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Article
Publication date: 21 July 2022

Yue Yuan, Yuning Wu and Chris Melde

This study uses a diverse sample of residents living in Northern California to study factors that are associated with public perceptions of police bias. The authors also…

Abstract

Purpose

This study uses a diverse sample of residents living in Northern California to study factors that are associated with public perceptions of police bias. The authors also investigate whether perceptions of racial discrimination mediate the relationships between race/ethnicity and perceptions of police bias.

Design/methodology/approach

The sampling frame of the study was constructed through two stages. First, the frame included 212 census tracts in the study setting that comprise the study population. The authors stratified the census tracts by using demographic information from the most recent American Community Survey. The authors also used a multi-mode address-based design in which a household adult was invited through mail to participate in a web-based survey.

Findings

The authors found that racial/ethnic minorities (i.e. Latino, African American and Asian respondents) were more likely to experience racism and report police as biased than White residents. Racial and ethnic disparities in assessments of police bias, however, disappeared when controlling for direct and indirect experiences of racism, suggesting that experiences with racism are key factors explaining variations in perception of police bias across racial/ethnic groups.

Research limitations/implications

The generalizability of the findings is unclear. Future research should focus on multiple cities to advance the understanding of perceptions of police bias. Second, the measures of direct and indirect experiences with racism do not identify the source of the problematic encounters, and thus the authors are unaware of the experiences respondents had with police officers.

Practical implications

This paper includes the implications for the perceptions of police bias and how to improve police-citizen interactions.

Social implications

This paper will facilitate ongoing debate on police-citizens interactions. Specifically, how experiences of racism can improve the understanding of bias toward the police.

Originality/value

This paper fulfills an research need to study perceptions of police bias among diverse immigrant populations.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 45 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 1 September 2020

Audrey J. Murrell

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether the impact of persistent racial bias, discrimination and racial violence is facilitated by otherwise well-intentioned…

6046

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether the impact of persistent racial bias, discrimination and racial violence is facilitated by otherwise well-intentioned individuals who fail to act or intercede. Utilizing the aversive racism framework, the need to move beyond awareness raising to facilitate behavioral changes is discussed. Examining the unique lens provided by the aversive racism framework and existing research, the bystander effect provides important insights on recent acts of racial violence such as the murder of Mr. George Floyd. Some promise is shown by the work on effective bystander behavior training and highlights the need for shared responsibility in preventing the outcomes of racial violence and discrimination to create meaningful and long-lasting social change.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses literature based on the aversive racism framework together with the literature on the bystander effect to understand the factors, conditions and consequences for lack of intervention when the victim is African American. This paper also provides evidence and theory-based recommendations for strategies to change passive bystanders into active allies.

Findings

The use of the aversive racism framework provides a powerful lens to help explain the inconsistencies in the bystander effect based on the race of the victim. The implications for intervention models point to the need for behavioral and competency-based approaches that have been shown to provide meaningful change.

Practical implications

Several different approaches to address incidents of racial aggression and violence have been developed in the past. However, given the principles of aversive racism, a unique approach that considers the inconsistencies between self-perceptions and actions is needed. This sets a new agenda for future research and meaningful behavioral intervention programs that seek to equip bystanders to intercede in the future.

Social implications

The need to address and provide effective strategies to reduce the incidence of racial aggression and violence have wide-ranging benefits for individuals, communities and society.

Originality/value

By connecting the aversive racism framework to the bystander effect, the need for different models for developing responsive and active bystanders can be more effectively outlined.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 May 2017

Michael R. Smith, Jeff J. Rojek, Matthew Petrocelli and Brian Withrow

The purpose of this paper is to provide a contemporary review of the research on racial disparities in police decision making.

1266

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a contemporary review of the research on racial disparities in police decision making.

Design/methodology/approach

State of the art literature review.

Findings

The findings are mixed on racial disparities in the primary policing domains of stops, arrests, use of force, and neighborhood deployment. While minorities are often overrepresented among those subjected to police enforcement actions, these findings vary considerably. Almost all of the current studies that have reported racial disparities in the exercise of police authority lack the methodological rigor or statistical precision to draw cause and effect inferences.

