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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1994

Yin Cheong Cheng

Aims to develop an organizational model for understanding and managingeffective curriculum change in school. Assumes that curriculum changeand teacher competence…

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3227

Abstract

Aims to develop an organizational model for understanding and managing effective curriculum change in school. Assumes that curriculum change and teacher competence development occur in a three‐level context of school organization: the individual level, the group/ programme level, and the whole school level. There exists mutual development and reinforcement between curriculum and teacher competence and also a hierarchy of influence across three levels. Congruence between curriculum change and teacher development and across levels is important for effectiveness of teaching and learning. Congruence represents conceptual consistency and operational consistency, reflecting the strength of school culture. Provides a comprehensive conceptual framework to plan and manage curriculum change and teacher competence development.

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International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2006

Don Chrusciel

With significant change as an ongoing challenge, the development and use of a flexible change curriculum is identified as a success factor that will allow an organization…

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2671

Abstract

Purpose

With significant change as an ongoing challenge, the development and use of a flexible change curriculum is identified as a success factor that will allow an organization to optimize the outcome from change transformations.

Design/methodology/approach

After discussing significant change, this paper will contrast two organizations in support of a flexible curriculum taking into account multiple theories addressing change, learning, planning, utilization of a curriculum, and assessment, all to enhance the change transformation experience.

Findings

The research, investigation, introduction, implementation and refinement of the action plan play a very important role in how the enterprise accommodates change. It is further suggested that at the heart of any action plan is a flexible curriculum by which the organization can use a formulated educational plan to adjust its current mode of operation to incorporate an ongoing change philosophy.

Research limitations/implications

The intent is to identify benefits in using a curriculum to aid significant change transformations where logic and reality can justify its use.

Practical implications

It is postulated that a well‐developed yet flexible curriculum with assessment to track the impact of changes throughout the process will serve to enhance the flexibility of the enterprise and its ability to deal with change. The curriculum serves as the means that provides the organizational membership with identified learning and instruction to mix corporate culture with change urgency.

Originality/value

Taking into account change and learning theories, an action plan in the form of a flexible curriculum with assessment is recommended to optimize significant change transformations.

Details

The Learning Organization, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-6474

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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2008

Bee Bee Sng

The purpose of this paper is to find out how organizational and contextual factors affect a curriculum change in a University in Singapore. There is a need to research the…

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2055

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to find out how organizational and contextual factors affect a curriculum change in a University in Singapore. There is a need to research the processes of educational change in Singapore as rapid changes can result in complex problems. The university is chosen as it is at the forefront of the government's strategy for economic planning. It is also hoped that through this case study investigation of curriculum educational change of this University's Engineering School, the importance of considering people's situations and their roles in the educational change can be highlighted. Previously, students undertook one year of common engineering curriculum when they enrolled in a Bachelor of Engineering program in this University. This has, however, been expanded to a two‐year common engineering program. This study examines the academic staff's collaboration and communication in implementing the curriculum change. This study investigates the organizational factors that influence the academics' communication in a curriculum change.

Design/methodology/approach

The research method used is documentary analysis of curriculum, planning and policy documents as well as annual reports.

Findings

The interviewees concurred on the points that there should be more consideration of their views on the curricular issues in the University, and that top‐down decisions should be incorporated with bottom‐up input. This study discovers that more attention should be paid to students' learning, particularly in developing skills that will help them adapt to a knowledge‐based economy and rapid economic developments. In general, the academics desired a greater and deeper involvement in decisions on curriculum changes so that they could contribute their professional and pedagogical viewpoints.

Originality/value

This study show the importance of examining the factors that influence academics to change and the stages they go through. It also shows the need to involve academics at every stage of a curriculum change.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Book part
Publication date: 7 December 2018

Freddy James and June George

This chapter reports on research work which was a component of an independent review of the primary school curriculum renewal exercise that was commissioned by the…

Abstract

This chapter reports on research work which was a component of an independent review of the primary school curriculum renewal exercise that was commissioned by the Ministry of Education in Trinidad and Tobago and executed during 2012–2013. It examines how agencies functioned to engender educational change through education governance systems in the process of revising the curriculum. Turbulence Theory (Gross, 2014) was the tool used to explore the interactions among agencies. The research shows that turbulence occurred at various stages and that the outcome of interactions among the agencies that were in pursuit of educational change and equity was largely dependent on the extent of the turbulence and how it was managed. For example, the local Curriculum Planning Team (CPT) was able to learn from external consultants while firmly maintaining that they were the ones who had a deep understanding of the local context and should therefore have a major say in what was included in the curriculum. However, the CPT could do little to offset the severe turbulence caused when the political directorate mandated that there should be full-scale implementation of the revised curriculum without the benefit of a pilot. The role of socio-political contextual factors in the curriculum development process is highlighted.

