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Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2015

Matthew Beard

This paper compares two approaches to the moral justifications for killing in war: the forfeiture approach, which sees killing as justified when the victim has forfeited…

Abstract

This paper compares two approaches to the moral justifications for killing in war: the forfeiture approach, which sees killing as justified when the victim has forfeited his or her right not to be killed, and the double-effect approach, which argues that even if intentional killing is absolutely prohibited, that killing can still be morally acceptable under certain conditions, most notably if it is not the intended, desired outcome of a person’s chosen action. The double-effect approach is considered out of fashion in contemporary military ethical literate. I argue that it warrants equal attention as an internally viable and coherent account of the morality of killing, and is preferable in at least one way: that it protects combatants from being necessarily culpable of killing merely by serving in active combat positions.

By defending an alternate framework to the forfeiture approach to killing which is most popular in today’s military ethical literature, I provide an opportunity for new and increased philosophical reflection and discourse on the ethics of killing, as well as new opportunity for defenders of double-effect to make a substantive contribution to the field. This paper demonstrates the internal consistency of arguments that seek to utilise DDE, including its relevance to individual self-defence and individual killing in war.

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Conscience, Leadership and the Problem of ‘Dirty Hands’
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-203-0

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2012

Cécile Renouard and Hervé Lado

The international awareness of corporate social responsibility (CSR) issues and the socio‐political context of emerging countries are increasing the pressure on

Abstract

Purpose

The international awareness of corporate social responsibility (CSR) issues and the socio‐political context of emerging countries are increasing the pressure on businesses, including multinational corporations, to take another look at their societal role. In a context of state failure (immature institutions), paying taxes can guarantee neither the peaceful management of company operations nor the sustainable development of local communities. Moreover, multinationals have experienced that making resources and opportunities available to local communities is not enough. The Niger Delta in Nigeria is, in this regard, a textbook case that demonstrates the challenge of achieving sustainable development in the context of acute inequalities. This paper seeks to address these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on fieldwork – quantitative and qualitative surveys – carried out in Nigeria for the past seven years, the paper builds on initiatives and approaches undertaken by Total, Agip and NPDC/Shell, consistent with their understanding of their role in society.

Findings

Inequalities and imbalances (income, gender, inter‐regional, sector‐based) ferment frustrations and nurture insecurity and violence in the Niger Delta, therefore hindering sustainable development. As far as the relationship between oil companies and communities is concerned, the authors argue that oil multinationals have to foster an approach that targets the reduction of those exceptional inequalities for which they are partly responsible, as revealed with the “double effect” principle.

Originality/value

Whereas CSR has been so far mainly studied as a management issue, this paper brings broader views and analyzes ethical, cultural and economic dynamics that underlie the acceptability of companies in their environment, in the specific context of the Niger Delta.

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Corporate Governance: The international journal of business in society, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Robert F. Rizzo

Ethical, legal and medical progress has been made in end‐of‐life care, addressing crucial issues in the application of principles to clinical cases. However, despite the…

Abstract

Purpose

Ethical, legal and medical progress has been made in end‐of‐life care, addressing crucial issues in the application of principles to clinical cases. However, despite the progress, there are still unresolved issues concerning the scope and effectiveness of personal decision making and the proper use of last resort measures in terminal care. An analysis of the progress discloses both the advances and the problems still confronting patients and their families. From this perspective, one gains a better understanding of the reality of terminal care and areas that call for reform.

Design/methodology/approach

A historical analysis reveals the interrelation between moral and legal reasoning and their differences. It also discloses developments in the moral and legal realms that recognize rights of the patient with regard to treatment decisions. A critique of ethical and legal reasoning and medical practice pin‐points the salient problems.

Findings

There are still problems in the application of legal and ethical principles to specific cases. These problems are complicated by poor physician‐patient communication, the ineffective use of advance directives and the impact of the market economy on comprehensive palliative care. These call for reform to protect personal rights and dignity at the end of life.

Originality/value

A historical approach, too often lacking, promotes insight into the complexities of end‐of‐life care. An analysis flowing from such a perspective pin‐points not only the advances in ethical, legal and medical practice but also the flaws and inconsistencies that call for a more realistic approach in reasoning and practice.

