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Article
Publication date: 25 June 2019

C. Jawali Umavathi and Mikhail Sheremet

The purpose of this study is a numerical analysis of steady-state heat transfer behavior of couple-stress nanofluid sandwiched between viscous fluids. It should be noted…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is a numerical analysis of steady-state heat transfer behavior of couple-stress nanofluid sandwiched between viscous fluids. It should be noted that this research deals with the development of a cooling system for the electronic devices.

Design/methodology/approach

Stokes model is used to define the couple-stress fluid and the single-phase nanofluid model is used to define the nanofluid transport processes. The fluids in all regions are assumed to be incompressible, immiscible and the transport properties in all the three layers are assumed to be constant. The governing coupled linear ordinary differential equations are made dimensionless by using appropriate fundamental quantities. The exact solutions obtained for the velocity and temperature fields are evaluated numerically for various model parameters.

Findings

The results are demonstrated using different types of nanoparticles such as copper, silver, silicon oxide (SiO2), titanium oxide (TiO2) and diamond. The investigations are carried out using copper–water nanofluid for different values of couple-stress parameter a with a range of 0 = a = 12, solid volume fraction ϕ with a range of 0.0 ≤ ϕ ≤ 0.05, Eckert number Ec with a range of 0.001 ≤ Ec ≤ 6 and Prandtl number Pr with a range of 0.001 ≤ Pr ≤ 6. It was found that the Nusselt number increases by increasing the couple stress parameter, Eckert number and Prandtl number and it decreases with a growth of the solid volume fraction parameter. It was also observed that using SiO2–water nanofluid, the optimal Nusselt number is obtained. Further, using copper, silver, diamond and TiO2, nanoparticles and water as a base fluid does not show any significant changes in the rate of heat transfer. The couple-stress parameter enhances the velocity and temperature fields whereas the solid volume fraction suppresses the flow field for both Newtonian and couple-stress fluid.

Originality/value

The originality of this work is to analyze the heat transfer behavior of couple-stress nanofluid sandwiched between viscous fluids. The results would benefit scientists and engineers to become familiar with the analysis of convective heat transfer and flow structures in nanofluids and the way to predict the heat transfer rate in advanced technical systems, in industrial sectors including transportation, power generation, chemical sectors, electronics, etc.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 22 July 2019

Boualem Chetti and Wael Ahmed Crosby

The purpose of this paper is to present the effect of the preload on the static characteristics of three-lobe bearings lubricated with a fluid blended with high polymer…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the effect of the preload on the static characteristics of three-lobe bearings lubricated with a fluid blended with high polymer additives modeled as a couple stress fluid.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the micro-continuum theory, the modified Reynolds equation for couple stress fluids is solved using a finite difference method to obtain the distribution of the pressure, the load-carrying capacity, the attitude angle, the friction coefficient and the side leakage for various values of the couple stress parameter and the preload factor.

Findings

The results show that the presence of a couple stress in the lubricants improves the static characteristics of this type of bearing compared to those lubricated with Newtonian fluids for any value of the preload factor. Thus, it is found that the preload significantly affects the performance of the three-lobe journal bearing lubricated with a couple stress fluid or a Newtonian fluid. Moreover, the investigation showed that increasing the preload factor exhibits an increase in the load carrying capacity and the attitude angle, but it decreases the friction coefficient and the side leakage especially at a lower preload factor. Furthermore, using a couple stress fluid and a higher preload factor led to a significant rise in the load carrying capacity and a significant reduction in the friction coefficient.

Practical implications

This study helped improve the performance characteristics of the three-lobe journal bearing.

Originality/value

The presence of couple stress in the lubricants improves the static characteristics of this type of bearing compared to those lubricated with Newtonian fluids for any value of the preload factor. The usage of the couple stress fluid and the higher preload factor led to a significant rise in the load carrying capacity and a significant reduction in the friction coefficient.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 71 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 6 December 2020

S. Das, Akram Ali and R.N. Jana

In this communication, a theoretical simulation is aimed to characterize the Darcy–Forchheimer flow of a magneto-couple stress fluid over an inclined exponentially…

Abstract

Purpose

In this communication, a theoretical simulation is aimed to characterize the Darcy–Forchheimer flow of a magneto-couple stress fluid over an inclined exponentially stretching sheet. Stokes’ couple stress model is deployed to simulate non-Newtonian microstructural characteristics. Two different kinds of thermal boundary conditions, namely, the prescribed exponential order surface temperature (PEST) and prescribed exponential order heat flux, are considered in the heat transfer analysis. Joule heating (Ohmic dissipation), viscous dissipation and heat source/sink impacts are also included in the energy equation because these phenomena arise frequently in magnetic materials processing.

