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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2019

Lichen Gu, Rui Xu and Nan Wang

The purpose of this paper is to identify the energy losses factors during the hydro-mechanical conversion process at high pressure via a novel reduced order dynamic model.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the energy losses factors during the hydro-mechanical conversion process at high pressure via a novel reduced order dynamic model.

Design/methodology/approach

A novel reduced order dynamic model of the axial piston motor was proposed, which provides an explicit insight to the compression flow losses and the Coulomb friction losses. A fully coupled dynamic model of the piston motor was obtained based on the array bond graph method. And then, a reduced order model was obtained by the composition analysis of flow and torque of the axial piston motor. After that, the energy losses estimation model was presented to predict the energy loss of the piston motor under a wide range of working conditions. The model was verified by comparing the experimental and simulation results.

Findings

The simulation result indicates that the flow loss caused by oil compression accounts for 59 per cent of the total flow loss, and the Coulomb friction torque accounts for 40 per cent of the total torque loss under a specific working condition. The compression flow loss and Coulomb friction torque are the major factors that lead to the aggravation of energy loss under extreme working conditions of the piston motor.

Originality/value

At high-pressure condition, the compression flow losses due to fluid compressibility cannot be neglected, and the hydro-mechanical losses in varies friction pairs should involve Coulomb friction losses. Flow and torque loss analytical expression in the model involve the design and control parameters of the piston equipment, which can realize the parameter optimization of the piston equipment for the purpose of energy-saving.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 72 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Zhenpeng He

The analysis carried out in this study can provide guidance for manufacturers and researchers to design a piston for the development of engines.

Abstract

Purpose

The analysis carried out in this study can provide guidance for manufacturers and researchers to design a piston for the development of engines.

Design/methodology/approach

Running conditions for pistons have become very severe because of the high combustion pressure and increase in piston temperature in the past 10 years. The precision of the model has a great effect on the power transmission, vibration noise emission. In this paper, the model was established with lubrication and dynamic governing equations, which were solved using finite element method coupled with Runge–Kutta method. A piston of an inline six-cylinder engine was studied, and some structural parameters were used to investigate its effect on the friction loss with lubrication and dynamic motion theory.

Findings

Based on the analyses, the effect of the friction load at the oil groove and thermal deformation of piston skirt were added to the model, and some useful information about the friction loss and dynamic characteristics were compared.

Originality/value

All the results will provide guidance for the development of the piston and reduction in the friction loss and wear.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 70 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Zhaoju Qin, Chenheng Yuan, Yanpeng Yuan and Yuanyuan Huang

A free-piston engine (FPE) is an unconventional engine that abandons the crank system. This paper aims to focus on a numerical simulation for the lubricating…

Abstract

Purpose

A free-piston engine (FPE) is an unconventional engine that abandons the crank system. This paper aims to focus on a numerical simulation for the lubricating characteristics of piston rings in a single-piston hydraulic free-piston engine (HFPE).

Design/methodology/approach

A time-based numerical simulation program was built using Matlab to define the piston motion of the new engine. And a lubrication mode of piston rings was built which is based on the gas flow equation, hydrodynamic lubrication equation and the asperity contact equation. The piston motion and the lubrication model are coupled, and then the finite difference method is used to obtain the piston rings lubrication performances of the FPE. Meanwhile, the lubrication characteristics of the new engine were compared with those of a corresponding conventional crankshaft-driven engine.

Findings

The study results indicate that compared with the traditional engine, the expansion stroke of the HFPE is longer, and the compression stroke is shorter. Lubrication oil film of the new engine is thicker than the traditional engine during the initial stage of compression stroke and the final stage of the power stroke. The average friction force and power of the hydraulic free piston engine are slightly lower than those of the traditional engine, but the peak friction power of the FPE is significantly greater than that of the traditional engine. With an increase in load, the friction loss power and friction loss efficiency decrease, and with a decrease in equivalence ratio, the friction power loss reduces, but the friction loss efficiency decreases first and then increases.

Research limitations/implications

In this paper, only qualitative analysis was performed on the tribological difference between conventional crankshaft engine and HFPE, instead of a quantitative one.

Practical implications

This paper contributes to the tribological design method of HFPE.

Social implications

No social implications are available now, as the HFPE is under the development phase. However, the authors are positive that their work will be commercialized in the near future.

