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Book part
Publication date: 16 April 2021

Bev-Freda L. Jackson

The First Amendment so states,Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of

Abstract

The First Amendment so states,

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. (United Nations, 2006)

Within the confines of this law are the foundational touchstones of our democracy identifying the protection of five critical freedoms of religion, press, speech, assembly and the freedom to petition to the government. Many institutions of higher education and spheres of academe outline academic freedom as the right of a scholar to express ideas without risk of potential professional consequence. Within that domain of the freedom to express and share information, the American Library Association defines intellectual freedom as,

the right of every individual to both seek and receive information from all points of view without restriction. It provides for free access to all expressions of ideas through which any and all sides of a question, cause or movement may be explored.

In a time where democratic freedoms are being challenged, the concepts of intellectual freedom and academic freedom require examination as key tenets of our democracy to be upheld, celebrated and honored. This chapter will critique and consider how institutions, organizations and entities have a keen ability to be empowered and disempowered by the appropriate execution or the lack of execution of both the tenets of intellectual and academic freedoms. This chapter will deconstruct both concepts through the lens of a social justice framework, thereby posing the question how challenging key democratic elements of the citizenry to express and share ideas, inform and responsibly disseminate ideas handicaps both the will and core of a democracy to thrive. This chapter will highlight how communities expand and narrow the domains of intellectual and academic freedom, from within the United States exploring the role of the Constitution, yet also infusing a global perspective. This chapter will examine what both academic and intellectual freedoms look like outside of the United States, and how theoretically and tangibly the concepts are applied. This chapter explores the application of the core tenets of intellectual and academic freedoms through a social justice framework and the introduction of reframing the consideration of both freedoms as human rights. A social justice framework incorporates the principle of fair and impartial treatment being afforded and entitled to all members of the citizenry. Seemingly to oppose and prevent these modes of expression and foundational elements of freedom both obstruct the principles of social justice and disrupt a democracy.

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Academic Freedom: Autonomy, Challenges and Conformation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-883-3

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1976

A.J. WATT

This paper is an examination of the rationale for the policy of supplying public funds for the support of schools run by private organizations. The example of the policy…

Abstract

This paper is an examination of the rationale for the policy of supplying public funds for the support of schools run by private organizations. The example of the policy chosen for discussion is a current proposal of the Australian Schools Commission. It is noted that policies of this sort are generally defended by reference to a principle of freedom of choice. However there can be a conflict between freedom of choice for parents and freedom of choice for children in that parents sometimes exercise their freedom to choose schools which will reinforce their own influence and help to bring up their children in a predetermined mould with the same ideological beliefs and personal values as themselves. Public funding of private schools, it is argued, extends the freedom of parents to choose from a range of schools, but the effect is often to limit the opportunity of children to grow up free to make their own ideological and life‐style decisions. It is suggested that if one values this latter type of freedom one ought consistently to support pluralist public schools in which a wider variety of values and points of view are represented.

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Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 23 October 2009

Carl R. Chen and Ying Sophie Huang

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationships between the Index of Economic Freedom, equity market performance and its volatility.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationships between the Index of Economic Freedom, equity market performance and its volatility.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examines whether the level of economic freedom is significant for a country's stock market performance and volatiling.

Findings

Regression results show that adjusted stock returns bear little relationship with economic freedom. On the other hand, economic freedom is associated with lower stock market volatility.

Originality/value

The results imply that a country with greater economic freedom provides investors with better mean‐variance investment efficiency.

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International Journal of Accounting & Information Management, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1834-7649

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1993

Lewis E. Hill and James E. Jonish

Makes the distinction between negative freedom or liberty, whichmeans the absence of constraint and compulsion, and positive freedom,which always implies the power to make…

Abstract

Makes the distinction between negative freedom or liberty, which means the absence of constraint and compulsion, and positive freedom, which always implies the power to make one′s will effective to gain access to a chosen alternative. Argues that positive freedom can be used either creatively or destructively. The creative use of positive freedom enhances and improves the economic freedom and economic justice that accrues to other people. The destructive use of positive freedom damages and diminishes the economic freedom and economic justice of others. It follows that the government should intervene in the political and social economy to encourage and to facilitate the creative use and to discourage or prohibit the destructive use of positive freedom.

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International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 20 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2013

Timothy Peterson

The paper aims to determine if a country's Economic Freedom Index value has any relationship to the return of the related country specific exchange traded fund.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to determine if a country's Economic Freedom Index value has any relationship to the return of the related country specific exchange traded fund.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 36 country specific exchange traded funds were selected for use in this study. The historical returns for 2011, the three‐year period ending in 2011, and the five‐year period ending in 2011 were recorded if available for each exchange traded fund. Each exchange traded fund (ETF) was placed into one of four groups based upon its country's overall Economic Freedom Index value. The range of Economic Index values for each group was the same ones used by the publishers of the Economic Freedom Index. The mean ETF return and standard deviation for 2011, three‐year, and five‐year periods were calculated for each of the four groups. The mean/standard deviation of the Economic Freedom Index and each of its components for 2011, the mean of the three‐year period, and the mean of the five‐year period were calculated for each of the four groups. The degree of statistical significance between the mean returns of the four groups was determined by using ANOVA. The correlation coefficients and the degree of statistical significance were calculated between each component of the index, between each component and the overall index value, and between the overall index value and the ETF returns.

