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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Doaa El-Diftar, Eleri Jones, Mohamed Ragheb and Mohamed Soliman

Disclosure and transparency are major pillars of corporate governance which need to be greatly promoted in Egypt. This research aims to understand how different kinds of…

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1424

Abstract

Purpose

Disclosure and transparency are major pillars of corporate governance which need to be greatly promoted in Egypt. This research aims to understand how different kinds of institutional investors affect levels of voluntary disclosure and transparency.

Design/methodology/approach

The research was conducted on the most active Egyptian companies over a period of five years. A voluntary disclosure checklist was first developed to assess levels of voluntary disclosure and transparency.

Findings

Empirical results support significant positive impacts of both bank ownership and foreign ownership on voluntary disclosure and transparency. Among the four firm characteristics controlled for in the research, firm size was the only one with a highly significant positive impact on voluntary disclosure and transparency.

Research limitations/implications

The results of this research may not be generalized to all companies, as it was only conducted on the most active firms on the Egyptian Exchange. Therefore, it is recommended that future researches integrate a more diversified sample.

Practical implications

The research provides empirical evidence that institutional investors are not a homogeneous group and that different kinds of institutional ownership impact differently on voluntary disclosure and transparency. As such, some institutional investors are more influential than others when it comes to increasing corporate voluntary disclosure and transparency and in reducing agency problems.

Originality/value

This research offers assistance to policy makers interested in enhancing corporate disclosure and transparency. It is particularly important during any adjustment to ownership policies in Egypt.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2020

Sam Alfoqahaa and Eleri Jones

Building on the contributions of chaos and complexity theories, this paper aims to conceptualize how the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King and Nelson…

Abstract

Purpose

Building on the contributions of chaos and complexity theories, this paper aims to conceptualize how the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King and Nelson Mandela were able to transform chaos (randomness) into order (integration). More specifically, it aims to identify the qualities by which such leadership worked in the context of conflict and cultural confrontations, which is, leading at the edge of chaos.

Design/methodology/approach

This research follows a qualitative approach in data collection and analysis; it narrates and analyses biographic data as well as literature about these three prominent leaders. Common qualities of these leaders are explored in-depth, discussed and linked.

Findings

Success in leading at the edge of chaos was attributed to the following leadership qualities: vision, non-violence and tolerance. This paper conceptualizes Gandhi, King and Mandela's embodiment of these qualities in transforming difference and disagreement to unity and how they inspired and developed their societies at home and all over the world. This paper concludes with the following results: Dr King, Gandhi and Mandela were visionary leaders; the three leaders had a vision about the future of freedom, equality and peace. More importantly, they were able to hearts and minds, and convey their visions to followers and to society at large. They struggled to achieve their goals non-violently, but knew that violence could destroy society due to unbalanced power structures. In the fight for their people's emancipation/freedom, they avoided ethnic, racial and religious discrimination. The three leaders were politically, culturally and socially tolerant.

Research limitations/implications

By identifying their leadership qualities and analyzing their leadership mechanisms, this paper stresses the necessity of the emergence and preservation of leadership as exhibited by King, Gandhi, Mandela and many other influential leaders. Leaders, committed to enrichment and sustainability of cultural diversity and nurturing of tolerance, can play a role in unifying nations. Practically put, today’s leaders need to rethink their strategies, by taking into consideration what Gandhi, King and Mandela have contributed to leadership in dealing with cultural diversity and conflict. Furthermore, leaders must extend the applicability of such leadership to include the ending of violence in every facet of people's lives, and work publicly to overcome the challenges encountering human kind such as nuclear weapons, war, poverty, racism, global warming, drugs, religious bigotry and violence of any kind. That is, today's leaders need to lead at the edge of chaos due to the ongoing conflicts around the globe.

Originality/value

This paper uniquely conceptualizes leadership qualities by analyzing and comparing literature and biographical data of the above-mentioned leaders. The study also contributes to the existing literature on leadership using an interdisciplinary approach by proving the mechanisms by which leadership transforms chaos into order within the context of cultural diversity and confrontation, where studies are rare. This research contributes to the theory of leaderships at three levels. First, it offers an interdisciplinary theory on leadership qualities by linking these qualities with chaos and complexity theories. Second, unlike the majority of literature which views leadership from a business or public leadership perspective, this research provides a new perspective of leadership for cultural diversity. Third, it highlights the role models of three exemplary leaders for each of whom previous literature is lacking.

Details

International Journal of Public Leadership, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4929

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2018

Ayman Safi Abdelhakim, Eleri Jones, Elizabeth C. Redmond, Christopher J. Griffith and Mahmoud Hewedi

The purpose of this paper is to explore the evaluation of cabin crew food safety training using the Kirkpatrick model.

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1138

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the evaluation of cabin crew food safety training using the Kirkpatrick model.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a snowballing technique, 26 cabin crew, managers, supervisors and trainers participated in in-depth, semi-structured interviews. Summative content analysis was used to evaluate the data.

