academic literature on Supply Chain Learning (SCL), including the definitions, drivers, sources, barriers and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to systematically review the academic literature on Supply Chain Learning (SCL), including the definitions, drivers, sources, barriers and consequences of SCL, and to propose an integrated conceptual model.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic literature review has been conducted, with an analysis of 123 papers in peer-reviewed academic journals published from 1998 up to March 2018.

Findings

Through analysis and synthesis of the literature, this paper identifies and classifies the concepts of SCL into four types, that is, process orientation, structure orientation, consequence orientation and other informal definitions. Based on the Extended Resource-Based View (ERBV), the authors develop an integrated conceptual framework, which brings together various constructs. Within the framework, the authors identify the drivers and sources of SCL at intra- and inter-organizational levels. SCL consists of exploratory and exploitive learning capabilities, and the outcomes of SCL are dynamic supply chain management capabilities and sustainable supply chain performance.

Originality/value

The authors propose a capability perspective of SCL and develop a conceptual model and a number of associated propositions of SCL based on the ERBV and review findings, which is subject to future empirical testing and propose five future research directions. The findings of this paper can be extended beyond the dyad and be applied in multi-tier supply chain context.

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 39 no. 6/7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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