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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2021

Jie Wang and Xingteng Li

Given the huge investment and complexity of information technology, it is imperative that boards of directors fully play their important role in promoting firms' IT…

Abstract

Purpose

Given the huge investment and complexity of information technology, it is imperative that boards of directors fully play their important role in promoting firms' IT success. This study aims to investigate the effects of boards of directors' external ties on firms' IT success from the perspective of resource dependence theory.

Design/methodology/approach

According to the method of the matched sample comparison group, a total of 576 samples of listed enterprises in three periods were obtained.

Findings

Results show that both boards' political ties and boards' business ties have a positive impact on firms' IT success. Environmental uncertainty and the institutional environment play different roles in the relationships between two types of external ties and firms' IT success. Specifically, the results show that the institutional environment can regulate the influence of the political association of directors on firms' IT success negatively. In addition, environmental uncertainty regulates the influence of directors' political association on firms' IT success negatively, as well as the influence of directors' commercial association with firms' IT success.

Research limitations/implications

The external ties were measured by cross-sectional data. And the current study focused on two fundamental types of external ties.

Originality/value

Boards' external ties are studied from both political and business perspectives, and the effects of these two types of external ties on firms' IT success are compared. Additionally, the moderating effects of the institutional environment (macro level) and environmental uncertainty (micro level) in these relationships are investigated.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 24 October 2018

Lobone Lloyd Kasale, Mathieu Winand and Leigh Robinson

Organisational performance of sport organisations has been studied over the last three decades. However, little attention was paid towards performance management (PM…

Abstract

Purpose

Organisational performance of sport organisations has been studied over the last three decades. However, little attention was paid towards performance management (PM) compared to performance measurement. The purpose of this paper is to close this research gap by establishing a holistic perspective for PM of National Sports Organisations (NSOs) that accounts for their uniqueness, the interdependence of their operating systems and their relationship with their environments. Furthermore, this paper presents a holistic model of PM for NSOs.

Design/methodology/approach

The model was developed from a literature review process and uses the macro, meso and micro framework to describe external and internal environmental influences that affect the PM of NSOs.

Findings

The NSO’s ability to respond to the dynamics of their external environment by implementing organisational processes that account for the resources available and their structural designs influences their PM. Furthermore, the ability of the individuals within NSO to create enabling environments for PM influences organisational efficiency and effectiveness.

Research limitations/implications

This paper contributes to sport management literature on the PM of NSOs, and informs sport managers on ways to improve organisational performance by implementing holistic approaches to PM.

Originality/value

This is the first study that takes a holistic approach to PM of NSO and depicts the specific elements that play a crucial role in managing NSO’s multi-dimensional performance.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 8 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 5 November 2019

Erik Alda and Lucia Dammert

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of external factors on police efficiency in a sample of Peru’s municipalities. Drawing on the postulates of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of external factors on police efficiency in a sample of Peru’s municipalities. Drawing on the postulates of the contingency theory of organizations, this study argues that because of the public nature of police organizations’ activities, they are heavily influenced by the environment in which they operate, which invariably affects their efficiency.

Design/methodology/approach

The study examines police efficiency using a four-stage Data Envelopment Analysis model in a sample of 619 Peruvian municipalities (“distritos”). After adjusting the inputs to the external environment, the remaining inefficiencies are presumed to result from managerial issues and other internal organizational factors.

Findings

The results indicate that police efficiency improves after adjusting police inputs to the effect of external factors. The mean efficiency scores improved by 39 percent from 0.57 to 0.79. Because the effects of the external environment can be stronger in larger municipalities, these experience larger improvements in efficiency than smaller municipalities.

Research limitations/implications

There are two important limitations. First, the sample of municipalities in Peru is limited and the results must be interpreted with caution. In addition, the external factors included in the second stage analysis represent only a proportion of all potential external factors which can influence police efficiency. Second, the results presented here explain only one aspect of contingency theory. An important implication of this study suggests that for police managers to make more informed decisions on resource use and allocations, they need a more thorough understanding of the environments in which police operate.

Social implications

It can assist researchers to ascertain the effects of the external environment on police performance. More importantly, it can assist police managers in making informed decisions about resource use and allocation. Consequently, a better use of resources could lead to better policing and improved citizen safety and security.

Originality/value

This study introduces a new and innovative methodological approach to measure police performance. This multi-stage approach has not been used in the context of democratic policing in Latin America and the Caribbean. The current research fills an important gap on how to measure police performance in developing countries.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 42 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Constant D. Beugré, William Acar and William Braun

The purpose of this article is to analyze the impact of the external environment on the emergence of particular forms of transformational leadership.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to analyze the impact of the external environment on the emergence of particular forms of transformational leadership.

Design/methodology/approach

To develop a conceptual model, the extant literature on environment and transformational leadership was used. Specifically, the focus was on the constructs of volatility of the external environment, environmental uncertainty, and existing models of transformational leadership.

