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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2021

Aljawharah Alsalamah and Carol Callinan

A number of studies on Kirkpatrick’s four-level training evaluation model have been published, since its inception in 1959, either investigating it or applying it to…

Abstract

Purpose

A number of studies on Kirkpatrick’s four-level training evaluation model have been published, since its inception in 1959, either investigating it or applying it to evaluate the training process. The purpose of this bibliometric analysis is to reconsider the model, its utility and its effectiveness in meeting the need to evaluate training activities and to explain why the model is still worth using even though other later models are available.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopts a “5Ws+1H” model (why, when, who, where, what and how); however, “when” and “how” are merged in the methodology. A total of 416 articles related to Kirkpatrick’s model published between 1959 and July 2020 were retrieved using Scopus.

Findings

The Kirkpatrick model continues to be useful, appropriate and applicable in a variety of contexts. It is adaptable to many training environments and achieves high performance in evaluating training. The overview of publications on the Kirkpatrick model shows that research using the model is an active and growing area. The model is used primarily in the evaluation of medical training, followed by computer science, business and social sciences.

Originality/value

This paper presents a comprehensive bibliometric analysis to reconsider the model, its utility, its effectiveness in meeting the need to evaluate training activities, its importance in the field measured by the growth in studies on the model and its applications in various settings and contexts.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

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Article
Publication date: 28 October 2014

Carla Curado and Susana Martins Teixeira

This study’s purpose is to contribute to literature on training evaluation following Kirkpatrick’s four-levels model and estimating each training program’s return on…

Abstract

Purpose

This study’s purpose is to contribute to literature on training evaluation following Kirkpatrick’s four-levels model and estimating each training program’s return on investment (ROI) using evidence from a small firm.

Design/methodology/approach

This case study uses data collected at a logistics company based upon training output indicators like training program evaluation data; individual performance evaluation reports; information on attained objectives; service and productivity levels; quality audit reports; and accounting data.

Findings

Results show that all the training programs addressed report evaluation procedures at the four different levels (reactions, learning, behavior and results). ROI for each training program was estimated based upon costs and benefits associated to each program. The two training programs presenting above-average returns address work quality and conditions. The program addressing corporate social responsibility issues produced below-average results.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations to this study may result from collecting data in a single moment in time and using data from a single organization, excluding generalization and extrapolation of results.

Practical implications

This case study should inspire managers in small and medium enterprises (SME) to implement training evaluation practices and ROI estimation. Having the ROI estimation available allows better management of the training budget, as ROI’s presentation is an argument to assign value and progress.

Originality/value

The originality of this study regards the way it reports training evaluation practices at the four levels established by Kirkpatrick’s framework (2005) and complements it with ROI estimation regarding five training courses run at a Portuguese SME logistics firm.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 38 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2021

Geetika Jain, Naman Sharma and Archana Shrivastava

Due to technology advancement or transparency in system, there is a constant inflow and outflow of technology in the business for transparency and efficiency. To seize a…

Abstract

Purpose

Due to technology advancement or transparency in system, there is a constant inflow and outflow of technology in the business for transparency and efficiency. To seize a competitive advantage, companies have emerged new technological solutions to respond to the change in the organization environment. There is a surge in the requirement of learning opportunities and effective training programs in the organization. The current study has been an effort to understand the potential of blockchain technology that can create better training evaluation.

Design/methodology/approach

The electronic-Delphi (e-Delphi) method has been conducted by recording the final consensus and to find a balance for implementation of blockchain technology and measuring training effectiveness. The current research is one of its new types where blockchain-enabled training effectiveness measurement (BETEM) model has been formulated using a qualitative approach.

Findings

The study has considered human resource (HR) professionals as the experts and based on their responses, the formulation of theoretical network model has been structured using e-Delphi–BETEM (e-DLH–BETEM) approach. By critically examining the experts’ responses and comments, the study formulated the four major themes and 11 subthemes for the smooth functioning of the BETEM for an organization.

Research limitations/implications

The research aims to aid innovations in BETEMs model for training evaluation. The model will contribute incrementally toward the complete transformation of the training development programs of employees. The goal of BETEMs is to ensure that organizations, specifically HR personals can prepare themselves to have competitive advantage by using blockchain technology.

Originality/value

The application of blockchain technology in measuring the training effectiveness is an addition to existing literature as majority of existing studies have studied the use of technology for measuring training effectiveness.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2018

Ayman Safi Abdelhakim, Eleri Jones, Elizabeth C. Redmond, Christopher J. Griffith and Mahmoud Hewedi

The purpose of this paper is to explore the evaluation of cabin crew food safety training using the Kirkpatrick model.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the evaluation of cabin crew food safety training using the Kirkpatrick model.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a snowballing technique, 26 cabin crew, managers, supervisors and trainers participated in in-depth, semi-structured interviews. Summative content analysis was used to evaluate the data.

