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The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the important but neglected role of retail formats in the transfer and positioning decisions of international retailers. The…
The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the important but neglected role of retail formats in the transfer and positioning decisions of international retailers. The paper examines the role of core and country-specific attributes of particular formats in determining retailers’ local positioning in inter-format competition.
Focussing on three distinguished grocery formats (i.e. discounters, supermarkets, and hypermarkets) and using multiple-group structural equation models, the authors conducted consumer surveys in Germany and Romania to evaluate consumer perceptions of the core attributes of those formats and their influence on retail brand equity and consumer loyalty.
Although consumer perceptions of core attributes differ between formats in Germany and Romania, most of the core attributes of the formats affect retail brands with equal strength in both markets. Retail brand equity determines loyalty to all formats in both countries.
Retailers transferring their formats to foreign countries should place particular emphasis on managing the core attributes of a specific format, as these attributes are of paramount importance in establishing a strong brand. Additional country-specific attributes are also relevant to varying extents, depending on the particular format that is used. Assessing causal relationships extends retailer knowledge of the role of format attributes.
This study proposes a format-specific approach that is novel to international retailing research. The country comparison strengthens the study's implications, considers both a developed and an emerging economy, and accounts for the preference of Western European retailers to expand into Eastern European countries. The paper concludes that format transfer and positioning decisions occur within the boundaries of core format attributes.
The purpose of the present work is to develop a methodology for making physical models of catchment areas and terrains by rapid prototyping (RP) using geographic…
The purpose of the present work is to develop a methodology for making physical models of catchment areas and terrains by rapid prototyping (RP) using geographic information systems (GIS) data. It is also intended to reduce data loss by minimising intermediate data translations.
The GIS data of a catchment area or a terrain were directly translated to an stereo lithography (STL) file. The STL surface was then manipulated in Magics‐RP to obtain a solid STL part, which can then be downloaded to a RP machine to obtain a physical model or representation of a terrain or catchtment area.
Intricate geometries of landforms were created with ease and great accuracy in RP machines. Terrain models were created in less time and lower cost than with conventional methods.
DEM ASCII XYZ (digital elevation model) data were used to input the required GIS data of specific terrains. Software can be developed for translation and manipulation of DEM, STL and other relevant file formats. This will eliminate any data loss associated with intermediate file transfer.
Terrain models were created with ease and great accuracy in RP machines. It takes less time and can be done more cost‐effectively. Terrain models have intricate geometries and for complex models, it may take months to make using conventional methods.
STL surfaces were obtained directly from GIS data for terrain modeling. This work fulfils the need of terrain modeling for catchment management, town‐planning, road‐transport planning, architecture, military applications, geological education, etc.
Information models for the representation of product data are being developed as an international standard. However, the current application protocols focus on the…
Information models for the representation of product data are being developed as an international standard. However, the current application protocols focus on the representation of homogeneous objects only. This paper suggests an information model to represent heterogeneous objects using the information modeling methodology developed for ISO 10303. The data planning model is then extended to represent the two‐dimensional (2D) slice information using concepts from ISO 10303. The proposed formats are validated by physical realization of objects on two LM machines. This information model will help in providing a uniform base in the development of heterogeneous solid modeling systems. It will also equip the solid modeler with the ability to integrate with other applications and process planning in the domain of layered manufacturing.
The bibliographic record is the link between the software packages discussed in this article: cataloguing and acquisitions. Cataloguing software ranges from sophisticated…
The bibliographic record is the link between the software packages discussed in this article: cataloguing and acquisitions. Cataloguing software ranges from sophisticated online public access catalogues to cheaper and simpler software designed to produce catalogue entries for an existing manual system (e.g. cards). The range of acquisitions software is equally wide encompassing packages which simply print an order from data which is keyed in to those which incorporate the whole process of acquisitions from the recommendation stage through to receipt and full fund accounting. This article, the fourth in the series, describes the different features with examples, and concludes with a discussion on the nature of integrated systems.
Metadata is a complex subject, and many of its complexities are extremely subtle. To further complicate matters, “metadata” has become an overloaded term, and is often…
Metadata is a complex subject, and many of its complexities are extremely subtle. To further complicate matters, “metadata” has become an overloaded term, and is often used in different contexts by different communities with different motivations. It is very easy to overlook this diversity of motivation since these communities share many of their tools and problems. This paper identifies three different such “schools” of metadata and discusses their history and motivations.
This article forms a revised and updated version of a lecture presented at the 59th IFLA Conference in Barcelona, 22–28 August 1993. The current flow of information in the acquisitions process is described, highlighting the duplication of effort involved; the ideal data flow is then presented. The aims of the EC‐funded EDILIBE project are reported, together with developments to date.
Global reach, together with rapidly increasing broadband coverage, makes the internet a potentially interesting distribution channel for video highlights and full-match…
Global reach, together with rapidly increasing broadband coverage, makes the internet a potentially interesting distribution channel for video highlights and full-match viewings. This study investigateswillingness to pay as well as consumer preferences for type of report to derive marketing implications for soccer clubs. Survey results from more than 12,000 respondents supporting seven soccer clubs in the German first and second divisions underline the potential of this new distribution channel in finding a high average willingness to pay.
This article reviews the present and expected future environments for network‐based electronic publishing and network access to bibliographic and journal databases…
This article reviews the present and expected future environments for network‐based electronic publishing and network access to bibliographic and journal databases. Emerging visions of “electronic libraries” are considered. The difficulties inherent in the development of full text and images as networked information are outlined. The growth and diversification of library collections in electronic form and the requisite network access systems are discussed, as are the prospect of increased resource sharing among libraries and the subsequent explosion of document delivery requests (and costs!). The issues of storage and format of electronic publishing are developed, and perspectives on electronic publishing are presented for all those involved: the author, the library, the reader, and the publisher. A change in the scope, and thereby in the definition, of the library is anticipated.
This paper presents a hybrid artificial intelligence (AI) system capable of integrating techniques of case‐based reasoning, rule induction and expert system, using them for knowledge acquisition and problem solving of selecting appropriate retaining wall systems at the project planning stage. The proposed hybrid system can eliminate the bottleneck of knowledge acquisition in developing a knowledge‐based system and improve the solution quality of the AI‐based system. Test results indicate that solutions generated by the proposed hybrid system are better than those generated by using a single technique.
The article is based on research carried out in 1995 on a sample of UK‐based retailers that were involved in international joint ventures and international buying…
The article is based on research carried out in 1995 on a sample of UK‐based retailers that were involved in international joint ventures and international buying alliances. The research identified the differences and comparison between these forms of alliances in terms of the competencies and skills that were being transferred between members of the alliances. The findings suggest that joint venture relationships appear to be closer and of a more strategic nature in achieving competitive advantage than buying alliances. Joint ventures appear to make a greater contribution to product strategy and learning than do alliances. However, little difference was found between the two alliance forms in terms of skill transfers.