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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2013

Gary Graham and Anita Greenhill

This paper aims to understand the level of synergy between print and online activity and to assess the influence of print/online synergy on the log of circulation change.

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4779

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to understand the level of synergy between print and online activity and to assess the influence of print/online synergy on the log of circulation change.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to meet this aim the authors conducted an empirical study of 100 regional newspapers supplying news media services in the UK. Two hypotheses grounded in a conceptual model were developed. The authors used Pearson correlation and (stepwise) regression analysis to test two hypotheses (H1 and H2).

Findings

H1 provides us with some interesting findings. The first is that higher priced newspapers attract more unique Internet users and mobile Internet access. Higher priced newspapers who have been in business longer and have established brands attract more online readers. Also, because these issues are more expensive there is more incentive to go online to read the papers for free. Note that this last explanation is consistent with the analysis provided for H2, the beta for price is negative. The negative coefficient indicates that the circulation change of higher priced papers has reduced more. Therefore circulation change impacts greater upon premium price newspapers for an elite rather than a broad readership. The regression results presented here indicate that established firms with premium pricing, providing multiple platform distribution and specialist digital editions with free online content, have circulations that are reducing less.Practical implications – While reducing the rate of circulation decline, current levels of online presence are not reversing it. There is a need for online presence to be focused on more targeted segments/niches of circulation such as “hyper‐local” news. This suggests a much clearer consideration must be made by newspapers with a premium price for an elite rather than a broad readership.

Social implications

News organizations now find themselves less socially relevant as consumers turn towards the Internet for alternative sources of “news”. News media firms are having to rebuild their brand identity and market positioning in the online marketplace. Higher priced newspapers have been in business longer and have established brand recognition for providing elite services. This is vital if they are to retain their community influence (as trusted sources of locally produced news, analysis and investigative reporting into public affairs). Commercial influence is determined by their social influence and the demise of newspapers would significantly threaten news plurality, democracy and public service journalism at the local community level.

Originality/value

The originality of this work concerns its specific focus on the influence of print/online synergy on the rate of circulation change. The news media industry is an under‐researched area of Internet scholarship. The study is significant on two counts: first, it estimates cross‐media synergies based on print and online interaction at an aggregated level; and second, it identifies different combinations of cross‐media exposure over individual media effects. It combines both print and online measures of circulation. Of most importance, the study is able to show that synergy is complementary and has had a positive effect on log circulation change by reducing it by a smaller number.

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Book part
Publication date: 29 December 2016

Guanxiong Huang and Hairong Li

As an extension to Assael’s (2011) review on media synergy, this chapter examines the latest evolvement of media synergy research in the past 10 years by integrating…

Abstract

Purpose

As an extension to Assael’s (2011) review on media synergy, this chapter examines the latest evolvement of media synergy research in the past 10 years by integrating studies from a wide range of leading journals.

Methodology/approach

We searched a total of 17 major journals in advertising, communication, and marketing from 2005 to 2014 and identified a total of 42 articles on media synergy. These studies were reviewed to assess the current status of media synergy research.

Findings

Studies of inter-media interaction at the individual level provide mixed support for a media synergistic effect, and the occurrence of this effect demands certain boundary conditions. Research on multi-media engagement has been gaining momentum in the past few years and is a promising subject in media synergy research.

Research implications

We envision two growing approaches in future media synergy research: the neuroscientific approach and the data mining approach.

Originality/value

This chapter posits that media synergy research has evolved in the most recent years to a new phase, which is multi-media engagement. Hence, this chapter extends Assael’s work in terms of explicating media synergy in the context of social media engagement and identifying research gaps in current literature.

Details

Advertising in New Formats and Media
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-312-9

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 June 2020

Jan F. Klein, Yuchi Zhang, Tomas Falk, Jaakko Aspara and Xueming Luo

In the age of digital media, customers have access to vast digital information sources, within and outside a company's direct control. Yet managers lack a metric to…

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6557

Abstract

Purpose

In the age of digital media, customers have access to vast digital information sources, within and outside a company's direct control. Yet managers lack a metric to capture customers' cross-media exposure and its ramifications for individual customer journeys. To solve this issue, this article introduces media entropy as a new metric for assessing cross-media exposure on the individual customer level and illustrates its effect on consumers' purchase decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

Building on information and signalling theory, this study proposes the entropy of company-controlled and peer-driven media sources as a measure of cross-media exposure. A probit model analyses individual-level customer journey data across more than 25,000 digital and traditional media touchpoints.

Findings

Cross-media exposure, measured as the entropy of information sources in a customer journey, drives purchase decisions. The positive effect is particularly pronounced for (1) digital (online) versus traditional (offline) media environments, (2) customers who currently do not own the brand and (3) brands that customers perceive as weak.

Practical implications

The proposed metric of cross-media exposure can help managers understand customers' information structures in pre-purchase phases. Assessing the consequences of customers' cross-media exposure is especially relevant for service companies that seek to support customers' information search efforts. Marketing agencies, consultancies and platform providers also need actionable customer journey metrics, particularly in early stages of the journey.