Findings

In total, 26 respondents from 20 international airlines participated in the study. All respondents agreed that evaluating cabin crew food safety/hygiene issues is important in relation to in-flight food handling; for example, “Training evaluation helps in the improvement of the future training”; “We have an end of course feedback form, either done electronically or on paper and that looks at how the delegates felt the training went, if they came away learning something new, if the environment for learning was right, all sorts of things; the questionnaire is quite comprehensive”; and “Every trainee is given a feedback form to complete”. However, significant failures in food safety training and its evaluation were identified.

Research limitations/implications

The evaluation of cabin crew food safety training shows that it is ineffective in some aspects, including learning achieved and behavioural change, and these can directly impact on the implementation of food safety practices. Evaluation failures may be due to the lack of available time in relation to other cabin crew roles. Further research may consider using a larger sample size, evaluating training effectiveness using social cognition models and assessments of airline and cabin crew food safety culture.

Originality/value

This is the first study that evaluates cabin crew food safety training using the Kirkpatrick model. The findings provide an understanding of the current evaluation of cabin crew food safety training and can be used by airlines for improving and developing effective future food safety training programmes. This, in turn, may reduce the risk of passenger and crew foodborne disease.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2010

Antonio Giangreco, Andrea Carugati and Antonio Sebastiano

This paper aims to advance the debate regarding the use of training evaluation tools, chiefly the Kirkpatrick model, in reaction to minimal use of the tools reported in…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to advance the debate regarding the use of training evaluation tools, chiefly the Kirkpatrick model, in reaction to minimal use of the tools reported in the literature and the economic changes that have characterised the industrialised world in the past 20 years.

Design/methodology/approach

The main argument – the need to design new evaluation tools – emerges from an extensive literature review of criticism of the Kirkpatrick model. The approach is deductive; the argument emerges from extant literature.

Findings

The main findings of the literature review show that the major criticisms of the Kirkpatrick model, though rigorous, are not relevant in today's post‐industrial economy. Issues of complexity, accuracy and refinement, which are relevant in stable industrial organisations, must be revised in the new economic world.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is based on a literature review and presents a call for new research. As such, it is not grounded in original empirical evidence, beyond that presented in the cited articles.

Practical implications

The paper calls for training evaluation tools that align better with modern organisational reality. If the research community responds to this call, the results will benefit practitioners directly. This paper also presents practical advice about the use of existing evaluation techniques.

Originality/value

A new angle on criticisms of existing training evaluation systems does not reiterate classic criticisms based on logic and mathematics but rather takes a pragmatic and economic approach. Thus, this paper offers evidence of theoretically grounded paradoxes of the consequences of existing criticisms of training evaluation.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2017

Madhura Deodhar and Sushama Powdwal

The purpose of this paper is to report the research findings of an evaluation of the impact of continuing education programs (CEPs) on library information science (LIS…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report the research findings of an evaluation of the impact of continuing education programs (CEPs) on library information science (LIS) professionals of academic libraries in Mumbai, India. The paper also introduces Donald Kirkpatrick model of training evaluation for Library Science research in the area of program evaluation.

Design/methodology/approach

The impact of CEPs was evaluated using Donald Kirkpatrick model of training evaluation using survey method. The impact was evaluated at four levels; reaction, learning, behavior and results. The population of the present study included 344 LIS professionals working at colleges libraries affiliated to University of Mumbai and Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University in Mumbai, India. The data collected through questionnaire were supplemented by five specimen interviews of heads of institutions of the academic librarians who had attended more than five CEPs in five years, 2009-2013.

Findings

The findings of the study revealed that professionals were satisfied with CEP attendance; keen on gaining more knowledge and transferring the acquired knowledge and skills at their workplaces and interested in implementing the learning to achieve results. The reasons given by academic librarians on not implementing the learning in the library indicated that there were hindrances like lack of management support, lack of technical expertise, inadequate staff in the library, poor IT Infrastructure, etc. in transferring the learning at work.

Research limitations/implications

The study was based on self-perceptions of respondents. The limitation of self-perception was eliminated to some extent by supplementing qualitative data wherever required. CEPs included conferences, seminars, workshops, refresher courses, orientation programs and online courses. Pre-test and post-test recommended by the Kirkpatrick model could not be conducted as the researcher has not adopted experimental design. The data of feedback from the organizers and content of the CEPs attended by respondents were not analyzed in the study.

Practical implications

The paper describes the implementation of Kirkpatrick model to evaluate the CEPs, which can be used by the organizers or institutions to evaluate the impact of CEPs in future. This will help them to improve upon the contents of CEPs making them more relevant and effective.

Social implications

Evaluation of CEPs will be useful to ensure the effectiveness of CEPs and performance of LIS professionals.

Originality/value

This paper reports an original research initiative undertaken to evaluate the impact of CEPs attended by LIS professionals of Indian academic libraries in Mumbai, India. It fills the gap in LIS research. The application of Donald Kirkpatrick model of Training evaluation is also valuable for LIS research.

