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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1976

The Howard Shuttering Contractors case throws considerable light on the importance which the tribunals attach to warnings before dismissing an employee. In this case the…

Abstract

The Howard Shuttering Contractors case throws considerable light on the importance which the tribunals attach to warnings before dismissing an employee. In this case the tribunal took great pains to interpret the intention of the parties to the different site agreements, and it came to the conclusion that the agreed procedure was not followed. One other matter, which must be particularly noted by employers, is that where a final warning is required, this final warning must be “a warning”, and not the actual dismissal. So that where, for example, three warnings are to be given, the third must be a “warning”. It is after the employee has misconducted himself thereafter that the employer may dismiss.

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Managerial Law, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Book part
Publication date: 28 December 2013

Anna Hutchens

The evolution of the Fair Trade movement offers an apposite case through which to examine the idea of regulating risk through a “social sphere.” An analysis of Fair Trade

Abstract

The evolution of the Fair Trade movement offers an apposite case through which to examine the idea of regulating risk through a “social sphere.” An analysis of Fair Trade through the lens of “defiance” reveals discrete models and actors of risk regulation that evolve in an iterative fashion. These findings not only add complexity and heterogeneity to the social actors and mechanisms of regulation in the social sphere, but also highlight the challenges this diversity poses for the project of alleviating market risk. In turn, the framework of defiance offers a fertile analytical framework for the study of transnational risk regulation by capturing the dynamic actor and institutional complexities that underpin, and embody challenges for, the regulation of risk through the social sphere. The article begins with an overview of the Fair Trade movement and consideration of Fair Trade’s approach to regulating market risk. It then introduces the notion of defiance, focusing on two of its subtypes: game playing and resistance. Following a short overview of the methodological framework employed to analyze these dynamics, the third section applies these analytical categories of defiance to explore primary data gathered on Fair Trade’s evolution. The article shows that the motivational posture of game playing, through its continued experimentation and entrepreneurship in transnational risk regulation, is pregnant with potential to mitigate the risks generated by economic activity.

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From Economy to Society? Perspectives on Transnational Risk Regulation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-739-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1996

Carolyn Strong

Consumers of the 1990s are claimed to be caring, environmentally and socially aware and are demanding a say in the production, processing and resourcing of the products…

Abstract

Consumers of the 1990s are claimed to be caring, environmentally and socially aware and are demanding a say in the production, processing and resourcing of the products they regularly purchase. Hypothesizes that the environmentally‐aware consumer has become ethically aware and is joined by many other consumers who believe in the principles of fair trade. The increasingly well‐informed consumer is not only demanding fairly traded products, but is challenging manufacturers and retailers to guarantee the ethical claims they are making about their products. Reports on a survey to investigate the factors contributing to the development of ethical consumerism in the UK, and provides details of the integrating features which it finds. Discusses the implications of these for management.

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Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 14 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1997

Carolyn Strong

Suggests a number of features which characterize the manifestation of fair trade consumerism. Posits, however, that there are several problems which have hindered the…

Abstract

Suggests a number of features which characterize the manifestation of fair trade consumerism. Posits, however, that there are several problems which have hindered the translation of fair trade principles into consumer purchase behaviour. Discusses the issue that ecological marketing incorporates the people aspect of sustainability and the fact that the human component of production, manufacture and use have to be addressed alongside the well documented environmental factors of ozone depletion, global warming, deforestation, acid rain and so forth before sustainable development can be achieved. Addresses the fundamental problem of translating fair trade principles on to consumer purchase behaviour and the barrier of consumer recognition of the human element of the ecological marketing agenda.

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Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2003

Peter Jones, Daphne Comfort and David Hillier

The introduction of labelling initiatives has provided an opportunity to introduce fair trade food products to the vast majority of the UK consumers via conventional…

Abstract

The introduction of labelling initiatives has provided an opportunity to introduce fair trade food products to the vast majority of the UK consumers via conventional retail channels. This case study outlines the characteristics and development of the fair trade concept, reviews the extent to which the major food retailers have incorporated fair trade products into their offer and discusses some of the current issues surrounding fair trade food in retailing.

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British Food Journal, vol. 105 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 31 January 2018

Matthew Anderson

The purpose of this paper is to examine the historical position of the ethical consumer as a driver of change within the Fair Trade movement. Fair Trade was originally…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the historical position of the ethical consumer as a driver of change within the Fair Trade movement. Fair Trade was originally envisaged as a model of South-North trade; however, with Fair Trade labels now available to consumers in India, Brazil, South Africa and Kenya, the geographies of production and consumption appear increasingly fluid and dynamic.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a historical comparative case study approach this paper draws on the records and archives from eight leading Fair Trade organisations based in the UK.

Findings

The paper develops an exploratory framework based on an assessment of Fair Trade’s theory(ies) of change and the role of the ethical consumer as an agent of change. Four consumer narratives are identified: simpler living and moral action; co-operation and solidarity; consumer demand and choice; and citizen-consumers. The paper concludes by considering the implications for globalising the concept of the “citizen-consumer” and the (re)politicisation of Fair Trade consumption.

