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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2011

Carsten Segerlund Frederiksen, Jorgen Segerlund Frederiksen, Janice Maria Sisson and Stacey Lee Osbrough

Major shifts in the southern hemisphere circulation occurred during the mid‐1970s concurrent with large reductions in southern Australian winter rainfall associated with…

Abstract

Purpose

Major shifts in the southern hemisphere circulation occurred during the mid‐1970s concurrent with large reductions in southern Australian winter rainfall associated with decreased cyclogenesis. The purpose of this paper is to study changes in cyclogenesis over southern Australia during the last 50 years, examine the ability of coupled climate models to simulate the winter circulation changes, and discuss projected changes in winter circulation and rainfall under different climate change scenarios.

Design/methodology/approach

Three dimensional instability theory is used to study changes in cyclogenesis. The response of 22 coupled model intercomparison project three (CMIP3) IPCC climate models to observed increases in greenhouse gases, from pre‐industrial to the end of the twentieth century, is examined. The authors focus on two diagnostics closely related to the changes in cyclogenesis: changes in the 300 hPa zonal wind strength; and changes in the baroclinic instability. Projected changes in baroclinic instability and rainfall are investigated in SRESB1, SRESA1B and SRESA2 scenarios.

Findings

There has been a 30 per cent reduction in the growth rate of the leading storm track mode crossing southern Australia in the 1975‐1994 period, and a 37 per cent reduction in the 1997‐2006 period, when compared to 1949‐1968. Most of the CMIP3 models capture the changes in the zonal wind; only about a third the changes in baroclinic instability. Projected changes in baroclinic instability and rainfall suggest further reductions in the growth rate of storm track modes and further large reductions in rainfall over southern Australia.

Originality/value

The paper addresses a major cause of the reduction in Australian winter rainfall, and provides guidance on future‐projected changes.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 4 October 2018

Cong Wang and Xue Wang

The RMB Internationalization has a great impact on China’s domestic economy. This chapter applies the Gap Estimation approach to estimate the RMB overseas circulation

Abstract

The RMB Internationalization has a great impact on China’s domestic economy. This chapter applies the Gap Estimation approach to estimate the RMB overseas circulation amount from 1997 to 2015, as the indicator of RMB internationalization. Using the recently developed Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) method for the model identification and contemporaneous causality analysis. The structural vector auto regression (SVAR) model is constructed between the economic indicators (the interest rate, the CPI, and the exchange rate) and the RMB overseas circulation. The dynamic relationship and degree of mutual influence are further studied between the economic indicators and overseas circulation. The results show that there exist contemporaneous causalities of “from RMB overseas circulation to inflation rate,” “from exchange rate to overseas circulation,” and “from exchange rate to the inflation rate.” The influence of interest rate adjustment on macro economy presents the time lag effect. The internationalization of the RMB encourages the currency appreciation. The China’s Central Bank passively looses monetary policy to meet the needs of internationalization and reduce the shock of the international hot money, thereby further deepening the domestic inflation.

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Book part
Publication date: 2 May 2018

Mohammed T. Bani Salameh and Emad Shdouh

This study aims to identify the features and characteristics of feminist elites as well as their circulation rate in official political positions. The study questions…

Abstract

This study aims to identify the features and characteristics of feminist elites as well as their circulation rate in official political positions. The study questions include the role of a profession, educational level, and class of origin in the recruitment of feminist elites. It stems from the hypothesis that a direct correlation exists between the mechanism of recruiting feminist elites and their characteristics, according to the criterion of class differentiation based on social status and financial wealth. The study used a complex combination of scientific methodologies, including the elite approach, which is especially important as a result of its ability to convert arguments into measurable variables, and a comparative approach was used to compare the features and characteristics of feminist elites in two reigns. From the study, it was observed that feminist elites are characterized by caste and wealth, higher educational degree, and in addition obtaining degrees from Western universities, prevailed. This result demonstrates the higher value of Western universities. The study also found that the circulation rate of political feminist elites dramatically increased in the reign of King Abdullah compared with the appointed feminist elites in the reign of King Hussein.

Details

Environment, Politics, and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-775-1

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2015

John Renaud, Scott Britton, Dingding Wang and Mitsunori Ogihara

Library data are often hard to analyze because these data come from unconnected sources, and the data sets can be very large. Furthermore, the desire to protect user…

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3302

Abstract

Purpose

Library data are often hard to analyze because these data come from unconnected sources, and the data sets can be very large. Furthermore, the desire to protect user privacy has prevented the retention of data that could be used to correlate library data to non-library data. The research team used data mining to determine library use patterns and to determine whether library use correlated to students’ grade point average.

Design/methodology/approach

A research team collected and analyzed data from the libraries, registrar and human resources. All data sets were uploaded into a single, secure data warehouse, allowing them to be analyzed and correlated.

Findings

The analysis revealed patterns of library use by academic department, patterns of book use over 20 years and correlations between library use and grade point average.

Research limitations/implications

Analysis of more narrowly defined user populations and collections will help develop targeted outreach efforts and manage the print collections. The data used are from one university; therefore, similar research is needed at other institutions to determine whether these findings are generalizable.

