Search results

1 – 2 of 2
Article
Publication date: 26 May 2022

Monisa Yousouf, Syed Zameer Hussain, Varsha Kanojia, Tahiya Qadri, Bazila Naseer, Fouzia Shafi and Abida Jabeen

The purpose of this study was to formulate a complete protein food from lentil flour (LF) and egg powder (EP) through microwave-assisted extrusion technology.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to formulate a complete protein food from lentil flour (LF) and egg powder (EP) through microwave-assisted extrusion technology.

Design/methodology/approach

In the first part of the hybrid technology, the feed proportion and extrusion conditions were optimized through design expert using central composite rotatable design. In the second part of hybrid technology, the optimized protein pellets (PP) obtained were subjected to microwave heating (MH) for 50,100, 150, 200 and 250 s.

Findings

The optimum predicted conditions for development of pellets using extrusion cooking were feed proportion (85% LF and 15% EP), barrel temperature (140°C), screw speed (340 rpm) and feed moisture content (12%). When these pellets were subjected to MH, 150 s of heating time was considered as prudential to induce desirable quality changes in PP. The increase in sectional expansion index, crispness and overall acceptability from 0.637 to 0.659, 4.51 to 6.1 and 3.27 to 3.59 with corresponding decrease in bulk density and breaking strength from 73.33 to 69.75 kg/cm3 and 6.24 to 5.13 N during 150 s of MH indicated that quality characteristics of extruded PPs were improved after MH.

Practical implications

Nowadays, consumers have become more health conscious than ever, and the demand for nutritious snacks has increased many folds. However, the high protein content restricts expansion of snacks, which was overcome by subjecting extruded pellets to MH to produce third generation pellets. Furthermore, the PP has a protein content of 31.62%, which indicates that if an average person consumes 100 g of these snacks, it will suffice 60% of total recommended dietary intake (0.75 g/kg body weight/day). Lentil-based pellets expanded by use of such hybrid technology (microwave-assisted extrusion cooking) can help to provide a feasible, low cost and protein-rich diet for malnourished population besides being a value addition to lentils.

Originality/value

LF in combination with EP was tested for the first time for development of nutrient dense pellets. Moreover, use of microwave-assisted extrusion cooking offers a workable and innovative technique of developing protein-rich pellets with improved physico-chemical and sensory attributes.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 53 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 19 December 2022

Nida Hussain, Baoming Li and Habib Elahi Sahibzada

Under the unique context of COVID-19, this paper aims to analyze how the Government of Pakistan (GoP) provides financial and non-financial support to women entrepreneurs in…

2394

Abstract

Purpose

Under the unique context of COVID-19, this paper aims to analyze how the Government of Pakistan (GoP) provides financial and non-financial support to women entrepreneurs in Pakistan. Drawing on the resource-based theory of entrepreneurship (RBTE), the study advances the understanding of resources and grants offered by GoP to women entrepreneurs to help them in business survival.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopts qualitative research method to address the questions: how does the Pakistani government respond to issues faced by women entrepreneurs during the COVID-19 pandemic, and what assistance and initiatives were implemented by GoP? Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty on-job government officials related to the entrepreneurial sector in Pakistan.

Findings

The paper reveals that during the pandemic, GoP keenly communicated with women entrepreneurial representatives to comprehend their business challenges. In addition, waivers and incentives were provided to support their business activities. GoP further invited women entrepreneurs to contribute their knowledge and give suggestions in policy making.

Originality/value

Lots of research have been conducted to identify the issues faced by women entrepreneurs during the pandemic. However, the specific strategies, policies, and support provided by the governments to address these issues have often been overlooked. This paper fills such gap with focus on the governing bodies and policymakers in Pakistan towards women entrepreneurship during the COVID-19 crisis.

Details

Public Administration and Policy, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1727-2645

Keywords

1 – 2 of 2