Details

Turbulence, Empowerment and Marginalisation in International Education Governance Systems
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-675-2

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2014

Shireen J. Fahey, John R. Labadie and Noel Meyers

The aim of this paper is to present the challenges external drivers and internal inertia faced by curriculum designers and implementers at institutions of higher…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to present the challenges external drivers and internal inertia faced by curriculum designers and implementers at institutions of higher education. The challenges to academics from competing factors are presented: internal resistance to changing existing curricula vs the necessity to continuously evolve programmes to reflect a dynamic, uncertain future. The necessity to prepare future leaders to face global issues such as climate change, dictates changing curricula to reflect changing personal, environmental and societal needs.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses the case study method to examine two models of climate change curriculum design and renewal. One model, from an Australian university, is based upon national education standards and the second is a non-standards-based curriculum design, developed and delivered by a partnership of four North American universities.

Findings

The key findings from this study are that the highest level of participation by internal-to-the-programme academics and administrators is required. Programme quality, delivery and content alignment may be compromised with either stand-alone course delivery and learning outcomes, or if courses are developed independently of others in the programme. National educational standards can be effective tools to guide course and programme management, monitoring, review and updating.

Practical implications

The paper includes implications for postgraduate level curricula design, implementation and programme evaluation.

Originality/value

The paper is the first to compare, contrast and critique a national standards-based, higher education curriculum and a non-standards-based curriculum.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

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Article
Publication date: 16 January 2009

Ping‐Man Wong and Alan Chi‐Keung Cheung

To cope with the challenges of the twenty‐first century, the Hong Kong SAR government initiated the Curriculum Reform in 2001. In 2006, a research team from a tertiary…

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1996

Abstract

Purpose

To cope with the challenges of the twenty‐first century, the Hong Kong SAR government initiated the Curriculum Reform in 2001. In 2006, a research team from a tertiary institution was commissioned to review the progress of change for smooth implementation of the reform in its next phase. This paper aims to examine this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The nature of the review is basically a survey, applying questionnaires and follow‐up focus‐group interviews to collect data from different groups of subjects. The sample was around 20 per cent of the population, i.e. a total of 252 primary (n=138) and secondary (n=114) schools.

Findings

The paper reports findings on the support for the Reform by primary and secondary schools. Five areas of agreement among school heads are examined, which include challenges to be met, guiding principles of the reform, learning goals, reform framework and the overall agreement with the rationale of the reform. It is found that, while the curriculum reform was supported among school heads, senior teachers and teachers, there was a gap between the views of senior management team and frontier teachers.

Research limitations/implications

This is a very comprehensive research project with a limited timeframe. The paper can only report and discuss findings mainly on the support for curriculum reform by school heads. Other aspects of the study will be discussed and reported separately in subsequent papers.

Practical implications

The gap between the views of senior management team and frontier teachers is worth probing as this is the most obstructive factor to the implementation of the reform. Identifying the cause would be the first step in formulating strategies to address and, hopefully, to facilitate the smooth transition from the phase of implementation to the continuation phase of the change process.

Originality/value

The study has suggested the development of a two‐dimensional framework of agreement areas and stakeholders which will contribute to a better understanding of the change process in general, and achievements of a curriculum reform in particular. Other issues are also discussed.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1993

Bronston T. Mayes, Dorothy Heide and Ephraim Smith

A survey was mailed to the deans of AACSB accredited schools and 50 per cent of the non‐accredited AACSB affiliates, to determine their perceptions of how the changes in…

Abstract

A survey was mailed to the deans of AACSB accredited schools and 50 per cent of the non‐accredited AACSB affiliates, to determine their perceptions of how the changes in accreditation criteria might affect their curricula and what methods might be used to make these changes. The sample was classified according to the Porter‐McKibbin categories and significant differences were found among these categories for perceived ease of accreditation; changes in programme quality; resource allocation changes; use of mission statements in decision making; curriculum component emphasis, and curriculum evaluation methods. While the overall amount of change expected in the next five years seems modest, the nature of the changes expected could have significant effects on the curricula of US business schools.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2019

