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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2022

Christoph Küffner, Matthias Kopyto, Annika Judith Wohlleber and Evi Hartmann

COVID-19 has highlighted the need to reflect on how firms should improve their supply chains (SCs) to enhance agility and robustness. Recent studies focus more on the…

Abstract

Purpose

COVID-19 has highlighted the need to reflect on how firms should improve their supply chains (SCs) to enhance agility and robustness. Recent studies focus more on the short-term rather than on the long-term developments and lack insights regarding the enhancement of supply chain resilience (SCRES) based on the interplay between multiple levers. Therefore, using a long-term perspective, this research evaluates the interaction between three SCRES levers – relationships, technologies and organizational structures – to improve SCRES.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on an extensive literature review, multiple interviews and workshops, 13 future projections were developed. These projections were assessed using a two-round Delphi study that included 83 international experts from industry, academia and politics/associations to determine the probability of occurrence by 2035, their impact on SCRES and their desirability.

Findings

This study provides empirical evidence that the long-term enhancement of SCRES is achieved through the interplay of multiple levers rather than unilateral optimization. The study suggests that, by 2035, collaboration between SC partners will be a key factor for SCRES enhancement. Additionally, SC stakeholders should be aware that failing to invest in digital technologies will negatively impact the agility and robustness of future SCs. Furthermore, humans are expected to continue to play a major role, given that relationship-oriented tasks are perceived to remain important.

Originality/value

This paper adds to current literature, describing how SCRES can be improved in the long term through the interplay of multiple levers and the combination of robust and agile elements. Considering the importance of ensuring resilient SCs, this paper provides valuable insights for academics and practitioners.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1995

Robert W. Stone and David J. Good

Examines the value of expert systems in marketing organizationsthrough a national mail survey of 117 marketing executives. All theexamined respondents reported the…

1158

Abstract

Examines the value of expert systems in marketing organizations through a national mail survey of 117 marketing executives. All the examined respondents reported the successful use of expert systems in their organizations. The results indicate that while expert systems provide operational benefits (e.g. they assist in making decisions more quickly), they also present new problems (e.g. increased security needs) that the adopting organization must consider. Based on these results, discusses implications for managers regarding the encouragement of the adoption and use of expert systems. Also presents questions concerning expert systems which require additional investigation.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 95 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1992

Anne Morris

The LIS profession is beginning to place expert systems in perspective. Expert systems are no longer heralded as being the only necessary tool but rather one tool among an…

Abstract

The LIS profession is beginning to place expert systems in perspective. Expert systems are no longer heralded as being the only necessary tool but rather one tool among an array of several. LIS educators are realistic, both about expert systems technology and about what can be achieved within the limitations of an LIS course. New technologies for refining and controlling information are constantly emerging; LIS schools have to keep up‐to‐date with them as they emerge, but they must also ensure that they do not overprioritize one particular development at the expense of others. They can, at best, only hope to give a taste of the possibilities and potential in different areas. Expert systems are still new enough to warrant special treatment but no doubt they will be ousted by newer technologies in the course of time. Meanwhile, LIS professionals should make the most of what is currently available. Hopefully it should pay dividends in the future.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 10 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1990

Jonathan Barker

Expert systems are frequently mentioned inbusiness circles these days. They have the potentialto assist greatly in the dissemination of scarce orcomplex expertise. But…

Abstract

Expert systems are frequently mentioned in business circles these days. They have the potential to assist greatly in the dissemination of scarce or complex expertise. But although they can be immensely valuable if properly understood, developed and used, they can also be a waste of resources. Aimed at managers who feel the need to know more about expert systems, but who are not themselves computing specialists, what an expert system is and is not is explained. The types of application for which it is suitable, and who is most likely to find the time, trouble and expense of creating one that is most worthwhile is discussed. Different types of expert system are explained, and the means and merits of prototyping are outlined. In order to have a successful expert system, certain essentials are required: a subject area which can be suitably defined; an expert who can provide the knowledge; users who know what they want and how they want to use it; a knowledge engineer who can translate the expertise into facts and rules for the system. A short but useful glossary of technical terms which may be encountered in the world of expert systems is included.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1987

Dimitris N. Chorafas

Expert systems are computer software packages that experts in specific fields enrich with their knowledge by distilling their expertise into a set of laws for the system…