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1994

Steve Dyer

Although Kirkpatrick’s four‐level evaluation system is universallyrenowned, virtually no organization implements it. Describes a modelthat would suit all organizations by…

Abstract

Although Kirkpatrick’s four‐level evaluation system is universally renowned, virtually no organization implements it. Describes a model that would suit all organizations by mirroring Kirkpatrick’s system, z i.e. working backwards from level 4 to level 1 and then from level 1 back to level 4. Concludes by suggesting that this model should make the individual more business focused and should provide efficient and effective training throughout any organization.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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Book part
Publication date: 7 March 2013

Cheryl J. Craig

In this chapter, the professional knowledge landscape of schools is explored for its shaping effect on the life satisfaction and morale of teachers. Knowledge communities…

Abstract

In this chapter, the professional knowledge landscape of schools is explored for its shaping effect on the life satisfaction and morale of teachers. Knowledge communities, those associations and relationships that teachers experience as they navigate life in schools, is the conceptual lens that is used. Two teacher stories are explored. Both narratives reveal emotional and relationship influences on teachers as they find, build and work in knowledge communities. Knowledge community interactions, in turn, help them to understand the issues of their school community and support their survival on the larger professional landscape. This chapter uses narrative inquiry to analyse the stories that the teachers in the two exemplars (one Canadian; one American) lived and relived, told and re-told. Finally, serial interpretation allows for the unearthing of encompassing ideas which cut across both narratives and make visible common themes worthy of research attention.

Details

Emotion and School: Understanding how the Hidden Curriculum Influences Relationships, Leadership, Teaching, and Learning
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-651-4

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2021

Lynne Caley, Sharon J. Williams, Izabela Spernaes, David Thomas, Doris Behrens and Alan Willson

It has become accepted practice to include an evaluation alongside learning programmes that take place at work, as a means of judging their effectiveness. There is a…

Abstract

Purpose

It has become accepted practice to include an evaluation alongside learning programmes that take place at work, as a means of judging their effectiveness. There is a tendency to focus such evaluations on the relevance of the intervention and the amount of learning achieved by the individual. The aim of this review is to examine existing evaluation frameworks that have been used to evaluate education interventions and, in particular, assess how these have been used and the outcomes of such activity.

Design/methodology/approach

A scoping review using Arskey and O’Malley’s five stage framework was undertaken to examine existing evaluation frameworks claiming to evaluate education interventions.

Findings

Forty five articles were included in the review. A majority of papers concentrate on learner satisfaction and/or learning achieved. Rarely is a structured framework mentioned, or detail of the approach to analysis cited. Typically, evaluations lacked baseline data, control groups, longitudinal observations and contextual awareness.

Practical implications

This review has implications for those involved in designing and evaluating work-related education programmes, as it identifies areas where evaluations need to be strengthened and recommends how existing frameworks can be combined to improve how evaluations are conducted.

Originality/value

This scoping review is novel in its assessment and critique of evaluation frameworks employed to evaluate work-related education programmes.

Details

Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-5626

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Article
Publication date: 19 May 2020

Gonçalo Bernardino and Carla Curado

This study aims to investigate the formative evaluations of the training programmes of a Portuguese national railway public company for an entire calendar year. The aim is…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the formative evaluations of the training programmes of a Portuguese national railway public company for an entire calendar year. The aim is to uncover alternative configurations for the design of training programmes to create better levels of evaluation. This study is based on the following research question: What are the configurations that lead to the success and or failure of trainers and trainees? Among those, are there any common designs that generate the success and or failure of both trainers and trainees?

Design/methodology/approach

This study used matched data from an entire calendar year to examine the trainers and trainees’ evaluations of 429 training events. This study also used a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to provide configurations that generate the success or failure of trainers and trainees. This methodology offers alternative pathways to the same outcomes and thus gives managers different options to reach similar results.

Findings

The results show that there are more configurations that lead to trainers’ success (five) than to its absence (four). However, the configurations that lead to trainees’ success (three) are less than those that lead to its absence (six). The findings indicate that a single common configuration exists that leads to high evaluations.

Research limitations/implications

This study does not address summative evaluations. Regarding data, the study acknowledges the use of self-evaluations for trainees, although they serve as a proxy for a learning evaluation. The generalisation of the results outside the Portuguese railway company’s context is not possible.

Practical implications

The proposed analysis is applicable to other settings without restrictions. Managers may replicate this study’s approach in their organisations to uncover the alternative configurations that lead to the success or failure of trainers and trainees. They may adopt the ones that lead to successful outcomes and avoid the ones that lead to undesired ones.

Originality/value

This study is innovative because it addresses concurrently the success or failure of trainers and trainees that is only possible by using the fsQCA method. This study opted to use this method to provide alternative pathways to extreme outcomes: the most successful or the most unsuccessful. These multiple pathways are better results compared to traditional quantitative statistical methods that only provide a single estimated solution to the presence of the dependent variable; for example, a regression analysis or structural equation modelling.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 44 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

Keywords

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