Research limitations/implications

Efforts underway to document the impact of body-worn cameras on citizen complaints and force used by police could be extended to examine the impact of cameras on racial disparities in other enforcement-related outcomes such as arrests, stops and frisks, or searches. In addition, evaluating the effects of police training, such as anti-bias training or training on police legitimacy, on reducing racial disparities in police enforcement outcomes is another promising line of research inquiry.

Originality/value

This paper provides a concise review of the current state of the literature on a topic that is dominating the national conversation currently underway about the role of the police in American society.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 40 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 September 2018

Astin D. Vick and George Cunningham

The purpose of this paper is to examine bias among White raters against racial minority women seeking employment in fitness organizations.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine bias among White raters against racial minority women seeking employment in fitness organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a 2 (applicant perceived racial identity) × 2 (applicant race) × 2 (hiring directive) factorial design experiment, with participant rater gender serving as the within-subjects variable. Adults in the USA (n=238) who had or were currently working in the fitness industry participated in the study.

Findings

Results indicate that applicant presumed racial identity and rater gender had direct effects, while applicant presumed racial identity, applicant race and rater gender had interactive effects, as well.

Originality/value

Results show that perceived racial identity affects raters’ view of job applicants, and the pattern of findings varies among racial groups.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 August 2011

Brian C. Renauer and Emma Covelli

This paper aims to use three theoretical perspectives to understand variation in public opinion regarding the frequency with which police use race/ethnicity unfairly in…

4399

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to use three theoretical perspectives to understand variation in public opinion regarding the frequency with which police use race/ethnicity unfairly in making stops: procedural and instrumental justice, local government responsiveness, and intra‐racial differences.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper looks at data from a telephone survey of 1,431 Oregon residents: 741 from a stratified state‐wide random sample by county; 164 African‐Americans and 161 Hispanics over samples.

Findings

Perceived negative treatment during recent involuntary police contacts is related to a perception that police are more biased. Instrumental judgments regarding local government responsiveness to constituent needs and personal safety showed a negative relationship to perceptions of police bias. African‐American respondents exhibited the strongest police bias opinions; however, intra‐racial analyses showed that perceptions of government responsiveness weaken bias perceptions across race/ethnicity.

Research limitations/implications

Research needs to explore how the public's relationship to their local government influences perceptions of police. The conclusions of the study are limited by the cross‐sectional design.

Practical implications

The study illustrates that proper police‐citizen communication tactics, stop and investigatory procedures, and ethical decision making should continue to be reinforced along with better promotion of local government and police success in meeting constituent needs through the media.

Originality/value

The paper examines the influence of both procedural and instrumental justice perceptions, and voluntary and involuntary police contacts. The sample contains sufficient numbers of African‐Americans and Hispanics and diverse communities (urban, suburban, and rural) to gain a representative view.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 January 2020

Lei Wang and Jorge A. Gonzalez

This study aims to test the presence of an adverse impact against professors belonging to minority groups (African American, Asian American, Hispanic American and foreign…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to test the presence of an adverse impact against professors belonging to minority groups (African American, Asian American, Hispanic American and foreign national origin) in official student evaluation of teaching (SET).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a series of regression analyses to compare SET rating sources and control for course difficulty.

Findings

The regression analysis results showed that White American professors receive higher SET ratings than non-White American and foreign professors, which implies the presence of bias in SET.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to examine race/ethnicity and national origin bias in SET using official SET results from multiple universities.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 29 July 2009

Aliya Saperstein

For nearly two decades, researchers across the disciplines of social science and medicine have grappled with how to conceptualize and measure race to better explain racial

Abstract

For nearly two decades, researchers across the disciplines of social science and medicine have grappled with how to conceptualize and measure race to better explain racial inequality. Improvements have been made, but most scholars continue to assume that a “correct” measure of race exists or that different estimates between measures are essentially quantitative errors. However, obtaining different estimates from different measures of race might instead suggest that there are substantively different explanations for the disparities. I explore this possibility by revisiting conventional findings about racial differences in reported health screenings using data from the 1988 National Survey of Family Growth, which includes both the respondent's self-identification and how she was classified by the survey interviewer. Regression results indicate that differences in interviewer-classified race are more closely related to disparities in health screenings than self-identification; these findings complement recent research on the role of racial discrimination and implicit prejudice in clinical encounters and highlight the importance of using multiple measures of race in health care research.

