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1 – 10 of over 4000
Article
Publication date: 12 January 2018

Carol R. Ember, Eric C. Jones, Ian Skoggard and Teferi Abate Adem

Ember et al. (1992) addressed whether the “democracies rarely fight each other” hypothesis held true in the anthropological record of societies of various sizes and scales…

Abstract

Purpose

Ember et al. (1992) addressed whether the “democracies rarely fight each other” hypothesis held true in the anthropological record of societies of various sizes and scales around the world. They indeed found that more participatory polities had less internal warfare – or warfare between one society’s territorial units (e.g. bands, villages, districts). The purpose of this paper is to examine when political participation would have similar effects in eastern Africa, and whether more participatory polities commit fewer atrocities against each other.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-cultural sample of 46 societies from eastern Africa was used to retest the original Ember et al. (1992) multiple regression model and revised post-hoc models. The team read ethnographies to code for levels of political participation at the local and multilocal levels. Other variables came from previous research including warfare and atrocity variables (Ember et al., 2013).

Findings

The Ember et al. (1992) model did not replicate in eastern Africa, but analysis with additional variables (degree of formal leadership, presence of state-level organization, and threat of natural disasters that destroy food supplies) suggested that greater local political participation does predict less internal warfare. Also, more participatory polities were less likely to commit atrocities in the course of internal warfare.

Originality/value

This study demonstrates regional comparisons are important because they help us evaluate the generalizability of worldwide findings. Additionally, adding atrocities to the study of democracy and warfare is new and suggests reduced atrocities as an additional benefit of political participation.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2004

John King

General interstate warfare, that characterized so many twentieth century conflicts is increasingly becoming obsolete, except for some rare cases. Indeed, the nature of…

541

Abstract

General interstate warfare, that characterized so many twentieth century conflicts is increasingly becoming obsolete, except for some rare cases. Indeed, the nature of warfare has greatly shifted into something new, and perhaps into something even more dangerous for international security with the development and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), the emergence of extremist groups, the access and use of WMD by terrorists, and the small deterrent effect of current military establishments towards these groups. The new warfare that has emerged is perhaps the most difficult type to respond to given its secrecy, its non‐territorial base, its “nihilist” characteristic, and the extraordinary dedication of its adherents to achieve their goals. New security requirements are urgently needed at this point and the essence of the response to this new warfare today lies in international cooperation, since the new opponents to the current world order are building a global organized presence.

Details

Foresight, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 29 November 2012

Giuseppe Caforio

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to understand the meaning of asymmetric warfare and its effect on the military profession and the identity of the soldierly subject.

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to understand the meaning of asymmetric warfare and its effect on the military profession and the identity of the soldierly subject.

Methodology/approach – Review of the relevant literature.

Findings – The findings highlight that in asymmetric warfare expectations for success should be modest. Here, the concept of ‘sufficient victory’ is applied. The characteristics of asymmetric warfare should be taken into account when talking about the professional ethos of the soldier.

Research limitations/implications – The implications for researchers and practitioners center on the question of how to adequately submit the message to the individual soldier, i.e., the implications is to be seen with regard to education in the military.

Originality/value of paper – The application of the concept of ‘sufficient victory’ is original.

Details

New Wars, New Militaries, New Soldiers: Conflicts, the Armed Forces and the Soldierly Subject
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-638-6

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 25 November 2009

Paul C. van Fenema

Military organizations participating in current expeditionary missions face new challenge associated with dilemmas common to asymmetric warfare. Apart from dilemmas faced…

Abstract

Military organizations participating in current expeditionary missions face new challenge associated with dilemmas common to asymmetric warfare. Apart from dilemmas faced by local government, populations, and organizations, military organizations struggle with their task environment, performance, and main and supportive processes. Complementing doctrinal innovations in this area, the chapter proposes a generic model linking these processes to value creation, and it examines specific changes introduced by asymmetric warfare. Notable changes include the increasingly dialectic, constructivist, and discordant nature of organizational processes. Moreover, asymmetric warfare challenges singular definitions of military organizations' and their members' professional identity, and demands ongoing, in-depth learning.

