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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2021

Daniel Côté, Sylvie Gravel, Stéphanie Gladu, Bouchra Bakhiyi and Sabrina Gravel

This article explores the protective measures and the occupational health and safety (OHS) prevention strategies in place in the formal electronic equipment recycling (e…

Abstract

Purpose

This article explores the protective measures and the occupational health and safety (OHS) prevention strategies in place in the formal electronic equipment recycling (e-recycling) industry, more specifically in the Greater Montreal area (Quebec, Canada) and their consequences: health inequalities and level of compliance with environmental standards.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi-structured interviews were conducted using two respondent-specific questionnaires, one for workers and one for supervisors. Data collection and analytic procedures drew from qualitative content analysis. It was tempted to identify differences in OHS practices in relation to the workers' employment status and to link the companies' OHS concerns to their level of compliance with environmental standards.

Findings

The article highlights specific OHS issues in the formal e-recycling industry. Enforcing compliance with environmental standards as a lever for promoting OHS appears to be a promising strategy. Another main finding was the workforce diversity and related OHS vulnerabilities in this industry and the challenges they pose to employers' ability to adequately and equally reach and protect all workers involved.

Originality/value

To date, too little attention appears to have been paid to working conditions and worker protection in this rapidly growing sector. Specific prevention programmes could be implemented and adapted to the industry's diverse workforce and its multiple OHS vulnerabilities. This issue calls for the international community to take responsibility, as many electronic waste (e-waste) generated worldwide is shipped to developing countries, where lack of regulation and control is much more striking in a sector that remains very largely informal.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

Keywords

Content available

Abstract

Details

Circuit World, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2011

Chiara Gobbi

The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of the product residual value (PRV) and the loss of value over time of returned products in the reverse supply chain…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of the product residual value (PRV) and the loss of value over time of returned products in the reverse supply chain configuration. It also examines whether or not the distinction of Fisher's functional and innovative products holds for the reverse supply chain.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to identify the relevance of the Fisher model, the model needs to be recast in terms of PRV, which, in this context, is considered the independent variable in the reverse logistics arena. Products defined as innovative in Fisher's taxonomy correspond to disposed products with high residual value, whereas functional products correspond to disposed products with low residual value. Furthermore, the PRV and the speed at which returned products lose their value are considered in order to determine the configuration of the reverse supply chain that allows for recapturing most of the PRV. These notions have then been tested by analyzing two reverse supply chains with a case study research methodology.

Findings

The findings show that low PRV is associated with second‐class recovery options (recycling and energy recovery) and that high PRV is associated with first‐class recovery options (reconditioning and remarketing). When the recovery option is recycling, time is not relevant, the primary objective is cost reduction (efficiency), the chain is centralized, and actors and phases of the reverse chain are determined by the specificity of the recycling process. When the recovery option is reconditioning, time is primarily relevant, tradeoffs between costs and time efficiency are necessary, the chain presents a centralized structure, and the presence of other types of actors and phases influences the structure of the reverse supply chain.

Research limitations/implications

The focus is restricted to the industry of electrical and electronic products.

Practical implications

Based on the outcome of the study, managers are able to determine the basic prerequisites for the design of their reverse supply chains.

Originality/value

Previous literature suggests that when the PRV is high, early product differentiation is necessary, and the chain is therefore decentralized. The paper demonstrates that this is not confirmed in the case of low returned volumes and high reconditioning quality standards.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 41 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

Abstract

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2020

Alastair Marke, Carmen Chan, Gozde Taskin and Theo Hacking

The objectives of this research are to (1) fill the evidence gap of circular business activities and (2) enrich the knowledge base about the drivers of and barriers to…

Abstract

Purpose

The objectives of this research are to (1) fill the evidence gap of circular business activities and (2) enrich the knowledge base about the drivers of and barriers to circular economy business model (CEBM) that supports e-waste reduction in China’s mobile electronics industry. To answer the overarching research question of whether there are CEBMs emerging to address e-waste in China’ mobile electronics industry, we in this paper divided it into three sub-questions: (1) What CEBMs can support e-waste reduction? (2) Is there evidence for their implementation in China? and (3) What are the drivers of and barriers to these business model innovations?