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International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 32 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2018

Joseph Drew and Bligh Grant

Natural Law philosophy asserts that there are universally binding and universally evident principles that can be determined to guide the actions of persons. Moreover, many…

Abstract

Natural Law philosophy asserts that there are universally binding and universally evident principles that can be determined to guide the actions of persons. Moreover, many of these principles have been enshrined in both statute and common law, thus ensuring their saliency for staff and institutions charged with palliative care. The authors examine the often emotive and politicized matter of (non-voluntary) euthanasia – acts or omissions made with the intent of causing or hastening death – with reference to Natural Law philosophy. This leads us to propose a number of important public policy remedies to ensure dignity in dying for the patient, and their associates.

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1999

Ruth Aylett, Gary Petley, P.W.H. Chung, James Soutter and Andrew Rushton

Operating procedure synthesis (OPS) has been used to generate plant operating procedures for chemical plants. However, the application of AI planning to this domain has…

Abstract

Operating procedure synthesis (OPS) has been used to generate plant operating procedures for chemical plants. However, the application of AI planning to this domain has been rarely considered, and when it has the scope of the system used has limited it to solving “toy” problems. This paper describes the application of state‐of‐the‐art AI planning techniques to the generation of operating procedures for chemical plant as part of the INT‐OP project at the Universities of Salford and Loughborough. The CEP planner is outlined and its application to a double effect evaporator test rig is discussed in detail. Particular attention is paid to the issues involved in domain modelling, requiring the description of the domain, development of AI planning operators, the definition of safety restrictions, and the definition of the problem. There is then a presentation of the results, lessons learned and problems still remaining.

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Integrated Manufacturing Systems, vol. 10 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-6061

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Book part
Publication date: 30 April 2019

S. J. Oswald A. J. Mascarenhas

This focal chapter deals with the understanding of important ethical theories used in executive moral reasoning such as teleology, deontology, distributive justice and…

Abstract

Executive Summary

This focal chapter deals with the understanding of important ethical theories used in executive moral reasoning such as teleology, deontology, distributive justice and corrective justice, virtue ethics versus ethics of trust, from the perspectives of intrinsic versus instrumental good, moral worth versus moral obligation, and moral conscience versus moral justification. Ethical and moral reasoning will power executives to identify, explore, and resolve corporate moral dilemma, especially in the wake of emerging gray market areas where good and evil, right or wrong, just or unjust, and truth and falsehood cannot be easily distinguished. We focus on developing corporate skills of awareness of ethical values and moral imperatives in current otherwise highly commoditized and turbulent human, market, and corporate situations. The challenges of morality are multifaceted and diverse. Professionals usually have self-discipline and self-regulation abilities, ego strength, and social skills. Morality in the professions is not concerned with the issues of rudimentary socialization; rather, the issues involve deciding between conflicting values, where each value represents something good in itself. There are problems in both knowing what is right, good, true, and just on the one hand, and on the other hand, in doing what is right and avoiding wrong, doing good and avoiding evil, and being fair and just while avoiding being unfair and unjust. Several contemporary cases will illustrate the challenging dimensions of ethical and moral reasoning, moral judgment and moral justification embedded in executive decision processes, and corporate growth and profitability ventures.

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Corporate Ethics for Turbulent Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-192-2

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Article
Publication date: 15 April 2019

Zhan Wang, Xiangzheng Deng and Gang Liu

The purpose of this paper is to show that the environmental income drives economic growth of a large open country.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show that the environmental income drives economic growth of a large open country.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors detect that the relative environmental income has double effect of “conspicuous consumption” on the international renewable resource stock changes when a new social norm shapes to environmental-friendly behaviors by using normal macroeconomic approaches.

Findings

Every unit of extra demand for renewable resource consumption increases the net premium of domestic capital asset. Even if the technology spillovers are inefficient to the substitution of capital to labor force in a real business cycle, the relative income with scale effect increases drives savings to investment. In this case, the renewable resource consumption promotes both the reproduction to a higher level and saving the potential cost of environmental improvement. Even if without scale effects, the loss of technology inefficient can be compensated by net positive consumption externality for economic growth in a sustainable manner.

Research limitations/implications

It implies how to earn the environment income determines the future pathway of China’s rural conversion to the era of eco-urbanization.

Originality/value

We test the tax incidence to demonstrate an experimental taxation for environmental improvement ultimately burdens on international consumption side.