Details

Social Sources of Disparities in Health and Health Care and Linkages to Policy, Population Concerns and Providers of Care
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-835-9

Article
Publication date: 20 April 2018

Anthony Gennaro Vito, Elizabeth L. Grossi and George E. Higgins

The purpose of this paper is to examine the issue of racial profiling when the traffic stop outcome is a search using focal concerns theory as a theoretical explanation…

1122

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the issue of racial profiling when the traffic stop outcome is a search using focal concerns theory as a theoretical explanation for police officer decision making and propensity score matching (PSM) as a better analysis to understand the race of the driver.

Design/methodology/approach

The data for this study come from traffic stops conducted by the Louisville Police Department between January 1 and December 31, 2002.

Findings

The results show that the elements of focal concerns theory matter most when it comes to if a traffic stop that resulted in a search even though racial profiling was evident. The use of PSM provides evidence that it is a better statistical technique when studying racial profiling. The gender of the driver was significant for male drivers but not for female drivers.

Research limitations/implications

The data for this study are cross-sectional and are self-report data from the police officer.

Practical implications

This paper serves as a theoretical explanation that other researchers could use when studying racial profiling along with a better type of statistical analysis being PSM.

Social implications

The findings based on focal concerns theory could provide an explanation for police officer decision making that police departments could use to help citizens understand why a traffic stop search took place.

Originality/value

This is the first study of its kind to the researcher’s knowledge to apply focal concerns theory with PSM to understand traffic stop searches.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 41 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 8 June 2020

Andra D. Rivers Johnson

The role of implicit provider bias in mental health care is an important issue that continues to be of concern in the twenty-first century for the Black/African American…

Abstract

The role of implicit provider bias in mental health care is an important issue that continues to be of concern in the twenty-first century for the Black/African American community. Access to mental health and quality care remains elusive as members of this social group lack access to mental health screening, diagnosis, and attention due to institutional and cultural barriers. Supporting the position that implicit and explicit provider bias exists in the mental health profession, this chapter will explore how implicit provider bias is an intractable institutional barrier that prevents Black/African Americans from accessing mental health and quality care. A review of the implications related to mental health outcomes with Black/African American clients will also be explored.

A brief overview of the Black/African American cultural responses to implicit provider bias will be discussed later in this chapter. There will be an exploration of the ways to help identify, address, and eliminate implicit provider bias using evidence-based personal and community engagement strategies that promote mental health wellness within the Black/African American community. Implications for best practices in Black/African American mental health will also be addressed to eradicate the risk of unethical or medical malpractice with Black/African American clients, reduce the mental health disparity experienced by Blacks/African Americans, and create mental health equity for this population.

Details

The International Handbook of Black Community Mental Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-965-6

Book part
Publication date: 12 July 2010

Dana Wood and Sandra Graham

Discrimination is defined as negative or harmful behavior toward a person because of his or her membership in a particular group (see Jones, 1997). Unfortunately…

Abstract

Discrimination is defined as negative or harmful behavior toward a person because of his or her membership in a particular group (see Jones, 1997). Unfortunately, experiences with discrimination due to racial group membership appear to be a normal part of development for African American youth. Discrimination experiences occur within a variety of social contexts, including school, peer, and community contexts, and with increasing frequency as youth move across the adolescent years (Fisher, Wallace, & Fenton, 2000; Seaton et al., 2008). Recent research with a nationally representative sample of African American 13–17-year olds revealed that 87% had experienced at least one racially discriminatory event during the preceding year (Seaton et al., 2008). Most of the research on the consequences of youths’ encounters with racial discrimination has focused on mental health outcomes (Cooper, McLoyd, Wood, & Hardaway, 2008), with surprisingly little work examining whether and through what mechanisms discrimination affects achievement motivation.

Details

The Decade Ahead: Applications and Contexts of Motivation and Achievement
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-254-9

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