Originality/value

Service managers and marketers can integrate the media entropy metric into their marketing dashboards and use it to steer their investments in different media types. Researchers can include the metric in empirical models to explore customers' omni-channel journeys.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

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Article
Publication date: 6 August 2018

Xuebing Dong, Yaping Chang, Shichang Liang and Xiaojun Fan

The purpose of this paper is to examine the synergistic effects of online multimedia by categorizing it into online broadcast media (OBM) and online interactive media (OIM).

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2533

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the synergistic effects of online multimedia by categorizing it into online broadcast media (OBM) and online interactive media (OIM).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used an online experiment method to manipulate the online message stimuli level (online media synergy and online single media repetition).

Findings

The results revealed that participants exposed to message stimuli of online media synergy reported greater source credibility, cognitive responses (brand credibility and positive thoughts about the brand), attitude toward the brand and purchase intention. In online multimedia, source credibility influences attitude toward the brand through brand credibility and positive thoughts about the brand; in online single media repetition, source credibility influences attitude toward the brand through only brand credibility.

Research limitations/implications

In addition, the relationship between online media synergy and marketing outcomes might be moderated by consumers’ goals and thought patterns, and future research could further explore the moderating effects of these variables.

Practical implications

This study contributes to media synergy research, assists marketing planners in their understanding of the importance of online media synergy and serves as a reference for marketing planners considering an integrated online marketing plan.

Originality/value

The current study investigated how the synergy of OBM and OIM influences message persuasiveness for consumers (cognitive responses, attitude toward the brand and purchase intention).

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2017

Jenni Romaniuk and Nicole Hartnett

This paper aims to investigate the relative influence of advertising and word of mouth (WOM) for new season TV programmes, both new and returning.

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2244

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the relative influence of advertising and word of mouth (WOM) for new season TV programmes, both new and returning.

Design/methodology/approach

The study’s longitudinal research design tracks individuals before and after possible exposure to advertising and/or positive WOM (PWOM) to model the effects of both paid versus earned media on behaviour.

Findings

This study provides contrary evidence to previous research that suggests that WOM has more influence on consumers than advertising. By controlling for viewers’ benchmark probabilities of viewing the TV programme, the effect of receiving PWOM becomes insignificant, whereas the effect of TV advertising remains unchanged. Because WOM is commonly exchanged between people with shared interests, it reaches an audience that is already highly disposed to view the TV programme.

Research limitations/implications

The findings implicate that we need to reinvestigate the power of WOM to avoid misattribution of effects. This study is only study in one category, which means replication and extension to more categories are needed. The limitations of the study include the inability to control for creative differences in the execution of programme promotions or examine possible cross-media synergies for multimedia campaigns.

Practical implications

Findings have implications for how much to invest in WOM-generating activities. Findings also have wider implications for cross-media research and media-mix models, as different media may reach audiences with differing predispositions to act.

Originality/value

This is one of the rare individual-level, longitudinal studies that investigate the influence of WOM in comparison to advertising.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 51 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Sabrina Heike Kessler and Lars Guenther

Using the internet parallel to or after television (TV) consumption changes the way people receive news. The way information is framed by the media has been found to…

Abstract

Purpose

Using the internet parallel to or after television (TV) consumption changes the way people receive news. The way information is framed by the media has been found to influence the behavior of news recipients. The purpose of this paper is to hypothesize that the exposure to TV media frames would affect a lay audience’s online information-seeking behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

In an experiment combining eye tracking and content analysis, participants (n=72) were exposed to one of three TV clips with different media frames (based on a full-sample content analysis) that focused on Alzheimer’s disease. After exposure, participants informed themselves about the issue online. Eye tracking allows to investigate whether individuals mainly scan information, or whether they compute information on a higher level of attention (use more thorough deliberate comparison of information and really reading information).

Findings

Three different frames of online content were identified. Framing was found to influence the individual online searching and reading of information on a descriptive level (entering search words and viewing website content) to some degree, but not on a procedural level (such as selecting online search results).

Research limitations/implications

This study makes a significant contribution to the literature embedding an established theoretical process like framing effects into the internet literature. Regarding the broader theoretical context, this study shed some light on cross-media framing effects on online behavior. Applying the psychological perspective of framing theory to explain and predict online searching behavior is beneficial for specific types of online search behavior. Main limitations are the not representative student sample and the forced task that participants had to inform themselves about Alzheimer’s disease online.

Practical implications

The results have practical implications for the creation of TV-related websites. There can be a positive, profitable synergy of TV and online websites. The websites can complement the TV programs with the focus on information needs of the recipients depending on the TV activated audience frames. Therefore, media managers would do well to plan the contents of their websites as internet-based resources that meet the activated information needs.

Originality/value

This study is among the first to investigate the framing effects of TV on the online information searching behavior of individuals. A deeper understanding of how media frames, especially from TV, are affecting online information seeking will allow researchers to better explain and predict online user behavior and information needs. But still, more research is needed.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

JongRoul Woo, Joongha Ahn, Jongsu Lee and Yoonmo Koo

– The purpose of this paper is to explore the factors determining which communication mediums influence a given consumer deciding to purchase a specific product.

