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Book part
Publication date: 13 May 2021

Betül Kodaş and Davut Kodaş

Travels and vacations organised by a large number of people to certain destinations in certain periods cause some negative impacts on the destinations in question. The…

Abstract

Travels and vacations organised by a large number of people to certain destinations in certain periods cause some negative impacts on the destinations in question. The concept of overtourism, which has become a current issue especially with the anti-tourism demonstrations in certain destinations such as Venice, Barcelona and Dubrovnik as a result of the increasing tourism carrying capacity, has been drawing attention in recent years regarding the sustainability in the destinations. Popular destinations that are affected by overtourism try to develop some strategies in order to minimise the negative impacts of overtourism. One of these strategies is the demarketing strategy that is developed by the destination stakeholders towards the target group. In this chapter of the book, the significance of the concept of demarketing in terms of struggle against overtourism was revealed and how demarketing strategies applied to the marketing mix and different strategies were approached in tourism studies was discussed in detail by addressing the current literature. In addition, suggestions were proposed to the popular destinations that feel the negative impacts of overtourism and will be affected by overtourism also in the future concerning creating their own demarketing strategies and destination planning.

Details

Overtourism as Destination Risk
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-707-2

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Book part
Publication date: 13 May 2021

Frank Lindberg and Sabrina Seeler

The growing tensions related to overtourism and its influences, such as environmental harm to nature and residents' well-being, loss of authenticity and visitors'…

Abstract

The growing tensions related to overtourism and its influences, such as environmental harm to nature and residents' well-being, loss of authenticity and visitors' satisfaction, have triggered a rethinking of destination marketing strategies. Many destinations consider stricter measures to cope with this situation. Among others, demarketing initiatives, which aim at discouraging demand, are discussed as an alternative strategic orientation. Demarketing is not a new concept, but in complex tourism destinations with many attractions, stakeholders and tourists, its potential remains mostly unexplored. This chapter presents findings from two tourism destinations: one on a national scale, New Zealand, and one on a regional scale, the Lofoten Islands, Norway. Our results show that destination demarketing mix strategies are emphasised by both destinations. In an overtourism situation, it is surprising that general demarketing has limited relevance. Instead, we find evidence for a mix of mainly selective demarketing, but also synchromarketing initiatives (redistributing demand spatially and temporally) and counter-marketing efforts (tourists' code of conduct). Decisions related to the implementation of a demarketing mix depend not only on destination management in general, but also on long-term, sustainability-oriented and dynamic processes where stakeholders negotiate how they can adjust visitor demands. We refer to such strategic work as ‘Stakeholder Integrated Demarketing Approach’ (SIDA). The chapter provides an original contribution to tourism academia and practices while opening avenues for future research, particularly with reference to a demarketing mix strategy and the feasibility of SIDA in times when demarketing could develop as a tool to mitigate overtourism.

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Article
Publication date: 30 May 2008

Dominic Medway and Gary Warnaby

This paper aims to consider the role of demarketing in the specific context of the marketing of places, and to introduce a typology of place demarketing and related place…

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9730

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to consider the role of demarketing in the specific context of the marketing of places, and to introduce a typology of place demarketing and related place marketing activity.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a review of the extant literature on place marketing and branding, place image and demarketing, the paper outlines a number of different types of place demarketing and more unusual place marketing strategies, with examples of each.

Findings

The marketing of places has grown in scale and importance, both as a practice and as an area of academic research, as places have had to become more entrepreneurial in an ever‐increasing competitive environment. Places are increasingly conceptualised as brands to be marketed, and a key emphasis of such activity is the creation of an attractive place image and/or the dilution of negative place images. This is reinforced in the academic literature. Counter to this “conventional wisdom”, this article conceptualises various types of place demarketing activity and related place marketing activities; namely “passive place demarketing”, “informational place demarketing”, “crisis place demarketing”, and also “perverse place marketing” and “dark place marketing”.

Originality/value

This paper provides a unique counter to the “conventional wisdom” of place marketing by introducing the concept of place demarketing and perverse and dark place marketing which more explicitly accentuate the negative, rather than accentuating the positive which is the norm in this marketing context. A typology of such activities is introduced and the implications for place brands are considered.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 42 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2007

A.P. Wall

This paper seeks to assess the strategic rationale and the effectiveness of government “demarketing” campaigns in the areas of smoking, binge drinking and private car usage.

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5839

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to assess the strategic rationale and the effectiveness of government “demarketing” campaigns in the areas of smoking, binge drinking and private car usage.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of 257 young people in Northern Ireland was carried out, seeking their opinions on the effectiveness of current demarketing campaigns.

Findings

Government demarketing initiatives are generally seen as ineffective, except for the banning of smoking in enclosed public places. Punishing disorderly behaviour caused by excess alcohol and making private driving more expensive are thought to achieve a certain degree of effectiveness.

Practical implications

The UK Government has put considerable effort into demarketing campaigns of this kind, with limited success. The need to rethink strategy and implementation is particularly urgent with regard to drinking behaviour and its consequences, because the government appears to be sending out mixed messages through its communications and its actions. Although continued pressure on smokers appears to be bringing results, the effectiveness of individual initiatives is variable. Lessons may be transferable to other areas of demarketing specifically and social marketing in general.