Originality/value

The main originality of the paper can be introduced as follows: the lubrication and friction characteristics of the new engine (HFPE) were investigated and revealed, which have not been studied before; the effect of the HFPE’s special piston motion on the tribological characteristics was considered in the lubrication simulation. The results show that compared with the traditional crankshaft engine, the new engine shows a different lubrication performance because of its free piston motion.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 69 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Lin Ba, Zhenpeng He, Lingyan Guo, Young Chiang, Guichang Zhang and Xing Lu

The purpose of this paper is to improve the environment and save energy, friction reduction, lower oil consumption and emissions demand that are the chief objectives of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to improve the environment and save energy, friction reduction, lower oil consumption and emissions demand that are the chief objectives of the automotive industry. The piston system is the largest frictional loss source, which accounts for about 40 per cent of the total frictional loss in engine. In this paper, the reciprocating tribometer, which is updated, was used to evaluate the friction and wear performances.

Design/methodology/approach

An alternate method is introduced to investigate the effect of reciprocating speed, normal load, oil pump speed and ring sample and oil temperature on friction coefficient with the ring/liner of a typical inline diesel engine. The orthogonal experiment is designed to identify the factors that dominate wear behavior. To understand the correlations between friction coefficients and wear well, different friction coefficient results were compared and explained by oil film build-up and asperity contact theory, such as the friction coefficient over a long period and averaged the friction coefficient over one revolution.

Findings

The friction coefficient changes little but fluctuates with a small amplitude in the stable stage. The sudden change of frequency, load and stroke will lead to the oil film rupture. The identification for the factors that dominates the wear loss is ranged as F (ring sample) > , E (oil sample) > , B (stroke) > , D (temperature) > , A (load) > , G (liner) > and C (frequency).

Originality/value

This paper develops and verifies a methodology capable of mimicking the real engine behavior at boundary and mixed lubrication regimes which can minimize frictional losses, wear, reduce much work for the experiment and reduce the cost. The originality of the work is well qualified, as very few papers on a similar analysis have been published, such as: The friction coefficient values fluctuating in the whole stage may be caused by the vibration of the system; suddenly, boundary alternation may help the oil film to form the lubrication; and weight loss mainly comes from the contribution of the friction coefficient value fluctuation. The paper also found that the statistics can gain more information from less experiment time based on a design of experiment.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 67 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2009

Wissam Karam and Jean‐Charles Mare

The purpose of this paper is to develop accurate model and simulation of mechanical power transmission within roller‐screw electromechanical actuators with special…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop accurate model and simulation of mechanical power transmission within roller‐screw electromechanical actuators with special attention to friction, compliance and inertia effects. Also, to propose non‐intrusive experiments for the identification of model parameters with an integrator or system‐oriented view.

Design/methodology/approach

At system design level, the actuation models need to reproduce with confidence the energy losses and the main dynamic effects. The adopted modelling methodology is based on non‐intrusive measurements taken on a standard actuator test‐bench. The actuator model is first structured with respect to the bond‐graph formalism that allows a clear identification of the considered effects and associated causalities for model implementation. Various approaches are then combined, mixing blocked or moving load, position or torque control and time or frequency domains analysis. The friction representation model is suggested using a step‐by‐step approach that covers a wide domain of operation. The model is validated under varying torque and speed conditions.

Findings

A structured model is introduced with support of the bond‐graph formalism. Combining blocked/moving load and time/frequency domain experiments allows the development of progressive model identification. An advanced friction representation model is proposed including the effects of speed, transmitted force, quadrant of operation and roller‐screw preload.

Originality/value

Mechanical transmission energy losses and dynamics are modelled in a system‐oriented view without massive need to confidential design parameters. Not only speed but also load and operation quadrant effects are reproduced by the proposed friction model. The non‐intrusive experimental procedure is made consistent with use of a standard actuator test‐bench.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 81 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1999

J. Padgurskas, R. Rukuiza, M. Vötter and V. Wollesen

The possibilities increasing the wear resistance of friction pair radial lip seal/shaft were tested using fluoroligomeric materials and selective transfer technologies…

Abstract

The possibilities increasing the wear resistance of friction pair radial lip seal/shaft were tested using fluoroligomeric materials and selective transfer technologies. Measurements of friction moment, temperature in contact spot and wear of friction surfaces show that fluoroligomeric coat and selective transfer technologies (metallpolymeric oil additives and NABA‐coat on shaft) can considerably decrease the friction losses and increase the wear resistance of friction pair. The microscopic analysis of surfaces shows that using tribotechnical materials in contact spot of friction surfaces forms virtually different structures which can explain the different efficiency mechanisms of the mentioned materials. These tests show that in friction pair radial lip seal/shaft the tribomaterials could be used which create selective transfer effect and have regenerating properties.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 51 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 27 April 2020

Gabriel Welfany Rodrigues and Marco Lucio Bittencourt

This paper aims to numerically investigate the surface texturing effects on the main bearings of a three-cylinder ethanol engine in terms of the power loss and friction

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to numerically investigate the surface texturing effects on the main bearings of a three-cylinder ethanol engine in terms of the power loss and friction coefficient for dynamic load conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

The mathematical formulation considers the Partir-Cheng modified Reynolds equation. The mass-conserving Elrod-Adams p-θ model with the JFO approach is used to deal with cavitation. A fluid-structure coupling procedure is considered for the elastohydrodynamic lubrication. Accordingly, a 3-D linear-elastic substructured finite element model obtained from Abaqus is applied

Findings

Simulations were carried out considering different dimple texture designs in terms of location, depth and radius. The results suggested that there are regions where texturing is more effective. In addition, distinct journal rotation speeds are studied and the surface texture was able to reduce friction and the power loss by 7%.