Findings

The correlations between the components of the Economic Freedom Index generally tend to be positive and statistically significant. The correlations between the components of the Economic Freedom Index and the Economic Freedom Index tend to be positive and statistically significant. The correlation between the mean ETF returns of the various groups and the value of the mean Economic Freedom Index tends to be mixed. There appears to be no statistical significance of the difference between the mean ETF returns of each group and the mean overall score of the Economic Freedom Index for that group. For the year 2011 the level of significance was 0.103, for the three‐year period the level of significance was 0.541, and for the five‐year period the level of significance was 0.132. The differences within each group are more than the differences between the groups. The value of the Economic Freedom Index does not appear to correlate with the return of the country specific exchange traded fund.

Originality/value

The paper relates a country's environment for conducting business as represented by its Economic Freedom Index to the equity returns of firms in that country. The results of this study would be of interest to those individuals or institutions making investment decisions regarding country specific exchange traded funds. If a positive correlation exists between the index value and the return of the exchange traded fund, this information could improve the prediction of country specific exchange traded fund returns.

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Managerial Finance, vol. 39 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2021

Rafael Acevedo, Jose U. Mora and Andrew T. Young

Mora and Acevedo (2019) report that the government spending multipliers in Latin American countries are notably higher than what is typically reported for developed…

Abstract

Purpose

Mora and Acevedo (2019) report that the government spending multipliers in Latin American countries are notably higher than what is typically reported for developed economies. Latin American countries have been inclined toward using procyclical fiscal policies. Those policies have been perceived as being effective at mitigating the effects of the 2008–2009 Great Recession. This study aims to estimate the government spending multiplier using Latin American panel data from 19 Latin American countries from 2000 to 2018. The estimates are conditional on the extent of openness, capital mobility and economic freedom. Based on the results, the latter is important: the less economically free a country, the larger its spending multiplier. Lower economic freedom in Latin American countries can help to account for their large spending multipliers. In particular, restrictions on international trade are positively associated with multipliers. This is the case even while controlling the trade share of GDP.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors provide regression results that are conditional on the extent of openness, capital mobility and economic freedom.

Findings

The less economically free a country, the larger its spending multiplier. Lower economic freedom in Latin American countries can help to account for their large spending multipliers. In particular, restrictions on international trade are positively associated with multipliers. This is the case even while controlling the trade share of GDP.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is first study to estimate the fiscal multiplier conditional on economic freedom levels. The authors provide correctly calculated multipliers conditional on different levels of economic freedom. The authors point the way to future studies considering the effectiveness of fiscal policy conditional on institutional/policy quality.

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Journal of Financial Economic Policy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-6385

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Book part
Publication date: 22 October 2020

Jennifer W. Purcell

This chapter discusses the challenges of safeguarding academic freedom during leadership transitions and organizational change in universities. Examples from a large…

Abstract

This chapter discusses the challenges of safeguarding academic freedom during leadership transitions and organizational change in universities. Examples from a large public university illustrate current challenges and provide perspective for proactive measures to protect academic freedom. While the context and details are unique to the institution featured in the chapter, the lessons gleaned from each vignette offer valuable insight to faculty and university leaders who are motivated to better understand and uphold the principles of academic freedom and, more broadly, protected speech with higher education. To support academic leaders in achieving these goals, a conceptual framework for shared leadership through shared governance to support academic freedom is presented. The chapter concludes with recommendations for leveraging shared leadership to foster a university culture that supports of academic freedom.

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Book part
Publication date: 22 October 2020

Lynne M. Chandler Garcia

Academic freedom is a complicated issue for military service academies. As accredited institutions of higher learning, academic freedom is valued. At the same time, the…

Abstract

Academic freedom is a complicated issue for military service academies. As accredited institutions of higher learning, academic freedom is valued. At the same time, the academies are subject to regulations that guide speech and publishing by the Department of Defense. This chapter explores the balance between maintaining academic freedom while upholding the discipline contained in regulations concerning free speech. The chapter concludes with a view to the future and opportunities for further research.

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Book part
Publication date: 22 October 2020

Pamela Felder Small

This chapter focuses on academic freedom in the experiences of Black/African American doctoral students and presents an examination of the American Association of…

Abstract

This chapter focuses on academic freedom in the experiences of Black/African American doctoral students and presents an examination of the American Association of University Professors (AAUP) Joint Statement on Rights and Freedoms of Students (https://www.aaup.org/report/joint-statement-rights-and-freedoms-students) based on research and practice on the marginalized doctoral student experience. Discussion addresses AAUP policy Statements: Section I (freedom of access to higher education), Section II (freedom of expression in the classroom), and Section III (freedom of inquiry and expression). The purpose of this work is to increase awareness of issues serving as barriers to student rights and freedoms related to self-expression, cultural bias, and student activism at the doctoral level. Strategies that disrupt, minimize, and/or eradicate barriers to actively maintain and pursue student rights and freedoms will be addressed to emphasize their importance to supporting and/or hindering academic success, doctoral degree completion, and creating/sustaining pathways of transition into the career pathways.

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Faculty and Student Research in Practicing Academic Freedom
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-701-3

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Book part
Publication date: 9 February 2007

Gerlese S. Åkerlind

The data on which this essay is based were originally collected as part of a larger study investigating Academic Freedom and Commercialisation in Australian Universities…

Abstract

The data on which this essay is based were originally collected as part of a larger study investigating Academic Freedom and Commercialisation in Australian Universities (see Kayrooz, Kinnear, & Preston, 2001). A web-based questionnaire survey of social scientists across 12 universities in Australia was completed by 165 respondents (representing a 20% response rate). At the end of the questionnaire, respondents were asked to indicate whether they would be willing to engage in a follow-up telephone interview. Ten of those who indicated their willingness to be interviewed were contacted, and all agreed to the interview.

Details

Autonomy in Social Science Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-481-2

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