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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1997

James L. Price

Addresses the standardization of the measurements and the labels for concepts commonly used in the study of work organizations. As a reference handbook and research tool…

13386

Abstract

Addresses the standardization of the measurements and the labels for concepts commonly used in the study of work organizations. As a reference handbook and research tool, seeks to improve measurement in the study of work organizations and to facilitate the teaching of introductory courses in this subject. Focuses solely on work organizations, that is, social systems in which members work for money. Defines measurement and distinguishes four levels: nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. Selects specific measures on the basis of quality, diversity, simplicity and availability and evaluates each measure for its validity and reliability. Employs a set of 38 concepts ‐ ranging from “absenteeism” to “turnover” as the handbook’s frame of reference. Concludes by reviewing organizational measurement over the past 30 years and recommending future measurement reseach.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 18 no. 4/5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1998

Edward R. Maguire, Jeffrey B. Snipes, Craig D. Uchida and Margaret Townsend

Recent federal legislation and numerous public policy debates have relied heavily on estimates of the number of police agencies and police officers in the USA…

Abstract

Recent federal legislation and numerous public policy debates have relied heavily on estimates of the number of police agencies and police officers in the USA. Historically, these estimates have been problematic, varying tremendously over time, across different sources, and using different methodologies. Currently, the two main sources of agency‐level data for estimating these numbers are the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reports and the Census Bureau’s Law Enforcement Directory Survey. While there is a great deal of overlap between these two databases, each contains thousands of departments not listed in the other. Also, among those departments listed in one or more of these databases, there is tremendous variation in the number of police officers recorded. While some of the disparity can be explained by banal differences in counting and record‐keeping methods, much is rooted in differing definitions of what constitutes a “police officer” and a “police agency”. In this study, we closely examine both databases in an effort to account for the differences between them. In addition, we introduce a new data source derived from the records of the Justice Department’s Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS). Based on a thorough exploration of all three databases, we discuss the impact of their differences on criminal justice policy and police research. We first develop our own estimate of the number of police departments and police officers in the USA that differs substantially from other current estimates. We then estimate the number of police officers that the COPS office and future evaluators should use as the baseline for measuring the Clinton Administration’s success at adding 100,000 officers to the streets of America. Finally, we offer a modest set of recommendations for achieving greater uniformity across separate police agency databases.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 April 2022

Bethany Holt

This paper aims to determine any barriers and gaps within one community Forensic Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (FCAMHS) provision for young people presenting…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to determine any barriers and gaps within one community Forensic Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (FCAMHS) provision for young people presenting with risk of harm to others or involvement with the youth justice system, from Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) backgrounds.

Design/methodology/approach

This study presents a systematic review of literature into the barriers and gaps within community FCAMHS, which showed little research in the area. Because of this, referral numbers for five major cities within the Yorkshire and Humber community FCAMHS region were compared to population statistics and youth justice caution and sentencing data.

Findings

Comparison suggests that BAME young people are under-represented across referrals to community FCAMHS. Also, there were differences in the representation of BAME young people when compared to youth justice data across the five major cities.

Research limitations/implications

The lack of literature, combined with disparities in proportional representation of BAME young people within the Yorkshire and Humber FCAMHS, shows the need for a detailed study and analysis within national community FCAMHS.

Practical implications

More needs to be done within community FCAMHS to ensure that services are meeting the needs of young people at risk of criminalisation.

Originality/value

To the best of the author’s knowledge, there is currently no published literature that explores ethnic representation and access to community-based FCAMH services. Exploration within one regional service suggests that young people from BAME backgrounds may be under-represented within such services, whilst at the same time being over-represented within formal criminal justice.

Article
Publication date: 9 November 2010

Edward R. Maguire and Devon Johnson

The purpose of this paper is to test Mastrofski's six‐dimensional conceptualization of perceived service quality of the police.