Details

Advances in Military Sociology: Essays in Honor of Charles C. Moskos
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-891-5

Book part
Publication date: 15 October 2008

A. Kadir Varoğlu and Mesut Uyar

The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the impact of asymmetric warfare on the military profession within the context of the Ottoman period. These effects are…

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the impact of asymmetric warfare on the military profession within the context of the Ottoman period. These effects are categorized with strategic, structural, and behavioral dimensions. The Ottoman military had been a part of many unconventional/asymmetric conflicts during the Ottoman era. These experiences are showing clearly that classical officer training system is not providing necessary knowledge to command units under this type of atmosphere.

The historical event analysis is used for the methodological purpose.

First finding is that asymmetry of method, technology; morale, norms, and organization were observable during the Ottoman collapse period. Second, the reactions to the asymmetric threats were conventional at first sight. Third, the solutions were found by the officers individually not through systemic attempts and they were the results of lessons learned from personal faults. In this chapter, the Ottoman period and military was considered with the viewpoints of recent definitions of asymmetric warfare.

Details

Armed Forces and Conflict Resolution: Sociological Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-8485-5122-0

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 27 November 2019

Raynald Harvey Lemelin, Michel S. Beaulieu and David Ratz

The purpose of this paper is to retrace past developments that occurred in the Alaskan and Canadian North as of result of the Second World War and illustrate the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to retrace past developments that occurred in the Alaskan and Canadian North as of result of the Second World War and illustrate the ramifications of these events in the Canadian and American political landscapes as it pertains to warfare tourism. The paper also intends to initiate a discussion on how certain narratives pertaining to warfare tourism are promoted, while others are overlooked.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper analyses the political, economic, socio-cultural and technological factors that resulted in tourism growth or the lack thereof in the Canadian and American Norths.

Findings

Warfare tourism, like most types of tourism, is expected to grow. Through this growth comes opportunities to expand and integrate the discussion pertaining to warfare tourism in the Canadian and American Norths while also providing a starting point for discussion about potential solutions to address warfare tourism and cultural dissonance.

Research limitations/implications

This viewpoint is dependent on literature reviews.

Practical implications

The relationship between Indigenous peoples and other marginalized populations in the Second World War and warfare tourism is a relatively new research area. For warfare tourism to become integrated into tourism policies and developments, a willingness to address cultural dissonance and integrate populations formerly marginalized in the Second World War will be required. This paper examines how northern and other marginalized voices can be integrated in future commemoration and interpretation strategies.

Social implications

The paper provides an opportunity to examine the growth and healing that can result from warfare tourism.

Originality/value

This interdisciplinary collaboration conducted by a military historian, a northern historian and a tourism research researcher provides one of the first examinations of the impacts of the Second World War in North America, and the relevance of these impacts to the interpretation of warfare tourism in Canada.

Details

Journal of Tourism Futures, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-5911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Kosmas Pipyros, Lilian Mitrou, Dimitris Gritzalis and Theodoros Apostolopoulos

The increasing number of cyber attacks has transformed the “cyberspace” into a “battlefield”, bringing out “cyber warfare” as the “fifth dimension of war” and emphasizing…

1717

Abstract

Purpose

The increasing number of cyber attacks has transformed the “cyberspace” into a “battlefield”, bringing out “cyber warfare” as the “fifth dimension of war” and emphasizing the States’ need to effectively protect themselves against these attacks. The existing legal framework seem inadequate to deal effectively with cyber operations and, from a strictly legal standpoint, it indicates that addressing cyber attacks does not fall within the jurisdiction of just one legal branch. This is mainly because of the fact that the concept of cyber warfare itself is open to many different interpretations, ranging from cyber operations performed by the States within the context of armed conflict, under International Humanitarian Law, to illicit activities of all kinds performed by non-State actors including cybercriminals and terrorist groups. The paper initially presents major cyber-attack incidents and their impact on the States. On this basis, it examines the existing legal framework at the European and international levels. Furthermore, it approaches “cyber warfare” from the perspective of international law and focuses on two major issues relating to cyber operations, i.e. “jurisdiction” and “attribution”. The multi-layered process of attribution in combination with a variety of jurisdictional bases in international law makes the successful tackling of cyber attacks difficult. The paper aims to identify technical, legal and, last but not least, political difficulties and emphasize the complexity in applying international law rules in cyber operations.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper focuses on the globalization of the “cyber warfare phenomenon” by observing its evolutionary process from the early stages of its appearance until today. It examines the scope, duration and intensity of major cyber-attacks throughout the years in relation to the reactions of the States that were the victims. Having this as the base of discussion, it expands further by exemplifying “cyber warfare” from the perspective of the existing European and International legal framework. The main aim of this part is to identify and analyze major obstacles that arise, for instance in terms of “jurisdiction” and “attribution” in applying international law rules to “cyber warfare”.