Kathryn H. Au and Taffy E. Raphael

Purpose – This chapter discusses the application of the Gradual Release of Responsibility (GRR) to school change and the learning of groups of leaders, teachers, and…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter discusses the application of the Gradual Release of Responsibility (GRR) to school change and the learning of groups of leaders, teachers, and students. Specifically, the authors describe the Seven Levels to Success, a model for school change that supports teachers in building their school’s own staircase (coherent) curriculum in literacy. The authors discuss the effectiveness of this model for capacity building – giving schools a “deep bench” of leaders and teachers who can sustain improved student achievement over a period of years.

Design/Methodology/Approach – The theoretical underpinning of this research is provided by the Vygotsky Space, a construct that shows how learning may be understood in terms of the intersections of collective and individual actions, and public and private settings. This construct allows us to understand what drives a school’s advancement through the Seven Levels and how that advancement can be restarted after it has been slowed or interrupted. The authors report findings about school change from 20 years of work in 264 elementary and secondary schools, reflecting a wide range of students and communities across the United States.

Findings – While schools’ typical advancement in the Seven-Level model is neither steady nor linear, it adheres to an overall pattern: Leaders must take ownership first, followed by teachers and then students. To build their school’s staircase curriculum, teachers must see themselves as creators rather than consumers of curriculum. Teachers who see themselves as creators take ownership of their curriculum. Their deep understanding of the curriculum promotes continuous improvements and related success in improving their students’ literacy learning. Four case examples illustrate change in a variety of school settings, providing existence proofs of how the Seven-Level model functions to improve students’ literacy learning.

Research Limitations/Implications – The authors highlight the importance of the school as the unit of analysis in change efforts, and of understanding a school’s progress over time. The authors emphasize considering the role of multiple constituencies, beginning with school leaders and encompassing teachers, students, and families. One implication of this study is that more attention should be paid to the role of school leaders – administrators, curriculum coordinators, and teacher leaders – in setting the stage for sustainable improvement.

Practical Implications – The authors provide guidance to practitioners working on school change within the framework of the Seven Levels to Success and other social constructivist models. Specifically, the authors give examples of relevant actions external consultants and school leaders take at critical junctures in a school’s progress.

Originality/Value of Paper – This chapter breaks new ground in applying the GRR model and the Vygotsky Space to the area of school change in literacy. Summarizing 20 years of work with the Seven-Level model demonstrates potential of teacher-developed curricula for the sustainable improvement of students’ literacy learning.

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1993

Curtis W. Cook

With the accelerated impact of external forces on business schoolacademic programmes, a key question that faculty and administrators mustaddress is whether to continue to…

Abstract

With the accelerated impact of external forces on business school academic programmes, a key question that faculty and administrators must address is whether to continue to pursue incremental curriculum extensions (the traditional approach) or to undertake large‐scale reform and innovation efforts. A case is made that bold thrusts at large‐scale change are more likely to enhance educational relevance, invigorate faculty, and draw the B‐school closer to its primary customer‐the corporate community. Offers a propositional framework, built on seven principles of change applied directly to the process of curriculum change. Each proposition is supported with one or two mini cases drawn from experience within a large, publicly‐assisted university. By building on a series of bold, curriculum thrusts that include constituencies as active partners, a school will transform its character and strengthen quality.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1995

Russell Waugh and John Godfrey

Reports the results of a qualitative, cross‐sectional studyinvolving a survey of 549 teachers′ perceptions of the Unit Curriculumsystem in 22 metropolitan state senior…

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770

Abstract

Reports the results of a qualitative, cross‐sectional study involving a survey of 549 teachers′ perceptions of the Unit Curriculum system in 22 metropolitan state senior high schools in Perth, Western Australia, in the context of system‐wide change, within a centralized educational system. Surveyed perceptions of six general variables applied to the specific case of the Unit Curriculum system. These variables are: perceived cost benefit to the teacher; perceived practicality in the classroom; alleviation of fears and concerns; participation in school decisions on aspects affecting the classrooms; perceived support from senior staff; and feelings towards the previous system compared to the new system. Suggests these variables offer pointers to educational administrators on how best to tailor system‐wide changes so that teachers will be more receptive to the changes in the implementation stage.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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