Design/methodology/approach

We started with setting the scene on the importance of better e-waste management and the scale of e-waste problem in China. Building on the oft-quoted ReSOLVE framework, developed by EMF (2015) and consolidated in Lewandowski (2016), we have refined from it 11 CEBMs to suit the context of e-waste reduction. These 11 models include regenerate, life cycle extension, take-back services, product sharing systems, optimise resource value, produce on demand, circular supplies, resource recovery, industrial symbiosis, product-as-a-service and transformative innovation. We have mapped these refined models against the evidence of circular business practices identified in the corporate sustainability reports of eight out of top 12 mobile electronics manufacturers in China.

Findings

Our research findings show that six out of these 11 CEBMs are de facto practised in many of these companies. They include life cycle extension, collection services, optimise resource value, circular supplies, resource recovery and industrial symbiosis, although circular economy is still early-stage endeavours in the industry. As confirmed in our expert and company interviews, CEBM stems largely from profit and policy drivers. The key to building successful CEBMs to eliminate e-waste is, indeed, multi-stakeholder collaboration across the mobile electronics industry, which involves effective collection, reuse and recycling systems.

Originality/value

The lessons learnt can promote peer learning among EEE manufacturers and inform policymakers of effective strategies to create an enabling environment in which circular economy models can thrive.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

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Article
Publication date: 21 May 2010

Allen H. Hu and Chia‐Wei Hsu

The purpose of this paper is to explore critical factors for implementing green supply chain management (GSCM) practice in the Taiwanese electrical and electronics

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore critical factors for implementing green supply chain management (GSCM) practice in the Taiwanese electrical and electronics industries relative to European Union directives.

Design/methodology/approach

A tentative list of critical factors of GSCM was developed based on a thorough and detailed analysis of the pertinent literature. The survey questionnaire contained 25 items, developed based on the literature and interviews with three industry experts, specifically quality and product assurance representatives. A total of 300 questionnaires were mailed out, and 87 were returned, of which 84 were valid, representing a response rate of 28 percent. Using the data collected, the identified critical factors were performed via factor analysis to establish reliability and validity.

Findings

The results show that 20 critical factors were extracted into four dimensions, which denominated supplier management, product recycling, organization involvement and life cycle management.

Research limitations/implications

This study obtained 84 valid responses from the Taiwanese electrical and electronics industries, the limitation of the study is the insufficient sampling. Future researches need to be performed using a larger sample and studying more countries.

Practical implications

The Taiwanese electrical and electronics industry plays a decisive role in the global information and communications technology (ICT) industry. Consequently, the validated instrument enables decision makers at ICT manufacturers to evaluate the perceptions of GSCM in their organizations. In addition, the critical factors of implementing GSCM practices validated in this work can help enterprises identify those areas of GSCM where acceptance and improvements will be made, and in prioritizing GSCM efforts.

Originality/value

This study presents an empirical investigation of GSCM practices, and fills a gap in the literature on the identification and establishment of critical factors for GSCM implementation in electrical and electronics industries.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1997

B. Richards

Concern over global environmental pollution has resulted in a raft of new legislation, a major impact of whichhas been fundamental re‐evaluation of processing technologies…

Abstract

Concern over global environmental pollution has resulted in a raft of new legislation, a major impact of which has been fundamental re‐evaluation of processing technologies used within the electronics manufacturing industry. Although compliance remains a key driver for change, other factors (e.g., market, social, new business opportunities) are also providing significant pressures. Assessments of how to control pollution have led to a much deeper appreciation of how to manage this dramatic impact on the industry. In the short‐term, the key is dealing with emissions from current premises and processes. But in the longer‐term, improvements are only possible by designing products to minimise the whole‐life environmental impact (e.g., avoiding hazardous materials, minimising waste, designing for re‐use and recycling). Crucial to the success of both short‐term and long‐term activities are the motivation and co‐operation of the workforce, together with the commitment and support of management. This paper examines some of the pressures on the industry, highlights several of the resultant technical and management challenges, and briefly outlines how one company is successfully addressing these challenges.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2014

Saurabh Agrawal, Rajesh K. Singh and Qasim Murtaza

– The purpose of this paper is to develop a model for forecasting product returns to the company for recycling in terms of quantity and time.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a model for forecasting product returns to the company for recycling in terms of quantity and time.