Findings

The absence of a widely accepted legal framework to regulate jurisdictional issues of cyber warfare and the technical difficulties in identifying, with absolute certainty, the perpetrators of an attack, make the successful tackling of cyber attacks difficult.

Originality/value

The paper fulfills the need to identify difficulties in applying international law rules in cyber warfare and constitutes the basis for the creation of a method that will attempt to categorize and rank cyber operations in terms of their intensity and seriousness.

Details

Information & Computer Security, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4961

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2001

Blaise Cronin

Aims to demonstrate how information warfare (IW) is being progressively domesticated and how it democratizes warfare. Briefly outlines the so‐called Revolution in Military…

1777

Abstract

Aims to demonstrate how information warfare (IW) is being progressively domesticated and how it democratizes warfare. Briefly outlines the so‐called Revolution in Military Affairs. Presents an overview of the various modalities of IW. Introduces the defining features of IW from both the attacker’s and the target’s perspective. Describes types of offence and defence. Assesses the extent to which IW and information terrorism are having or will have an impact on the daily lives of individual groups and considers the various social actors. Offers some observations on the negative externalities and possible longer term social costs associated with IW and information terrorism in the civil sphere.

Details

Library Review, vol. 50 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0024-2535

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 August 2013

Raynald Harvey Lemelin, Kyle Powys Whyte, Kelsey Johansen, Freya Higgins Desbiolles, Christopher Wilson and Steve Hemming

The purpose of this paper is to examine the omission of Indigenous narratives in battlefields and sites of conflicts while also highlighting how certain battlefields and…

2715

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the omission of Indigenous narratives in battlefields and sites of conflicts while also highlighting how certain battlefields and sites of conflicts have attempted to address dissonant heritage by diversifying interpretation strategies and implementing elements of collaborative management approaches, thereby addressing Indigenous erasure.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a content analysis, field studies and case studies to examine dissonant heritage in warfare tourism sites involving Indigenous peoples in Australia and North America.

Findings

The content analysis reveals that aboriginal erasure is still prevalent within the literature on warfare and battlefield tourism. However, the case studies suggest that dissonant heritage in warfare tourism is being addressed through collaborative management strategies and culturally sensitive interpretation strategies.

Research limitations/implications

The content analysis is limited to tourism journals. The case studies highlight sites that are using adaptive management and integrating Indigenous peoples.

Practical implications

The study of dissonant heritage and warfare tourism, while relatively young, is beginning to address aboriginal erasure and cultural dissonance; this study is a contribution to this area of research.

Social implications

Addressing the impacts of aboriginal erasure and heritage dissonance in colonial settings heals the hurts of the past, while empowering communities. It also provides Indigenous communities with opportunities to diversify current tourism products.

Originality/value

This is a collaborative international paper involving Indigenous and non‐Indigenous scholars from Australia, Canada, and the USA.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2002

Y.S. Tsang and Stephen F. Lee

The recent growth of interests in applying the Chinese art of warfare to complement the Western style of management process suggested that an integrated business model…

1467

Abstract

The recent growth of interests in applying the Chinese art of warfare to complement the Western style of management process suggested that an integrated business model that combined the Western scientific management and ancient Chinese wisdom could be an effective tool for gaining strategic advantages, especially for companies that want to share the newly opened markets in mainland China. Among all, Sun Tzu’s The Art of War has been widely adopted and applied in various business areas. However, there are few presentations with strategic models. Moreover, works on his successor, Sun Pin, are limited particularly to the area of applying his art of warfare in gaining strategic advantages and transforming business crisis into opportunities. While various business and quality management models at national level have been established by various countries to emphasise their differences in economic development and culture, models of similar type that make use of the ancient Chinese wisdom are not available either in Hong Kong or in China. As China has become a member of the WTO, a national model that framed both the Chinese management philosophy and Western management wisdom would certainly help in driving local and international enterprises for business competitiveness. This paper is therefore a first attempt to investigate the applicability of Sun Pin’s The Art of Warfare for business management strategies by amalgamating the Western wisdom and the Chinese art of warfare.

Details

Integrated Manufacturing Systems, vol. 13 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-6061

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 4000