Details

Forestry Economics Review, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-3030

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Book part
Publication date: 17 September 2020

Charuka Ekanayake

This Chapter is written in an era in which the United Nations (UN) routinely deploys Missions to environments that satisfy the armed conflict threshold. Such Missions

Abstract

This Chapter is written in an era in which the United Nations (UN) routinely deploys Missions to environments that satisfy the armed conflict threshold. Such Missions often require personnel to employ significant levels of force, whether to safeguard mission and humanitarian personnel, to protect civilians, to neutralise violent armed groups or, in pure self-defence. But use as well as non-use of force can readily frustrate the very objectives these troops are deployed to uphold, in turn creating gaps between the Promises they make and the Outcomes they actually secure. On the other hand, current Missions such as MINUSMA in Mali have proven to be amongst the deadliest for UN troops in the entire history of UN Peacekeeping. The thin line between use and non-use of force must therefore be trodden with utmost care. This Chapter tries to find answers to this dilemma from a moral perspective and considers how the peculiar nature of the morality of resort to force by the UN influences that of its use of force. It assesses why the latter should be calibrated or adjusted to comply with the former, and how this can consequently channel UN troop conduct towards the objectives pursued through deployment. It is only where these realities are understood and addressed, the Chapter submits, that the aforementioned Gaps between Promises and Outcomes can be redressed and closed.

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War, Peace and Organizational Ethics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-777-8

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2019

Francesca Costanza

The international community recognizes the role of entrepreneurship education in fostering economic growth and sustainable development. However, preparing the next…

Abstract

Purpose

The international community recognizes the role of entrepreneurship education in fostering economic growth and sustainable development. However, preparing the next generation of entrepreneurs is not an easy task, since today’s complexity requires the creation of skills and capabilities for which the traditional programs reveal their inadequacy. Some scholars remark how entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial intention are not necessarily related and, in line with policy makers’ concerns, call for educational programs more routed in financial skills’ enhancement. The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential of system dynamics (SD) for entrepreneurial education, investigating the relationships between financial and entrepreneurial skills’ formation and business development.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper introduces the main elements of SD, describes literature streams of SD applications fitting the entrepreneurial education spheres and proposes an SD’ insight model based on selected literature and declined in terms of stock-and-flow and causal loop structures.

Findings

The study provides a causal model capturing the links between the processes of entrepreneurial skill formation and firms’ start-ups and closures. Such model introduces a double effect of financial literacy on entrepreneurial orientation and locates the contribution of simulated entrepreneurial decisions in formal and informal educational contexts.

Originality/value

The paper displays how SD can contribute to entrepreneurship and presents an original causal model highlighting the accumulation of financial and non-financial skills through education and experience, their impact on business development and the usefulness of SD methodology for skill achievement.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2017

Yanyan Gao, Jun Sun and Qin Zhou

The purpose of this paper is to estimate the effectiveness of the credit evaluation system using the borrowing data from China’s leading P2P lending platform, Renrendai.com.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to estimate the effectiveness of the credit evaluation system using the borrowing data from China’s leading P2P lending platform, Renrendai.com.

Design/methodology/approach

The current credit valuation systems are classified into the forward-looking mechanism, which judges the borrowers’ credit levels based on their uploaded information, and the backward-looking mechanism, which judges the borrowers’ credit levels based on their historical repayment performance. Probit models and Tobit models are used to examine the effectiveness of credit evaluation mechanisms.

Findings

The results show that only the “hard” information reflecting borrowers’ credit ability can explain the default risk on the platform under the forward-looking credit evaluation mechanism. The backward-looking credit evaluation mechanism (BCEM) based on the repeated borrowings produces both promise-enhancing and “fishing” incentives and thus fails to explain the default risk, and weakens the effectiveness of forward-looking credit indicators in explaining the default risk because it encourages borrowers to invest in forging forward-looking credit indicators. Additional information such as the interest rate and the repayment periods reveals borrowers’ credit and thus can also be used as a predictor of borrowers’ default risk.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that current ex ante screening based on the information collected from the borrowers or repeated borrowings is inadequate to control the default risk in P2P lending markets and thus needs be improved. Ex post monitoring and sharing on defaulter’s information should be strengthened to increase the default cost and thus to deter potential bad borrowers.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first paper classifying the credit evaluation system in online P2P lending market into the forward-looking type and the backward-looking type, which is important since they provide different incentives to borrowers. The paper also investigates and provides evidence on the promise-enhancing and “fishing” incentives of BCEMs.

Details

China Finance Review International, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1398

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