Practical implications

The unexpected use of the central library by those affiliated with law resulted in cross-education of law and central library staff. Management of the print collections and user outreach efforts will reflect more nuanced selection of subject areas and departments.

Originality/value

A model is suggested for campus partnerships that enables data mining of sensitive library and campus information.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 28 April 2016

Steven Horwitz

The concept of “neutral money” has a long history in monetary theory and macroeconomics. Like a number of other macro concepts, its meaning has been subject to a variety…

Abstract

The concept of “neutral money” has a long history in monetary theory and macroeconomics. Like a number of other macro concepts, its meaning has been subject to a variety of interpretations over the decades. I explore the way in which Hayek used this term in his monetary writings in the 1930s and argue that “neutrality” for Hayek was best understood as the idea that monetary institutions were ideal if money, and changes in its supply, did not independently affect the process of price formation and thereby create false signals leading to economic discoordination, and especially of the intertemporal variety. This view was rooted in his work on money and the trade cycle in the late 1920s and early 1930s and also bound up with his understanding of “equilibrium theory.” The importance of his concept of neutrality was that it served as a benchmark for judging the comparative effectiveness of different monetary regimes and policies. That use is still relevant today.

Details

Studies in Austrian Macroeconomics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-274-3

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1982

Judith Collins and Janet Shuter

Information is the fourth factor of production. Information enables us to manipulate labour, land and capital to achieve the goals of the enterprise. As industry becomes…

Abstract

Information is the fourth factor of production. Information enables us to manipulate labour, land and capital to achieve the goals of the enterprise. As industry becomes increasingly information‐intensive so the need for the effective and efficient management of information becomes of growing importance. The manager's job thus increasingly becomes an information‐handling and information‐processing job; like the management of time and money, the management of information is essential to success.

Details

Library Management, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-5124

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Article
Publication date: 3 January 2020

Qingyun Hu

The purpose of this paper is to study the difference of subject service between Chinese and German libraries. Subject service is the key direction of user-oriented service…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the difference of subject service between Chinese and German libraries. Subject service is the key direction of user-oriented service in libraries at home and abroad, especially in university libraries. It is an innovative measure to provide service for teaching, learning and research in libraries under the information environment. Subject service has strong practicality, and with the increasing demand of users and the continuous change of external information environment, the service content and mode are gradually improved.

Design/methodology/approach

By investigating the selected websites of University Libraries between China and Germany, the specific practice status of subject services between these two countries was known, and the study provided a basis for the comparative analysis of the practice status of subject services between China and Germany. By using the elastic analysis model, the library services in foreign countries and China can be quantitatively analyzed to find out the matching situation between resources and reader’s needs, and then formulate the countermeasures for the allocation of literature resources. In this way, readers can find out the hotspot topics which are more in line with their needs, as well as in the field of inquiry. It is also helpful for readers to further study and analyze the knowledge background and subject distribution in this field.

Findings

The results show that there are still some deficiencies in China’s participation in international scientific research cooperation. By mapping high-frequency keyword co-occurrence network and clustering knowledge map, it is seen that there are differences in user research, information search, subject service platform and other aspects between Chinese and German library subject services. There are also some gaps in such aspects as location, disciplines service website revealing mode, resources support, disciplines service platform and so on.

Research limitations/implications

Although this study compares the status of scientific research and practice of discipline services between China and Germany, due to the limited capacity, the paper only selects a number of key points for comparative analysis of discipline services at home and abroad. Due to the limited range of data collected by WOS and Chinese Social Sciences Index, there are some deviations in data processing in the software used, which makes the theoretical research and comparison results have certain limitations.

Practical implications

By investigating and analyzing the current situation of subject service in university libraries between China and Germany, this paper points out the shortcomings of subject service in university libraries in China on the basis of comparative analysis and draws on the advanced experience of German subject service to provide guidance for improving the problems in subject service in China.

Originality/value

The innovation of this study lies in the comparative analysis of Chinese and German subject services from the perspective of subject service research and work practice and puts forward some strategies to improve the development of domestic subject services. At present, there are few domestic literatures comparing the research status of subject services between China and Germany by using visualization method. This study quantitatively compares the time distribution, knowledge evolution direction, research hotspots and topics of subject services at home and abroad by using visualization technology and summarizes the evolution direction of subject services between China and Germany.

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Article
Publication date: 9 June 2021

Nicola J. Gray and Didier Jourdan

During the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic, schools closed in haste and were expected to create virtual learning opportunities for their students while they waited to see when and…

Abstract

Purpose

During the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic, schools closed in haste and were expected to create virtual learning opportunities for their students while they waited to see when and how they might re-open. National governments issued reopening guidance at varying speeds. The purpose of this study was to invite health and education professionals to share what was happening in their country about school reopening in terms of the features and implications of the guidance issued.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative study. Initial interviews informed a semi-structured questionnaire distributed through the global community of UNESCO Chair ‘Global Health and Education’ and partner organisations. Its aim was to collect, analyse and share globally relevant knowledge and practices about school reopening.