Design/methodology/approach

Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT) has been applied for developing the forecasting model for product returns. A case of Indian mobile manufacturing company is discussed for the validation of this model. Survey conducted by the company and findings from previous research were used for data collection on probabilities and product life cycle.

Findings

Product returns for their recycling are stochastic, random and uncertain. Therefore, to address the uncertainty, randomness and stochastic nature of product returns, GERT is very useful tool for forecasting product returns.

Practical implications

GERT provides the visual picture of the reverse supply chain system and helps in determining the expected time of product returns in a much easier way but it requires probabilities of different flows and product life cycle. Both factors vary over a period, so require data update time to time before implementation.

Originality/value

This model is developed by considering all possible flows of sold products from customer to their reuse, store or recycle or landfill. First time this type of real life flows have been considered and GERT has been applied for forecasting product returns. This model can be utilized by managers for better forecasting that will help them for effective reverse supply chain design.

Details

Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

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Article
Publication date: 22 May 2007

Lei Nie, Michael Pecht and Richard Ciocci

This paper seeks to investigate the electronics industry's reaction to environmental regulations specifically in terms of lead‐free solders and halogen‐free flame‐retardants (FRs).

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to investigate the electronics industry's reaction to environmental regulations specifically in terms of lead‐free solders and halogen‐free flame‐retardants (FRs).

Design/methodology/approach

This work achieves its objective by discussing the various international environmental regulations pertaining to electronics manufacturing and relating the industry reactions to those regulations. It also provides the market trends related to lead‐ and halogen‐free products. The electronics industry is pursuing lead‐free solders and halogen‐free FRs, in part due to regulations. However, the paper includes examples of how the industry is successful in implementing environmentally friendly changes.

Findings

The authors compared regulations from Japan, the European Union, the USA, and China. While the regulations themselves vary in scope, industry actions to find alternatives do have common purposes. Electronics manufacturers recognize that environmentally motivated changes are beneficial in terms of waste minimization.

Research limitations/implications

Electronics manufacturers that are interested in green design will benefit from understanding present regulations. They will also benefit from the included examples of product and process improvement for the purpose of environmental compatibility.

Originality/value

This paper derives its perspective from a similar review of literature and company findings that the authors completed in 2006. As refinement of the regulations has continued, the electronics industry has developed improvements in basic materials and processes.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 July 2021

Rakesh R. Menon and V. Ravi

World over organizations are focusing on sustainable goals, where along with economic success their role in protecting the planet and people are becoming important. Whilst…

Abstract

Purpose

World over organizations are focusing on sustainable goals, where along with economic success their role in protecting the planet and people are becoming important. Whilst transforming the supply chain into a sustainable one, there would be some barriers which might hinder this process. This paper aims to study these barriers in the context of the electronics industry so that organizations can better implement sustainable supply chain programs.

Design/methodology/approach

In this research, barriers affecting sustainability implementation in the electronics supply chain are shortlisted from literature review and experts’ opinion. Using the combined methodology of Grey DEMATEL, the causal factors, the effect factors and degree of prominence of barriers is found out. The overall relationship among barriers is established by a diagraph. Sensitivity analysis is performed to check the robustness of the results.

Findings

It is found that lack of regulation and guidance from authorities is the primary causal barrier affecting operations of sustainable supply chain management. There are five barriers which fall in the influenced group and among them, complexity in measuring and monitoring sustainability practices has the largest net effect value on the implementation of a sustainable supply chain. The barrier having the highest correlation with other barriers is the high cost for disposal of hazardous wastes. The implications of these findings on managers and academicians is explored in the study.

Research limitations/implications

In this research, the number of barriers shortlisted is limited to 11 in the context of the electronics supply chain. More factors could be added in future research based on the industry being studied.

Originality/value

The research analyses 11 barriers under categories of policy, technology, financial and human resources in the Indian electronics industry by evaluating the cause and effect group of barriers. These results can guide policymakers of the electronic sector and industry for mitigating barriers during the implementation of sustainable programs.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

Keywords

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