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7499

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the factors determining which communication mediums influence a given consumer deciding to purchase a specific product.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a consumer survey and a multivariate probit (MVP) model, the authors explore consumer information searches related to purchases in nine categories: milk, instant noodles, shampoo, mobile phones, televisions, cars, mobile communication services, credit card services, and life insurance.

Findings

The media channels that motivate a given consumer to make a given purchase vary depending on both socio-demographic variables and product categories.

Practical implications

As consumers can now obtain product information through different and multiple media channels according to their personal characteristics and the category of the product they seek to purchase, these findings will help companies develop media planning strategies that will effectively target specific market segments.

Originality/value

Unlike previous studies, the authors consider which media channels actually affect a consumer’s product purchase decisions, and the authors do so across product categories and media types to provide practical implications for media planning. Furthermore, this is the first application of the MVP model in this context.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 115 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Rainer Olbrich and Carsten D. Schultz

The study contributes to our understanding of search engine advertising in two main ways. Firstly, we analyze the comparative effectiveness of its campaign parameters…

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6187

Abstract

Purpose

The study contributes to our understanding of search engine advertising in two main ways. Firstly, we analyze the comparative effectiveness of its campaign parameters. Secondly, we examine the effect of print advertising on search engine advertising

Design/methodology/approach

Based on advertising data for a three-year period, we test the hypotheses by means of a path model with the aid of partial least squares.

Findings

The advertising budget and the degree of keyword matching yield the greatest effect on the number of signed contracts. The click-through rate and the bid amount contribute, to a lesser extent, to explaining this financial target variance. The number of keywords had no significant effect. The study did not yield significant evidence of print advertising, directly affecting the number of search engine advertisement impressions, but showed an indirect effect of print advertising on the number of conversions, induced directly by search engine advertising.

Research limitations/implications

The multichannel relationship of print and search engine advertising, including its campaign parameters, provides a starting point for future research to provide a coherent methodology for capturing the necessary data, processing the underlying information and evaluating the advertising effects.

Practical implications

The multichannel effect needs to be quantified and taken into account when evaluating print advertising and search advertising campaigns and the future advertising mix is planned.

Originality/value

The study extends the field of search engine advertising in the direction of multichannel effects. In comparison to previous research, empirical evidence on the multichannel usage of print advertising and search engine advertising, related to an overall economic target, is provided.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 48 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2017

Xuebing Dong, Yaping Chang and Xiaojun Fan

Marketers recognize that the internet is crucial in the lives of consumers; thus, they invest money on online advertisements. Using multiple online media primarily…

Abstract

Purpose

Marketers recognize that the internet is crucial in the lives of consumers; thus, they invest money on online advertisements. Using multiple online media primarily influences the message acceptance of consumers. The synergistic effect of online multimedia relies on form, content, and sources of information, and time. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A model that reflects the influence of the characteristics of online multimedia on message response through message acceptance is established based on theories of information persuasion, encoding variability, and multiple-source assumption. Based on a survey of 411 online media users, the study applies partial least-squares regression to test the research model.

Findings

The results show that variety of forms, complementary of contents, diversity of sources, and time interval influence message response via message strength. Complementary of contents and diversity of sources affect message response via perceived credibility. Synergy type moderates the relationship between variety of forms and perceived credibility and between diversity of sources and perceived credibility.

Research limitations/implications

The current study mainly tests the effect of these characteristics on message response and the moderating effect of synergy type. Future research can examine the effect of these characteristics on information seeking and consumption behavior and the moderating effect of the cognitive mode of consumers.

Practical implications

This study provides insight into the characteristics of synergy and contributes to the literature on integrated marketing communication. The results provide guidance for practitioners to effectively plan online multimedia practices.

Originality/value

This study explored the influence of the characteristics of online media synergy on message response through message acceptance. The study also discussed the moderating effect of the type of online multimedia synergy.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 41 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article
Publication date: 28 April 2020

Hans Erik Næss

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how companies activate their sponsorship of Formula E (for Electric) championship races to influence consumers' opinion of them…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how companies activate their sponsorship of Formula E (for Electric) championship races to influence consumers' opinion of them as sustainable businesses.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on an original combination of promotional outputs (YouTube spots, social media releases and sustainability reports) from Formula E race title sponsors in the 2017–2019 seasons, the paper is a qualitative analysis of how these sponsors solve the value clash between traditional motorsport imagery and environmentalism to achieve “narrative authenticity”.

Findings

Findings show that sponsors do not address this clash directly. Instead, the conflict itself is reframed as a question of what sponsors do to improve the environment, not what they ndo not do. Second, the timeframe for action is redefined, which means that the future is what counts, not the situation today or given aims like the UN 2030 Sustainable Development Goals.

Originality/value

Sponsorship activation through Formula E as way of generating green brand equity would come across as more credible if companies improved the use of cross-platform synergies to convey narrative authenticity. To qualitative researchers on sport sponsorship, the findings strengthen the understanding of brands as “cultural narrators”.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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