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Development of third generation protein rich snacks from lentil and egg powder through microwave assisted extrusion cooking

Monisa Yousouf (Division of Food Science and Technology, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Srinagar, India)
Syed Zameer Hussain (Division of Food Science and Technology, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Srinagar, India)
Varsha Kanojia (Department of Processing and Food Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India)
Tahiya Qadri (Division of Food Science and Technology, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Srinagar, India)
Bazila Naseer (Division of Food Science and Technology, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Srinagar, India)
Fouzia Shafi (Division of Basic Science and Humanities, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Srinagar, India)
Abida Jabeen (Division of Food Science and Technology, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Srinagar, India)

Nutrition & Food Science

ISSN: 0034-6659

Article publication date: 26 May 2022

Issue publication date: 7 February 2023

158

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to formulate a complete protein food from lentil flour (LF) and egg powder (EP) through microwave-assisted extrusion technology.

Design/methodology/approach

In the first part of the hybrid technology, the feed proportion and extrusion conditions were optimized through design expert using central composite rotatable design. In the second part of hybrid technology, the optimized protein pellets (PP) obtained were subjected to microwave heating (MH) for 50,100, 150, 200 and 250 s.

Findings

The optimum predicted conditions for development of pellets using extrusion cooking were feed proportion (85% LF and 15% EP), barrel temperature (140°C), screw speed (340 rpm) and feed moisture content (12%). When these pellets were subjected to MH, 150 s of heating time was considered as prudential to induce desirable quality changes in PP. The increase in sectional expansion index, crispness and overall acceptability from 0.637 to 0.659, 4.51 to 6.1 and 3.27 to 3.59 with corresponding decrease in bulk density and breaking strength from 73.33 to 69.75 kg/cm3 and 6.24 to 5.13 N during 150 s of MH indicated that quality characteristics of extruded PPs were improved after MH.

Practical implications

Nowadays, consumers have become more health conscious than ever, and the demand for nutritious snacks has increased many folds. However, the high protein content restricts expansion of snacks, which was overcome by subjecting extruded pellets to MH to produce third generation pellets. Furthermore, the PP has a protein content of 31.62%, which indicates that if an average person consumes 100 g of these snacks, it will suffice 60% of total recommended dietary intake (0.75 g/kg body weight/day). Lentil-based pellets expanded by use of such hybrid technology (microwave-assisted extrusion cooking) can help to provide a feasible, low cost and protein-rich diet for malnourished population besides being a value addition to lentils.

Originality/value

LF in combination with EP was tested for the first time for development of nutrient dense pellets. Moreover, use of microwave-assisted extrusion cooking offers a workable and innovative technique of developing protein-rich pellets with improved physico-chemical and sensory attributes.

Keywords

Acknowledgements

Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest related to this research work.

The authors acknowledge the support provided by AICRP on PHET.

Citation

Yousouf, M., Hussain, S.Z., Kanojia, V., Qadri, T., Naseer, B., Shafi, F. and Jabeen, A. (2023), "Development of third generation protein rich snacks from lentil and egg powder through microwave assisted extrusion cooking", Nutrition & Food Science, Vol. 53 No. 2, pp. 285-300. https://doi.org/10.1108/NFS-01-2022-0021

Publisher

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Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited

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