Purpose — This chapter investigates how dishonesty may be legitimized in organizations through customary practices of gift giving, patronage, and non-meritocratic…
Purpose — This chapter investigates how dishonesty may be legitimized in organizations through customary practices of gift giving, patronage, and non-meritocratic employment practices.Design/methodology/approach — A survey of managers was undertaken in four sub-Saharan African countries: Ghana, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda.Findings — Gift giving was perceived to be widespread in organizations in all four countries and yet the vast majority of managers we surveyed, rejected the proposition that the practice of gift giving causes dishonesty in organizations. There were cross-country variations as to whether the expectations of the society on individuals “glorify and endorse” dishonesty as they may feel pressured to accumulate and (re)distribute wealth among their wider social groups. Non-meritocratic employment practices were unanimously perceived to engender incompetent workforce, lack of accountability and transparency without necessarily improving trust, and loyalty in organizations.Research limitations — This study used quantitative methods to gauge managers’ perceptions of the relationship between customary practices and dishonest behavior in only four African countries. Further qualitative research is required to gain a deeper insight into how customary practices may inform dishonest behavior in organizations.Implications for managers — Managers should be clear about the distinction between customary practices and dishonest behavior in order to facilitate the development of appropriate organizational strategies to minimize their negative impacts.Originality/value — This paper explores the relationship between dishonesty and customary practices of gift giving, patronage and nepotism in African organizations from the managers’ point of view, an approach that had not been undertaken previously.
The worst scandals of the world's top companies have turned the attention of researchers towards the function of academic institutions in ethical training of future…
The worst scandals of the world's top companies have turned the attention of researchers towards the function of academic institutions in ethical training of future business leaders because the issue of dishonest behaviour of students becomes very severe, when they exercise the same practice at their place of work. Therefore, the understanding of the factors that affect student's decisions to engage in academic dishonesty is important for academic institutions, in order to reduce its occurrence. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of individual factors, situational factors and ethical factors on academic dishonesty behaviour of students in Pakistan.
A questionnaire‐based field survey was conducted with 500 students across four universities in Pakistan.
It has been found that individual, situational and ethical factors affect on rationalisation of academic dishonesty and this rationalisation shapes actual conduct of academic dishonesty. Moreover, lack of well‐defined policies of the academic dishonesty in higher education is a major determinant of academic dishonesty among students.
The results provide a strong implication for academics. By discouraging such behaviour, academic institutions can help ensure the integrity of the degrees they offer, and help to level the fair grade competition among students.
The research provides a profound investigation of individual, situational and ethical factors as predictors of students’ academic dishonesty. The study is pioneering in its nature to explore two common forms of academic dishonesty, i.e. plagiarism and dual submission among university students. Furthermore, the study used rationalisation of academic dishonesty as a determinant of the actual act of academic dishonesty.
Purpose — This chapter aims to argue that in some cases, dishonesty in international partnerships may be beneficial from the dishonest firm’s perspective.Design/methodology/approach — The chapter is based on three cases of dishonest Chinese firms that cheated their American or German partners.Findings — We argue that dishonesty does not always lead to negative consequences for the dishonest/opportunistic firm and if it does, benefits may be larger than costs.Practical implications — It is not always easy to avoid partners’ dishonest behavior especially if they hope to benefit considerably from this and if the probability of getting caught and punished is low.Originality/value — The consequences of dishonesty in international partnerships — especially, relationship dissolution and positive impacts of dishonesty for the dishonest firm — have not received considerable research attention yet. We argue that despite relationship dissolution caused by the Chinese partners’ dishonesty, two of the dishonest firms gained.
This paper aims to survey students and faculty from the College of Engineering at an American university in the United Arab Emirates about their perception on different…
This paper aims to survey students and faculty from the College of Engineering at an American university in the United Arab Emirates about their perception on different issues related to academic dishonesty. Opinions were sought on plagiarism, inappropriate collaboration, cheating on exams, copyright violations and complicity in academic dishonesty. Reasons for students to commit dishonest acts and ways to reduce academic misconduct were also included.
A survey involving 11 questions with multiple choice answers was developed and distributed to engineering students and faculty at the institution to get their perception of the considered issues.
Results of the study showed that while faculty and students were generally in agreement in their perception of the frequency of academic dishonesty among students, they greatly differed on the courses of action needed to reduce them. Most faculty members favored applying tougher penalties and using more proctors in exams. On the other hand, students preferred softer approaches such as educating them on academic integrity issues, applying lenient deadlines for assignments and reducing the difficulty of exams.
The conclusions and recommendations of the study are applicable to colleges of higher education having similar characteristics and culture to the surveyed institution.
The findings can be used to understand students’ behavior and faculty’s attitude toward academic dishonesty, and to assess the effectiveness of current strategies addressing the issue at similar universities in the region.
The conducted literature review indicated that this work is believed to be a pioneering case study in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries.