Research limitations/implications

Primary data collection was mainly based on UK organisations. Additional comparative studies could develop an understanding of the context and geographies of Fair Trade practices.

Practical implications

New and emerging Fair Trade markets may offer valuable areas of further study.

Social implications

Increased understanding of the drivers of social change may lead to improved decision-making by Fair Trade organisations and policy-makers.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the development and understanding of Fair Trade’s theory of change model by offering an historical dimension that is absent from the majority of existing studies.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 56 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2007

Iain A. Davies

This paper aims to investigate the increased mass‐marketing in the fair trade industry to provide a robust analysis of the industry, participants and growth for use both

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the increased mass‐marketing in the fair trade industry to provide a robust analysis of the industry, participants and growth for use both as a starting‐point for researchers in this field and as a case study for readers with an interest in any ethical trading initiative.

Design/methodology/approach

Utilizing data from a longitudinal exploratory research project, participant observation from two organizations and in‐depth interviews from a total of 15 organizations are combined to build a strong theory grounded in the data.

Findings

The paper provides insight into the nature of participants and industry structure in fair trade over time. Four distinct eras are identified which reflect both current literature and the practitioners' perspective. The four eras can be split into three extant eras – the solidarity era, niche‐market era, and mass‐market era, and the fourth – the institutionalisation era – depicts participants' beliefs about the future for the industry.

Research limitations/implications

The three principal theoretical contributions are the definitions which are provided for the different eras of the market's progression, the view of industry structure and the newly defined participants from both the commodity and under‐considered craft markets.

Practical implications

Practical contributions are provided since the paper offers a holistic view of the fair trade market, so acting as a starting‐point for those new to fair trade.

Originality/value

This paper provides deep empirically grounded theory from which fair trade research can grow. It also provides future insights from participants in the industry, advancing current theory.

Details

Corporate Governance: The international journal of business in society, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2012

Christina Stringer

The movement of profit‐orientated corporations into the fair trade value chain has caused some socially orientated fair trade organizations to question the direction the…

Abstract

Purpose

The movement of profit‐orientated corporations into the fair trade value chain has caused some socially orientated fair trade organizations to question the direction the movement is taking. One organization at the forefront of the debate is Trade Aid (NZ), Inc. (hereafter Trade Aid), a New Zealand based socially orientated fair trade organization actively engaged in fair trade since the 1970s. This paper seeks to evaluate how Trade Aid is seeking to reformulate fair trade's vision of empowerment and partnership constructively.

Design/methodology/approach

A single case study approach is undertaken to examine how a socially orientated organization is adhering to and seeking to advance fair trade values. This research draws from the global value chain literature, which analyses how industries are governed. The relational co‐ordination or governance mode, which is characteristic of mutual dependency between supplier and buyer firms, is used as a framework for investigating the fair trade industry. Distinction is made between the corporate and social economy variants of the relational governance mode.

Findings

Trade Aid's commitment to producer groups is demonstrated through various initiatives the organization is undertaking as they work both with producer groups and corporate actors to expand the fair trade market. Trade Aid is part of a worldwide socially orientated movement seeking to reformulate the vision of fair trade.

Originality/value

To date the fair trade literature has largely focused on socially orientated fair trade organizations in the Northern hemisphere. This research contributes to a gap in the literature in that it examines Trade Aid and the way this organization is addressing mainstreaming.

Details

Critical perspectives on international business, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2014

Claire Moxham and Katri Kauppi

This paper aims to use organisational theories to frame research questions examining how to embed social sustainability in supply chain management (SCM) by focusing on fair

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to use organisational theories to frame research questions examining how to embed social sustainability in supply chain management (SCM) by focusing on fair trade.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on previous organisational theory review papers in SCM, institutional theory and the extended resource-based view have been used as theoretical lenses to develop research questions for further studies.

Findings

The authors developed seven research questions that enable and encourage the further examination of the factors impacting fair trade supply chains, as well as identify approaches to improve social sustainability in SCM practice.

Social implications

As the aim of fair trade is to rebalance inequities inherent in North–South trading relationships, further work in this area has the potential for positive economic, environmental and social impact.

Originality/value

The paper discusses two key themes: whether fair trade is changing SCM practices, and whether fair trade is a source of competitive advantage in supply chains. Using established theory to develop research questions encourages further examination of this important topic.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2004

Peter Jones, Daphne Comfort and David Hillier

Looks at the so‐called 7Ps of the retail market in the United Kingdom: product, price, place, promotion, people, process and physical evidence, along with customer…

Abstract

Looks at the so‐called 7Ps of the retail market in the United Kingdom: product, price, place, promotion, people, process and physical evidence, along with customer service. Looks to address the issues of produce, placement, ethics and parasocial relationships, via a study of Fair Trade products in the UK retail marketplace. Defines what Fair Trade products are and how they are marketed in the UK. Sums up that it is in both retailers’ and consumers’ interests to build relationships with the growing Fair Trade ranges.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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