Findings

There were 192 useable responses from 43 countries and territories and 1 multi-country region. 20 of these, mainly in the Global North, had received reopening guidance, 23 were still waiting and 1 had not closed its schools. Guidance prioritised public health measures like social distancing, with less emphasis on education impacts. Success came from partnerships between schools, families and local authorities, consistent guidance and enough time and resources for implementation. Fear of infection led to significant absenteeism among students and staff. Respondents waiting for guidance, mainly in the Global South, shared similar concerns and expectations.

Originality/value

Describing first-hand practices and perspectives of health and education professionals from diverse countries and territories about reopening schools.

Details

Health Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2013

Gary Graham and Anita Greenhill

This paper aims to understand the level of synergy between print and online activity and to assess the influence of print/online synergy on the log of circulation change.

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4779

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to understand the level of synergy between print and online activity and to assess the influence of print/online synergy on the log of circulation change.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to meet this aim the authors conducted an empirical study of 100 regional newspapers supplying news media services in the UK. Two hypotheses grounded in a conceptual model were developed. The authors used Pearson correlation and (stepwise) regression analysis to test two hypotheses (H1 and H2).

Findings

H1 provides us with some interesting findings. The first is that higher priced newspapers attract more unique Internet users and mobile Internet access. Higher priced newspapers who have been in business longer and have established brands attract more online readers. Also, because these issues are more expensive there is more incentive to go online to read the papers for free. Note that this last explanation is consistent with the analysis provided for H2, the beta for price is negative. The negative coefficient indicates that the circulation change of higher priced papers has reduced more. Therefore circulation change impacts greater upon premium price newspapers for an elite rather than a broad readership. The regression results presented here indicate that established firms with premium pricing, providing multiple platform distribution and specialist digital editions with free online content, have circulations that are reducing less.Practical implications – While reducing the rate of circulation decline, current levels of online presence are not reversing it. There is a need for online presence to be focused on more targeted segments/niches of circulation such as “hyper‐local” news. This suggests a much clearer consideration must be made by newspapers with a premium price for an elite rather than a broad readership.

Social implications

News organizations now find themselves less socially relevant as consumers turn towards the Internet for alternative sources of “news”. News media firms are having to rebuild their brand identity and market positioning in the online marketplace. Higher priced newspapers have been in business longer and have established brand recognition for providing elite services. This is vital if they are to retain their community influence (as trusted sources of locally produced news, analysis and investigative reporting into public affairs). Commercial influence is determined by their social influence and the demise of newspapers would significantly threaten news plurality, democracy and public service journalism at the local community level.

Originality/value

The originality of this work concerns its specific focus on the influence of print/online synergy on the rate of circulation change. The news media industry is an under‐researched area of Internet scholarship. The study is significant on two counts: first, it estimates cross‐media synergies based on print and online interaction at an aggregated level; and second, it identifies different combinations of cross‐media exposure over individual media effects. It combines both print and online measures of circulation. Of most importance, the study is able to show that synergy is complementary and has had a positive effect on log circulation change by reducing it by a smaller number.

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Article
Publication date: 5 November 2020

Ian D. Gordon

The purpose of this article attempts to portray the unique and complex role of library middle managers. This important and influential position can be a proving ground for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article attempts to portray the unique and complex role of library middle managers. This important and influential position can be a proving ground for new and old managers as libraries continue to evolve, adjust policies, introduce new services and meet the needs of their users. Circulation managers as influential middle managers are realistically depicted as busy, overwhelmed and isolated, but welcome the opportunity to provide leadership and enhance their professional development.

Design/methodology/approach

This viewpoint is solely based on the author's varied experiences and personal reflections as a circulation department head providing leadership alongside colleagues in a busy academic library.

Findings

Department heads as managers of circulation departments are pivotal positions in every library. Circulation heads performing as middle managers are responsible for a full range of administrative, managerial and organizational services. Circulation heads are well positioned as change agents simultaneously directing frontline staff members, policies and services while providing valuable insight to library administration. Yet, circulation managers experiencing constantly evolving responsibilities, are too often found to be caught in the middle negotiating inconsistencies. Successful circulation managers require an eclectic mix of essential skills initiating and deploying change, defining success, dealing with people, actively participating in professional development and providing leadership.

Research limitations/implications

The study and research of library middle managers in public and academic libraries is practically nonexistent. As libraries increasingly create, adjust and reinvent library services, spaces and visions due to increasing digitization, in response to emerging online environments and new service models – middle managers and circulation librarians are excellent and proven pivots to negotiate and successfully implement this change.

Practical implications

As a crafted article written by a former head of a circulation department every staff member, student and librarian serving in access/borrowing/circulation departments should consult this article as required reading.

Social implications

The voices of library middle managers are too often muted, not valued and rarely celebrated. This viewpoint article written in a conversational voice depicts circulation librarians as middle managers that bring value to all libraries and should be heard.

Originality/value

This paper depicts the opportunities and challenges faced by, as well as the skills and competencies required by librarians serving as circulation departments heads.

1 – 10 of over 14000