Academic dishonesty in post‐secondary education is a widespread, insidious and global problem. Business educators hosting foreign students locally and teaching abroad more…
Academic dishonesty in post‐secondary education is a widespread, insidious and global problem. Business educators hosting foreign students locally and teaching abroad more than ever need to understand the nuances and attitudes of different student populations and how these differences may manifest themselves in a course. This research contributes to the growing albeit still scanty body of literature demonstrating that significant cross‐national differences exist regarding students' attitudes, beliefs and propensities toward cheating. This study compares US and Hong Kong university business students on three areas: cheating behaviors and perceptions, relationships between academic dishonesty and gender, and prediction of academic dishonesty. A total of 443 usable surveys were collected in the USA and 622 in Hong Kong. Statistically significant differences are presented followed by discussion and implications.
Purpose — The aim of this chapter is to explain the concepts of honesty and dishonesty in management and provide a general understanding why and how honesty and dishonesty may manifest in different ways.Design/methodology/approach — This conceptual chapter discusses what (dis)honesty is, which factors affect it and which consequences result from it. It is illustrated with several short examples.Findings — (Dis)honesty is a complex concept. It is not always possible to classify a certain act as honest or dishonest: sometimes, it is in the ‘grey area’. Moreover, the understanding what is honest and what is not depends on the cultural context. Thus, the term (dis)honesty may be sometimes more appropriate.Originality/value — The complexity of (dis)honesty in management (encompassing its nature, impact factors and consequences) has received relatively little research attention.
Purpose — The aim of this chapter is to explore the relative bounds between the domains of dishonesty and honesty, focusing on the antecedences and consequences of these…
Purpose — The aim of this chapter is to explore the relative bounds between the domains of dishonesty and honesty, focusing on the antecedences and consequences of these phenomena.Design/methodology/approach — This conceptual paper discusses the literature on the nature of (dis)honesty in management based on the chapters published in this book but also other management literature.Findings — (Dis)honesty is a complex concept, especially in international management. The chapter brings out two main features of dishonesty. First, dishonest behavior occurs always in result of moral path dependency, and second, both honest and dishonest behaviors seem to be contagious — belonging to our social surrounding, we inevitably mirror others.Originality/value — The complexity of (dis)honesty in management (encompassing its nature, impact factors and consequences) has received relatively little research attention.
The authors investigate the joint effects of two environmental variables, performance-based pay (PBP) and performance monitoring (PM), on behavioral dishonesty in a…
The authors investigate the joint effects of two environmental variables, performance-based pay (PBP) and performance monitoring (PM), on behavioral dishonesty in a setting where the controls subsequently are absent. In a laboratory study using 88 participants in a 2×2 experimental design, simulating a work environment, the authors manipulate the presence of PBP and PM. Once the participants are accustomed to their assigned work environment and have completed contractual tasks unrelated to the dishonesty experiment, the authors allow them to privately roll dice to determine the size of a bonus gift card. Dishonesty levels are inferred from differences between treatment groups in the prizes claimed. The authors find an interaction effect, where inferred dishonesty in the performance-based-pay group is higher than the fixed-pay group when there is no PM, but lower when there is PM. Although theory and existing literature did not lead us to hypothesize these exact results, they offer important insights into a complex relationship. By jointly examining the effects of worker contracts and workplace monitoring on dishonesty, this research extends the understanding of the potential consequences of formal controls. As the workplace grows more complex, employers increasingly rely on information provided by frontline employees and managers. Thus, unintended effects of managerial controls on honesty are an important topic in the business literature.
Prior research suggests both formal and informal norms influence employee behavior. While increased training is a typical recommendation to strengthen formal norms by…
Prior research suggests both formal and informal norms influence employee behavior. While increased training is a typical recommendation to strengthen formal norms by increasing adherence to organizational codes of conduct, and therefore improve ethical behavior, there is little empirical evidence that code training actually strengthens formal norms or improves ethics-related behavior. Conversely, prior observations of unethical behavior serve as strong indicators of informal norms. These observations may be unknown to management and therefore difficult to moderate using other means, including with training on a code.
We test the impact of prior observations of unethical behavior and training for a code of conduct on intentions to report unethical behavior in the future, as well as possible mediators of these relationships. We find some support that training on the code increases intention to report and strong support for the notion that prior observations of unethical behavior decrease intentions to report. Responsibility to report and norms against whistle-blowing both mediate the prior observation-to-reporting intentions relationship, but not the training-to-reporting intentions relationship. An interesting by-product of training seems to be that, by increasing awareness of unethical behavior, and therefore the salience of prior observation, training may have indirectly influenced intentions in the opposite direction intended.
The directors of a company owe certain duties to the company itself as a legal entity distinct from its members. They also owe duties to its shareholders in prescribed…
The directors of a company owe certain duties to the company itself as a legal entity distinct from its members. They also owe duties to its shareholders in prescribed circumstances, and to a lesser degree to the company's creditors. This paper, inter alia, examines the circumstances in which breach of the duties owed by the directors of the company to its creditors may give rise to criminal responsibility. Central to this analysis is an exposition of the concept of fraud and its associated concept of dishonesty generally and an analysis of the interpretation by the courts of the nature and ambit of s. 458 of the Companies Act. Finally consideration will be given as to how this offence may be affected by the proposals of the Law Commission in its Consultation Paper No. 155 as to the future role of fraud and dishonesty in offences.