Findings

In this article, an environment‐induced model of transformational leadership was developed, which identifies three types of transformational leaders – revolutionary, evolutionary and transgressor. Revolutionary transformational leaders are likely to emerge in organizations operating in volatile environments and whose members show either a high or a low degree of receptivity. However, evolutionary‐transformational leaders are likely to emerge in less volatile environments whose members show a high degree of receptivity, and transgressor‐transformational leaders would emerge in less volatile environments whose members show a low degree of receptivity.

Research limitations/implications

This model is a conceptual one and has not been empirically validated yet. However, the model's propositions have implications for research. Organizational scholars may empirically test the extent to which firms' external environments influence the types of transformational leaders that emerge within them. They may also assess the extent to which the external environment facilitates employee acceptance of particular forms of transformational leadership.

Practical implications

Knowing the external environment of a firm may help select the appropriate type of leaders needed to move the organization ahead. For instance, when organizations face high volatile environments, they may be well advised to select revolutionary‐transformational leaders as CEOs or change agents.

Originality/value

The value of the present article lies in the fact that it binds together the literature on the firm external environment and transformational leadership. Thus, the article helps reduce the artificial boundary between macro and micro issues in the study of organizations.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 20 February 2018

Anthony Alexander, Maneesh Kumar and Helen Walker

The purpose of this paper is to apply the aspects of decision theory (DT) to performance measurement and management (PMM), thereby enabling the theoretical elaboration of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to apply the aspects of decision theory (DT) to performance measurement and management (PMM), thereby enabling the theoretical elaboration of volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity in the business environment, which are identified as barriers to effective PMM.

Design/methodology/approach

A review of decision theory and PMM literature establishes the Cynefin framework as the basis for extending the performance alignment matrix. Case research with seven companies explores the relationship between two concepts under-examined in the performance alignment matrix – internal dominant logic (DL) as the attribute of organisational culture affecting decision making, and the external environment – in line with the concept of alignment or fit in PMM. A focus area is PMM related to sustainable operations and sustainable supply chain management.

Findings

Alignment between DL, external environment and PMM is found, as are instances of misalignment. The Cynefin framework offers a deeper theoretical explanation about the nature of this alignment. Other findings consider the nature of organisational ownership on DL.

Research limitations/implications

The cases are exploratory not exhaustive, and limited in number. Organisations showing contested logic were excluded.

Practical implications

Some organisations have cultures of predictability and control; others have cultures that recognise their external environment as fundamentally unpredictable, and hence there is a need for responsive, decentralised PMM. Some have sought to change their culture and PMM. Being attentive to how cultural logic affects decision making can help reduce the misalignment in PMM.

Originality/value

A novel contribution is made by applying decision theory to PMM, extending the theoretical depth of the subject.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 38 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2013

Elisa Vuori, Sanna Mutka, Pertti Aaltonen and Karlos Artto

The requirements of various participants of a project may conflict with the strategy of the project's parent organization and, consequently, the project may form its…

Abstract

Purpose

The requirements of various participants of a project may conflict with the strategy of the project's parent organization and, consequently, the project may form its individual strategy independently, to better align with the factors in its environment. The purpose of this paper is to describe the formation of the strategy of a project as a response to the project's environment, providing insight into a project's strategy formation, where the project does not merely reflect the strategy of the parent but where the parent is only one influential actor (of many) in the project's environment.

Design/methodology/approach

To increase understanding of the relationship between the project's environment, the strategy of the project‐based firm and the strategy formation of a project, the authors analyze a project of a metallurgy firm in an empirical case study. The authors use project literature and corporate venturing literature, look for the dimensions of project strategy and the factors in the project's environment and study how the factors in the environment shape the project's strategy.

Findings

The analysis suggests that factors in the internal and external environments affect the strategy formation with varying strength. The strategy of the case project was formed in micro‐level iterative processes, in interaction between dimensions of strategy of the project and factors in environment. The empirical case study suggests that a project initiated with strong influence of external factors has to face contradiction between the strategy and related influential factors in the parent organization of the project.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to our understanding of how the strategy of an individual project is formed through micro‐level processes that are related to external and internal factors that affect the strategy formation.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

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Article
Publication date: 25 October 2011

Christopher Williams and Brigitte Ecker

The purpose of this paper is to investigate researchers' operationalization of the construct of embedment of overseas R&D subsidiaries.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate researchers' operationalization of the construct of embedment of overseas R&D subsidiaries.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the paper provides a systematic literature review of subsidiary embedment research. Second, it draws on resource dependence theory (RDT) and argues how embedment of overseas R&D subsidiaries should be treated as a more multi‐faceted and complex phenomenon than has been apparent in the literature to date.

Findings

The authors find a large variation in the operationalization of embedment (e.g. frequency of communication versus depth of integration versus direction of communication). They also find scant attention to the nature of differences between external actors (types of actors, including local and international). These represent weaknesses that inhibit the advancement of theory and policy within the context of the globalization of innovation.