Abstract

Expert systems are computer software packages that experts in specific fields enrich with their knowledge by distilling their expertise into a set of laws for the system. The development of expert systems and the contribution they can provide in banks, whereby financial experts can produce application programmes to help lesser experts solve problems in specialised fields by responding to program queries, eg. with regard to loan approval, cross‐selling, risk analysis, treasury operations and so on, are discussed.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1997

Matt Eppinette, R. Anthony Inman and Roger Alan Pick

Argues that expert systems are a useful tool in implementing quality customer service. Examines seven steps of customer service and illustrates how expert systems can…

1920

Abstract

Argues that expert systems are a useful tool in implementing quality customer service. Examines seven steps of customer service and illustrates how expert systems can support each step. Draws on the literature in the field to cite commercial installations of expert systems to support quality customer service.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 97 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 July 2009

Shi‐Woei Lin and Chih‐Hsing Cheng

The purpose of this paper is to compare various linear opinion pooling models for aggregating probability judgments and to determine whether Cooke's performance weighting…

621

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare various linear opinion pooling models for aggregating probability judgments and to determine whether Cooke's performance weighting model can sift out better calibrated experts and produce better aggregated distribution.

Design/methodology/approach

The leave‐one‐out cross‐validation technique is adopted to perform an out‐of‐sample comparison of Cooke's classical model, the equal weight linear pooling method, and the best expert approach.

Findings

Both aggregation models significantly outperform the best expert approach, indicating the need for inputs from multiple experts. The performance score for Cooke's classical model drops considerably in out‐of‐sample analysis, indicating that Cooke's performance weight approach might have been slightly overrated before, and the performance weight aggregation method no longer dominantly outperforms the equal weight linear opinion pool.

Research limitations/implications

The results show that using seed questions to sift out better calibrated experts may still be a feasible approach. However, because the superiority of Cooke's model as discussed in previous studies can no longer be claimed, whether the cost of extra efforts used in generating and evaluating seed questions is justifiable remains a question.

Originality/value

Understanding the performance of various models for aggregating experts' probability judgments is critical for decision and risk analysis. Furthermore, the leave‐one‐out cross‐validation technique used in this study achieves more objective evaluations than previous studies.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1993

Mohammed H. A. Tafti and Ehsan Nikbakht

Neural networks and expert systems are two major branches ofartificial intelligence (AI). Their emergence has created the potentialfor a new generation of computer‐based…

Abstract

Neural networks and expert systems are two major branches of artificial intelligence (AI). Their emergence has created the potential for a new generation of computer‐based applications in the area of financial decision making. Both systems are used by financial institutions and corporations for a variety of new applications from credit scoring to bond rating to detection of credit card fraud. While both systems belong to the applied field of artificial intelligence, there are many differences between them which differentiate their potential capabilities in the field of business. Presents an analysis of both neural networks and expert systems applications in terms of their capabilities and weaknesses. Uses examples of financial applications of expert systems and neural networks to provide a unified context for the comparison.

Details

Information Management & Computer Security, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-5227

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1992

Paul Handford and Patrick Ellum

Discusses the importance of the expert witness in constructiondisputes between a building′s owner and the contractor and engineer.Examines the technical issues the judge…

Abstract

Discusses the importance of the expert witness in construction disputes between a building′s owner and the contractor and engineer. Examines the technical issues the judge must resolve, the things involved in being an expert witness, and the qualities an expert witness should possess. Concludes that the expert witness should have the ability to advise the client, and should leave the team if the evidence cannot assist the client.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 October 2013

Vitaliy V. Tsyganok

– The paper's aim is to design and describe a new mathematical ware instrument allowing to facilitate group decision-making process with feedback.

176

Abstract

Purpose

The paper's aim is to design and describe a new mathematical ware instrument allowing to facilitate group decision-making process with feedback.

Design/methodology/approach

The aim is achieved through the development of a method for achieving sufficient consistency of individual expert alternative rankings based on evolutionary algorithms. The method is targeted at minimizing the number of times the experts in the group are addressed.

Findings

The method developed and described in the paper allows to provide sufficient consistency level of individual expert rankings allowing to aggregate the rankings into a transitive preference relation.

Research limitations/implications

The method is targeted at small expert groups. The method is limited by psycho-physiological constraints of human (expert's) mind, which is unable to analyze more than seven objects simultaneously.

Practical implications

The method can be used in different scopes of human activity requiring ordinal expert estimation.

Originality/value

The method is based on an original approach to organising feedback with experts. Genetic algorithm is used to determine the optimal candidate among the experts to be addressed at every feedback step.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

Keywords

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