Findings

In total, 26 respondents from 20 international airlines participated in the study. All respondents agreed that evaluating cabin crew food safety/hygiene issues is important in relation to in-flight food handling; for example, “Training evaluation helps in the improvement of the future training”; “We have an end of course feedback form, either done electronically or on paper and that looks at how the delegates felt the training went, if they came away learning something new, if the environment for learning was right, all sorts of things; the questionnaire is quite comprehensive”; and “Every trainee is given a feedback form to complete”. However, significant failures in food safety training and its evaluation were identified.

Research limitations/implications

The evaluation of cabin crew food safety training shows that it is ineffective in some aspects, including learning achieved and behavioural change, and these can directly impact on the implementation of food safety practices. Evaluation failures may be due to the lack of available time in relation to other cabin crew roles. Further research may consider using a larger sample size, evaluating training effectiveness using social cognition models and assessments of airline and cabin crew food safety culture.

Originality/value

This is the first study that evaluates cabin crew food safety training using the Kirkpatrick model. The findings provide an understanding of the current evaluation of cabin crew food safety training and can be used by airlines for improving and developing effective future food safety training programmes. This, in turn, may reduce the risk of passenger and crew foodborne disease.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2015

Mohamed Ahmed, Eleri Jones, Elizabeth Redmond, Mahmoud Hewedi, Andreas Wingert and Mohamed Gad El Rab

– The purpose of this paper is to apply value stream mapping holistically to hospital food production/service systems focused on high-quality food.

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2176

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to apply value stream mapping holistically to hospital food production/service systems focused on high-quality food.

Design/methodology/approach

Multiple embedded case study of three (two private-sector and one public-sector) hospitals in the UK.

Findings

The results indicated various issues affecting hospital food production including: the menu and nutritional considerations; food procurement; food production; foodservice; patient perceptions/expectations.

Research limitations/implications

Value stream mapping is a new approach for food production systems in UK hospitals whether private or public hospitals.

Practical implications

The paper identifies opportunities for enhancing hospital food production systems.

Originality/value

The paper provides a theoretical basis for process enhancement of hospital food production and the provision of high-quality hospital food.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

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Article
Publication date: 20 April 2015

Rafik Fakhry Omar and Eleri Jones

This study aims to evaluate the compliance of online Islamic FOREX products with Islamic jurisprudence principles and determines the degree of similarity or difference…

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2199

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to evaluate the compliance of online Islamic FOREX products with Islamic jurisprudence principles and determines the degree of similarity or difference between Islamic and conventional FOREX products.

Design/methodology/approach

This study involves the collection and analysis of secondary data from online sources (i.e. four Islamic FOREX Web sites selected on the basis that they appeared on two Islamic FOREX Web site lists) It also undertakes content analysis of the rulings of jurisprudence scholars on one of the Web sites.

Findings

There is no evidence to suggest that the technical processes underpinning current Islamic FOREX products are any different to those underpinning conventional FOREX products. Also there are major contradiction and ambiguities in the rulings offered by the jurisprudence scholars about the permissibility of the products.

Research limitations/implications

The study relies on the analysis of secondary data. Further research that will involve interviews with banking industry employees in both conventional and Islamic banking sectors would provide a better understanding of: how financial products are created and managed and the role of bank regulations in creating and managing different financial products.

Practical implications

It would seem that Islamic FOREX is simply rebranding of conventional FOREX. The paper calls for a modern-day definition of usury (riba).

Social implications

The way Islamic FOREX is marketed today to online users as synonymous with gambling, and, although branded as Islamic, the actual technical processes that underpin Islamic FOREX products are the same as conventional FOREX products and therefore not compliant with Islamic principles.

Originality/value

This research explores the marketing of Islamic FOREX products.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2012

Abu Elnasr E. Sobaih, Caroline Ritchie and Eleri Jones

The Delphi technique is used to achieve consensus among experts and/or gain judgment on complex matters. This paper aims to discuss the classical Delphi and its advantages…

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1954

Abstract

Purpose

The Delphi technique is used to achieve consensus among experts and/or gain judgment on complex matters. This paper aims to discuss the classical Delphi and its advantages and disadvantages in qualitative research, particularly in hospitality.

Design/methodology/approach

The classical Delphi is characterized by the involvement of experts and its iterative nature. In an industry with high turnover and limited pools of specialist expertise this can lead to problems of attrition and management of the process. The paper presents two qualitative hospitality research case studies in which the classical Delphi is successfully modified to overcome its limitations.

Findings

Identifying potential problems early in the research process enables critical design decisions to be made. Case one used a parallel expert group with similar experience to develop a research instrument for a limited number of prestigious experts well‐acquainted with one another who might have reached specious consensus through channels not accessible to the researcher. Case two enabled the addition of new experts to an expert panel to overcome attrition in successive Delphi rounds.