Practical implications

The surface texturing can be a useful technique to reduce the power loss on the crankshaft bearing increasing the overall engine efficiency.

Originality/value

The surface texturing performance in a three-cylinder engine using ethanol as fuel was investigated through numerical experimentation. The results are supported by previous findings.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/ILT-09-2019-0380/

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 72 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 2 July 2018

Xianghui Meng, Changya Yu, Youbai Xie and Benfu Mei

This paper aims to investigate the lubrication performance of cam/tappet contact during start up. Especially, the thermal insulation effects of coating on the lubrication…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the lubrication performance of cam/tappet contact during start up. Especially, the thermal insulation effects of coating on the lubrication performance during cold start up process and warm start up process are studied.

Design/methodology/approach

A numerical model for the analysis of thermal elastohydrodynamic lubrication of coated cam/tappet contact is presented. In this model, the Reynolds equation and the energy equations are discretized by the finite difference method and solved jointly.

Findings

During start up, the contact force at cam nose-to-tappet contact decreases with increasing time, while the absolute entrainment velocity has the upward trend. The minimum film thickness, maximum average temperature and friction power loss increase with increasing time, while the coefficient of friction decreases during start up. Because of the thermal insulation effect, the coating can significantly increase the degree of temperature rise. Compared with the uncoated case, the coated cam/tappet results in a lower friction power loss. Generally, the friction power loss in the cold start up process is much higher than that in the warm start up process.

Originality/value

By this study, the lubrication performance and the kinematics and the dynamics of the cam/tappet during start up process are investigated. Meanwhile, the thermal insulation effect of coating is also illustrated. The difference of lubrication performance between cold start up process and warm start up process is analyzed. The results and thermal elastohydrodynamic lubrication method presented in this study can be a guidance in the design of the coated cam/tappet.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 70 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2011

Luis Magalhaes, Ramiro Martins, Cristiano Locateli and Jorge Seabra

The purpose of this paper is to develop innovative geometry for gears aiming low power loss and easy manufacturing.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop innovative geometry for gears aiming low power loss and easy manufacturing.

Design/methodology/approach

New gear profiles were developed and studied, and gears were built accordingly and then tested using an FZG machine.

Findings

Results from the experimental tests revealed the influence of the profile modifications on the operating temperature, thus on the efficiency of gears (in terms of power loss).

Research limitations/implications

Studied cases were limited to experimental gear models compliant to the FZG machine.

Practical implications

Low‐loss gears can be produced using common technologies and tools. Its design includes power loss minimization besides mechanical strength. The new gears are more environmentally friendly and can operate with lower power consumption, lower temperature, increasing gear and gear oil life.

Originality/value

This work contributes to the development of the “low‐loss gears” concept, adapting it to low‐cost manufacturing technologies. Finally, more efficient gears and gearboxes can be produced only by performing simple geometrical modifications to standard gears.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 63 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2020

Mingyong Liu, Peidong Xu, Jinxi Zhang and Huafeng Ding

Power loss is an important index to evaluate the transmission performance of a gear pair. In some cases, the starved lubrication exists on the gear contact interface. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Power loss is an important index to evaluate the transmission performance of a gear pair. In some cases, the starved lubrication exists on the gear contact interface. The purpose of this paper is to reveal the mechanical power loss of a helical gear pair under starved lubrication.

Design/methodology/approach

A starved thermal-elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) model is proposed to evaluate the tribological properties of a helical gear pair. The numerical result has been validated against the published simulation data. Based on the proposed model, the influence of thermal effect, working conditions, inlet oil-supply layer and surface roughness on the mechanical power loss and lubrication performance has been discussed.

Findings

Results show that the thermal effect has a significant effect on the tribological properties of helical gear pair, especially on mechanical power loss. For a specified working condition, there is an optimal oil supply for gear lubrication to obtain the state of full film lubrication. Meanwhile, it reveals that the mechanical power loss increases with the increase of the surface roughness amplitude.

Originality/value

In this paper, a starved thermal-EHL model has been developed for the helical gear pair based on the finite line contact theory. This model can be used to analyze the tribological properties of gear pair from full film lubrication to mixed lubrication. The results can provide the tribological guidance for design of a helical gear pair.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 72 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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