4479

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test Mastrofski's six‐dimensional conceptualization of perceived service quality of the police.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws on data collected from a mail survey of residents in a suburban Virginia (USA) community and uses confirmatory factor analysis to test the six‐dimensional model of service quality.

Findings

The six‐dimensional model does not fit the data. Instead a one‐factor model fits the data, suggesting that public perceptions of police service quality are a one‐dimensional construct.

Research implications

Further research is necessary on two fronts. First, research should seek to determine whether the findings are consistent across different community contexts and types of samples. Second, research on related perceptual constructs, including procedural justice and legitimacy, should explore measurement properties in more detail.

Originality/value

This is one of few studies to examine the construct validity of public perception measures in police research.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Open Access
Book part
Publication date: 4 June 2021

Edgar Pacheco and Neil Melhuish

The nature and extent of adults' engagement in diverse manifestations of technology-facilitated aggression is not yet well understood. Most research has focused on…

Abstract

The nature and extent of adults' engagement in diverse manifestations of technology-facilitated aggression is not yet well understood. Most research has focused on victimization. When explored, engagement in online aggression and abuse has centered on children and young people, particularly in school and higher education settings. Drawing on nationally representative data from New Zealand adults aged 18 and over, this chapter explores the overall prevalence of online aggression with a focus on gender and age. Our findings support the need to also understand adult aggressors' behaviors to better address the distress and harm caused to targets through digital communications. The chapter discusses the implications of the results for policy and practice and proposes some directions for future research.

Details

The Emerald International Handbook of Technology-Facilitated Violence and Abuse
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-849-2

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 25 August 2022

Jo Roberts

Abstract

Details

Gendered Justice? How Women's Attempts to Cope With, Survive, or Escape Domestic Abuse Can Drive Them into Crime
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-069-6

Article
Publication date: 23 July 2020

James R. DeLisle, Terry V. Grissom and Brent Never

The purpose of this study is to explore spatiotemporal factors that affect the empirical analysis of whether crime rates in buffer areas surrounding abandoned properties…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore spatiotemporal factors that affect the empirical analysis of whether crime rates in buffer areas surrounding abandoned properties transferred to a Land Bank that differed among three regimes: before transfer, during Land Bank stewardship and after disposition and whether those differences were associated with differences in relative crime activity in the neighborhoods in which they were located.

Design/methodology/approach

This study analyzed crime incidents occurring between 2010 and 2018 in 0.1-mile buffer areas surrounding 31 abandoned properties sold by the Land Bank and their neighborhoods in which those properties were located. Using Copulas, researchers compared concordance/discordance in the buffer areas across the three regime states for each property and approximately matched time periods for associated neighborhoods.

Findings

In a substantial number of cases, the relative crime activity levels for buffer areas surrounding individual sold properties as measured by the Copulas shifted from concordant to discordant states and vice versa. Similarly, relative crime activity levels for neighborhoods shifted from concordant to discordant states across three matched regimes. In some cases, the property and neighborhood states matched, while in other cases they diverged. These cross-level interactions indicate that criminal behavioral patterns and target selection change over time and relative criminal activity. The introduction of Copulas can improve the reliability of such models over time and when and where they should be customized to add more granular insights needed by law enforcement agencies.

Research limitations/implications

The introduction of Copulas can improve the spatiotemporal reliability of the analysis of criminal activity over space and time.

Practical implications

Spatiotemporal considerations should be incorporated in setting interventions to manage criminal activity.

Social implications

This study provides support for policies supporting renovation of abandoned properties.

Originality/value

To the best of authors’ knowledge, this research is the first application of Copulas to crime impact studies. As noted, Copulas can help reduce the risk of applying intervention or enforcement programs that are no longer reliable or lack the precision provided by insights into convergent/divergent patterns of criminal activity.