Originality/value

The paper reports the views of young people, who are the main targets of most campaigns of this nature, and are future smokers, drinkers and drivers if they have not established those behaviour patterns already.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1977

S.M.A. Saddik

If the events of late 1973 have been the catalyst for an accelerated transition from the age of low‐cost oil, they have also demonstrated, on the one hand, the feasibility

Abstract

If the events of late 1973 have been the catalyst for an accelerated transition from the age of low‐cost oil, they have also demonstrated, on the one hand, the feasibility of demarketing as an advantageous optional strategy for the oil‐exporting countries and, on the other, the inevitability of demarketing as an appropriate strategy to cope with the new situation in the oil‐importing countries. Writing in 1971, Kotler and Levy asserted that the marketer's task is not blindly to seek increases in sales; rather, it is “to shape demand to conform with long‐run objectives”, including “that aspect of marketing that deals with discouraging customers in general or a certain class of customers in particular on either a temporary or a permanent basis”, i.e., demarketing. Kotler and Levy could not have hoped for a better situation to prove the soundness of their ideas than the present oil crisis.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 5 July 2011

Kamaljit Sodhi

The increasing emphasis on sustainable practices requires innovative strategies and responses from the marketer. The fundamental purpose of marketing is re‐viewed in the…

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3158

Abstract

Purpose

The increasing emphasis on sustainable practices requires innovative strategies and responses from the marketer. The fundamental purpose of marketing is re‐viewed in the light of growing demands for quality of life and the sustainability of resource use, and responsibility to society for the actions and effects of firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The discipline of marketing assumes its importance from establishing an interface with the consumer and the society at large. The idea of growth and increasing demand is implicit in marketing. The growing recognition of a fundamentally resource‐constrained environment requires a much guarded response from the marketer. Faced with the current situation of depleting resources, an ambience of increasing sensitivity to environmental issues and increasing demand of the consumer for a safer planet, how will the marketer justify pushing the product through the pipeline and on to the consumer? In the future it is reasonable to expect marketing processes to create or maintain demand and marketing to ration or reduce demand. The present study is an attempt to understand how demarketing may be used to further the sustainability agenda. It is an in‐depth review of literature has been undertaken to establish linkages between demarketing and sustainability.

Findings

The possibility of using demarketing as a marketer's response to sustainability concerns is clearly established and areas of further research are highlighted.

Originality/value

The paper opens up the debate on a subject that is clearly going to be high on the agenda for years to come.

Details

Business Strategy Series, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-5637

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 13 May 2021

Abstract

Details

Overtourism as Destination Risk
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-707-2

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2009

Louise M. Hassan, Edward Shiu, Gianfranco Walsh and Gerard Hastings

The purpose of this paper is to present an overview and evaluation of the European Commission “HELP – for a life without tobacco” campaign.

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1939

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present an overview and evaluation of the European Commission “HELP – for a life without tobacco” campaign.

Design/methodology/approach

Data collected via a web and a telephone survey is used to evaluate the campaign.

Findings

The findings reveal how a campaign targeted at individuals can lead to social change through involvement with key stakeholder groups including NGO's and the public at large. At an individual level the campaign was received favourably with overall high levels of awareness and engagement with the message. The associated web site was thought to contain trustworthy information and persuasive arguments about the dangers of smoking and passive smoking.

Originality/value

The originality of this paper lies in providing an example of social advertising across a large number of countries. Furthermore, this case study adds to the literature on demarketing, highlighting that demarketing can take place across two levels both at the citizen level and at the governmental level.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2005

Anthony P. Wall

To compare three demarketing campaigns.

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4057

Abstract

Purpose

To compare three demarketing campaigns.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a commentary piece which compares three campaigns those aiming to reduce smoking, excessive drinking and the use of the motorcars – undertaken by the United Kingdom government and considers the different approaches being used.

Findings

The article highlights areas where there appears to be a conflict between the particular demarketing campaign and other initiatives.

Originality/value

Outlines some of the different approaches that can be employed by government when trying to demarket the use of products or commodities.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 39 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2010

Leanne Fullerton, Kathleen McGettigan and Simon Stephens

This paper aims to examine the integration of management and marketing practices at heritage sites in Ireland.

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3036

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the integration of management and marketing practices at heritage sites in Ireland.

Design/methodology/approach

The research process involved: phase one, a survey of 224 heritage attractions in Ireland and phase two, semi‐structured interviews with the six organizations that represent the heritage sector on the island of Ireland.

Findings

The findings suggest that market research and marketing communication are vital in achieving a balance between targeting cultural tourists and tourists with no specific interest in heritage.

Research limitations/implications

The study has the restriction of being limited to the Irish case. However, these findings provide scope for further investigation, namely extending to other destinations and to sites which use different techniques.

Originality/value

A combined commitment to visitor research by the individual heritage sites could provide information to the representative organizations to facilitate target marketing and improved onsite management. However, a change of mindset is required among heritage practitioners in Ireland regarding the use of marketing and the implications for onsite management. The authors propose that this is achievable through education linked to the study of models of best practice.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

Keywords

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