Practical implications

Despite its growing popularity in social science, Delphi has rarely been used in qualitative hospitality research. The modifications suggested in this paper can enhance the robustness of the classical Delphi technique for qualitative hospitality research.

Originality/value

The paper shows how the classical Delphi technique can be successfully modified for use in qualitative hospitality research.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 24 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2014

Ibrahim Giritlioglu, Eleri Jones and Cevdet Avcikurt

The aim of this study was three-fold: first, to develop an instrument to evaluate food and beverage service quality in spa hotels; second, to identify aspects of food and…

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10469

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study was three-fold: first, to develop an instrument to evaluate food and beverage service quality in spa hotels; second, to identify aspects of food and beverage service quality of which customers had the highest expectations, i.e. the key dimensions of food and beverage service quality in spa hotels; third, to measure customer perceptions of the spa hotels in this study and to identify those dimensions with the largest gap between customer expectations and perceptions.

Design/methodology/approach

A self-administrated questionnaire was distributed to 331 customers at four different spa hotels in Balikesir, Turkey. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was used to identify service quality dimensions. Cronbach Alpha indicated the reliability of the factors identified. Customer expectations, perceptions and gaps between expectations and perceptions for each dimension were measured.

Findings

Factor analysis revealed six quality dimensions: “assurance and employee knowledge”; “healthy and attractive food”; “empathy”; “tangibles”; “responsiveness of service delivery”; “reliability”. Customer expectations were highest for “tangibles” and “assurance and employee knowledge”. The largest gaps between perceptions and expectations were for “healthy and attractive food” and “tangibles”.

Practical implications

Key dimensions for food and beverage service quality in spa hotels were identified and a reliable instrument for measuring provision was developed. This should be applied by managers on an ongoing basis to evaluate their performance and give them a better understanding of food and beverage service quality in spa hotels. The study provides specific information on the performance of Turkish spa hotels in relation to food and beverage service quality.

Originality/value

This research addresses the paucity of research on customer perspectives of food and beverage provision in spa hotels and contributes to enhanced understanding of spa tourists and their expectations and perceptions of the service quality of food and beverage service quality.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 4 February 2014

Fevzi Okumus

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127

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2013

Graham F. Moore, Lawrence Raisanen, Laurence Moore, Nafees Ud Din and Simon Murphy

Primary-care referral to community-based exercise specialists (exercise referral) is common in the UK despite limited evidence of effectiveness. A recent pragmatic…

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1890

Abstract

Purpose

Primary-care referral to community-based exercise specialists (exercise referral) is common in the UK despite limited evidence of effectiveness. A recent pragmatic randomised trial of the Welsh National Exercise Referral Scheme (NERS), demonstrated promising impacts upon physical activity and mental health. This paper presents a mixed-method process evaluation exploring how outcomes were achieved.

Design/methodology/approach

Structured observation, implementer interviews and routine data assessed the extent to which NERS was implemented as intended. Baseline trial data were combined with routine monitoring data for the purposes of profiling uptake and adherence. Semi-structured patient interviews explored processes of change and the emergence of social patterning in responses to the scheme.

Findings

NERS offered patients a programme of supervised, group-based discounted exercise. However, motivational interviewing, goal-setting and patient follow-up protocols were delivered poorly. The high degree of professional support was perceived as helping patients to build confidence and assimilate into exercise environments. Patient-only classes provided social contacts, a supportive context and realistic models. Patterning in uptake emerged from access issues, with uptake lower among non-car owners. Adherence was poorer among mental health patients, younger patients and those who were least active prior to referral to NERS.

Originality/value

In practice, although the NERS RCT demonstrated positive impacts on physical activity and mental health, process evaluation data indicate that the intervention was not entirely delivered as intended. Mixed-method process evaluation served crucial functions in understanding implementation and functioning, offering insights into the roles of professional support and exercise classes in promoting activity and mental health, and the emergence of social patterning in responses to an ERS.

Details

Health Education, vol. 113 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1997

Hazel O. Jackson and Nicolla Ross

The effect that the image of the fashion model had on consumer perceptions of a product was explored. An image of models typically found in fashion advertisements…

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2043

Abstract

The effect that the image of the fashion model had on consumer perceptions of a product was explored. An image of models typically found in fashion advertisements (mainstream models) and three different images of fashion models (older, larger and African‐American peripheral models) which were less frequently used in fashion advertisements, were presented as the stimulus. Stimulus photographs and the Perception of Advertisement Scale were used to investigate the impressions consumers formed toward the model. Hypotheses 1, 2 and 3 were partially accepted. Results revealed that: (1) mainstream and African‐American models were rated far more favourably for attractiveness; (2) the product (a pair of gold earrings) was thought to reflect the personality of older, larger and African‐American models but not the mainstream model (respondents tended to be indifferent to the product); and (3) respondents tended to find the older model more credible than other models. Implications for peripheral market segments are given.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

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