Details

Journal of European Real Estate Research, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-9269

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1998

Martha E. Williams and Daniel E. Burgard

This is the twelfth article on social science, humanities, news, and general databases in a continuing series of articles summarizing and commenting on new database…

Abstract

This is the twelfth article on social science, humanities, news, and general databases in a continuing series of articles summarizing and commenting on new database products. Two companion articles, one covering science, technology, and, medicine (STM) appeared in Online & CD‐ROM Review vol. 22, no. 4 and the other covering business and law (BSL) will appear in Online & CD‐ROM Review vol. 22, no. 6. The articles are based on the newly appearing database products in the Gale Directory of Dafabases. The Gale Directory of Databases (GDD) was created in January 1993 by merging Computer‐Readable Databases: A Directory and Data Sourcebook (CRD) together with the Directory of Online Databases (DOD) and the Directory of Portable Databases (DPD).

Details

Online and CD-Rom Review, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1353-2642

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 22 June 2018

Tomas Aquino Guimaraes, Adalmir Oliveira Gomes and Edson Ronaldo Guarido Filho

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the concept of Administration of Justice as a research field and set out an agenda for future studies that could promote the…

9588

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the concept of Administration of Justice as a research field and set out an agenda for future studies that could promote the production of scientific knowledge in this area.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper explores the idiosyncratic features, dimensions of analysis upon the Administration of Justice, states a research agenda and discusses the main challenges on this theme. This paper conceptualizes Administration of Justice as a research field and discusses related phenomena from institutional and economic perspectives on innovation, performance, governance and legitimacy.

Findings

As a research field, Administration of Justice is defined as a set of theoretical concepts, research methods and techniques, aiming to investigate the management processes associated with the use and articulation of resources, knowledge and institutions, at different levels of the justice system, and their influence on the provision of justice in a given social context. As social phenomena, four levels of analysis are proper to investigate the justice system: societal, inter-organizational, organizational and operational. Innovation, performance, governance and legitimacy are central themes of the Administration of Justice and present various gaps and research opportunities.

Research limitations/implications

The main implications is the proposal of an agenda for future studies on the Administration of Justice field, which is an important step in raising awareness of the issue.

Originality/value

Administration of Justice encompasses a growing interest among academics, justice practitioners and public managers regarding managerial and political practices carried out in the justice system. Although relevant, this subject has been scarcely studied by the management community. This paper invites community to adopt an organizational and institutional perspective to Administration of Justice, setting an agenda for future research.

Details

RAUSP Management Journal, vol. 53 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2531-0488

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 May 2012

Jeremy M. Wilson

This work aims to summarize literature on police recruitment and retention and how changing conditions may affect these. It uses a bucket metaphor to conceptualize and…

3738

Abstract

Purpose

This work aims to summarize literature on police recruitment and retention and how changing conditions may affect these. It uses a bucket metaphor to conceptualize and present visually how these can interact with each other and create a dynamic police staffing challenge.

Design/methodology/approach

The literature review includes more than 150 works on police recruitment and retention, organized into discussions on the demand for police, the supply of police, and how systemic and episodic changes affect each.

Findings

Existing research suggests police agencies face a threefold challenge in meeting the demand for officers: attrition is likely to increase, sources of new recruits might be decreasing, and police responsibilities are expanding. Attrition might increase because of baby‐boom generation retirements, military call‐ups, changing generational expectations of careers, budget crises, and organizational characteristics. Sources of new recruits might be decreasing because of a decrease in the qualified applicant pool, changing generational preferences in selecting careers, increased competition for persons who might qualify as police officers, expanded skill requirements for police officers, uncompetitive benefits, and many of the organizational characteristics causing attrition. Policing responsibilities are expanding because of new roles in community policing, homeland security, and emerging crimes.

Originality/value

This work summarizes, as no other has previously, the extant research on police recruitment and retention. Many holes remain in the literature, but identifying the extant literature can help identify these and possible means to fill them. Reviewing the extant literature can also help agencies identify the proper lessons to face their own recruitment and retention challenges.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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