Research limitations/implications

Researchers should treat R&D subsidiary embedment as a multi‐level phenomenon consisting of resource‐dependence interactions between collective entities internal and external to the subsidiary. R&D subsidiary embedment research design can be improved by being: formative; multiple‐actor; bi‐directional; and longitudinal.

Practical implications

Managers should treat external R&D subsidiary embedment as pattern of resource dependencies in which the actors that matter most to R&D subsidiary performance are a function of the importance and availability of the innovation‐specific resources they contain. This involves building a capability in multi‐level networking with R&D resource providers in the external environment.

Originality/value

The contribution of the current paper is to provide a critical evaluation of scholarly treatment of the construct of R&D subsidiary embedment, and to develop a foundation for operationalizing and analyzing the external embedment of R&D subsidiaries.

Details

Critical perspectives on international business, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 27 April 2004

Morris Zelditch

Three theories of legitimacy – Dornbusch and Scott’s “Evaluation and the Exercise of authority” (EEA), Walker and Zelditch’s “Legitimacy and the Stability of Authority”…

Abstract

Three theories of legitimacy – Dornbusch and Scott’s “Evaluation and the Exercise of authority” (EEA), Walker and Zelditch’s “Legitimacy and the Stability of Authority” (LSA), and Meyer and Rowan’s “Institutonalized Organizations” (IO) – are integrated into a single consistent theory interrelating the internal and external legitimacy processes of organizations. One consequence of IO, the decoupling of sanctions, evaluations, and performance, contradicts EEA and LSA. The contradiction is addressed by aligning the scope of the three theories, which proves to be the source of the contradiction, accommodating their principles to the change in their scope. Translating their terms into a single, consistent language, auxiliary principles are formulated that interrelate their legitimacy processes and conditionalize pressures for evaluation and control and therefore the decoupling of sanctions, evaluations, and performance – the conditions depending on type of environment, extent of dependence on it, and its organization. Integration does not alter the basic principles of EEA or IO but does correct LSA’s over-estimation of the stability of authority and provides IO with a mechanism by which and refines the conditions under which sanctions, evaluations, and performance come to be decoupled.

Details

Legitimacy Processes in Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-008-1

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Article
Publication date: 7 February 2017

Karlos Artto, Tuomas Ahola, Riikka Kyrö and Antti Peltokorpi

The purpose of this paper is to increase understanding of the logic of business network formation among the co-located and external actors of a facility.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to increase understanding of the logic of business network formation among the co-located and external actors of a facility.

Design/methodology/approach

The research adopts a theory-building approach through developing propositions inductively from the empirical case study on four purposefully sampled modern service station facilities. The focus is on analyzing how a facility and its inherent co-located actors represent an entity that forms a business network with external actors in the facility’s environment.

Findings

The findings propose that when co-located with a large number of actors, the facility and its actors represent an entity that is connected to a wide business network of multiple external actors. On the other hand, when co-located with a small number of actors, the facility becomes a part of the overall supply in the surrounding business environment with a differentiated offering for competitive advantage.

Practical implications

The research suggests that an appropriate co-locating strategy, for example, when planning the tenant mix of the facility, can contribute to creating a vivid business network in the external environment, which raises the facility to a role of a central entity in such a network.

Originality/value

The findings explaining how co-location affects the businesses within the facility and within a wider networked environment are novel to the scholarly knowledge on co-location. The research bridges the theories of co-location and business networks that have been treated as separate discourses in previous research.

Details

Facilities, vol. 35 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article
Publication date: 27 June 2019

Heesup Han, Hyoungeun Moon and Sunghyup Sean Hyun

This paper aims to examine the relationship of internal/external physical environments and emotional well-being and to explore the possible influence of such an…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the relationship of internal/external physical environments and emotional well-being and to explore the possible influence of such an association with guest satisfaction and retention considering the moderating role of price perception in the luxury resort hotel context.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 603 responses were gathered from a field survey at luxury resort hotels. The data were analyzed using quantitative data analyses to achieve research objectives.

Findings

The results from the structural model assessment revealed that both internal and external physical environments elicited emotional well-being, which in turn leads to the increased guest satisfaction and retention. More specifically, internal atmospherics had a stronger impact on triggering subsequent variables compared to external environment factors. The outcomes also indicated the significant mediating role of emotional well-being and satisfaction. Emotional well-being was found to mediate the effect of internal and external physical environments on guest satisfaction, while guest satisfaction mediated the effect of emotional well-being on guest retention. Moreover, price perception significantly moderated the guest satisfaction–guest retention association. Overall, the proposed conceptual framework satisfactorily accounted for variance in guest retention.

Originality/value

The findings help practitioners in luxury resort hotels to develop ways to boost guests’ post-purchase behaviors by using internal/external atmospherics and emotional well-being.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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