Design/methodology/approach

The governing partial differential equations are transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by adopting suitable similar transformations. The resulting system of nonlinear ODEs is tackled numerically by using the Runge–Kutta fourth (RK4)-order numerical integration scheme based on the shooting technique. The impacts of sundry parameters on stream function, velocity and temperature profiles are viewed with the help of graphical illustrations. For engineering interests, the physical implication of the said parameters on skin friction coefficient, Nussult number and surface temperature are discussed numerically through tables.

Findings

As a key outcome, it is noted that the augmented Chandrasekhar number, porosity parameter and Forchhemeir parameter diminish the stream function as well as the velocity profile. The behavior of the Darcian drag force is similar to the magnetic field on fluid flow. Temperature profiles are generally upsurged with the greater magnetic field, couple stress parameter and porosity parameter, and are consistently higher for the PEST case.

Practical implications

The findings obtained from this analysis can be applied in magnetic material processing, metallurgy, casting, filtration of liquid metals, gas-cleaning filtration, cooling of metallic sheets, petroleum industries, geothermal operations, boundary layer resistors in aerodynamics, etc.

Originality/value

From the literature review, it has been found that the Darcy–Forchheimer flow of a magneto-couple stress fluid over an inclined exponentially stretching surface with heat flux conditions is still scarce. The numerical data of the present results are validated with the already existing studies under limited cases and inferred to have good concord.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2016

Boualem Chetti

This paper presents an analysis of the static characteristics of two-lobe journal bearings lubricated with couple stress fluids operating in a turbulent regime. The…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper presents an analysis of the static characteristics of two-lobe journal bearings lubricated with couple stress fluids operating in a turbulent regime. The modified Reynolds equation for a couple stress fluids taking into consideration the effect of turbulence is solved using finite difference method. The load-carrying capacity, attitude angle, friction coefficient and side leakage are determined for various values of the couple stress parameter and Reynolds number. It is found that the couple stress fluids affect significantly on the performance of a two-lobe journal bearing in laminar and turbulent regime.

Design/methodology/approach

The modified Reynolds equation for a couple stress fluids taking into consideration the effect of turbulence is solved using finite difference method.

Findings

It is found that the couple stress fluids affect significantly on the performance of a two-lobe journal bearing in laminar and turbulent regime.

Originality/value

A couple stress fluid is used for lubrication of a two-lobe journal bearing in turbulent regime and laminar.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 68 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2020

S. Das, R.R. Patra and R.N. Jana

The purpose of this study is to present the significance of Joule heating, viscous dissipation, magnetic field and slip condition on the boundary layer flow of an…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to present the significance of Joule heating, viscous dissipation, magnetic field and slip condition on the boundary layer flow of an electrically conducting Boussinesq couple-stress fluid induced by an exponentially stretching sheet embedded in a porous medium under the effect of the magnetic field of the variable kind. The heat transfer phenomenon is accounted for under thermal radiation, Joule and viscous dissipation effects.

Design/methodology/approach

The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are transformed to the nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by using some appropriate dimensionless variables and then the consequential nonlinear ODEs are solved numerically by making the use of the well-known shooting iteration technique along with the standard fourth-order Runge–Kutta integration scheme. The impact of emerging flow parameters on velocity and temperature profiles, streamlines, local skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are described comprehensively through graphs and tables.

Findings

Results reveal that the velocity profile is observed to diminish considerably within the boundary layer in the presence of a magnetic field and slip condition. The enhanced radiation parameter is to decline the temperature field. The slip effect is favorable for fluid flow.

Originality/value

Till now, slip effect on Boussinesq couple-stress fluid over an exponentially stretching sheet embedded in a porous medium has not been explored. The present results are validated with the previously published study and found to be highly satisfactory.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2005

Won‐Hsion Liao, Rong‐Fang Lu, Rean‐Der Chien and Jaw‐Ren Lin

The purpose of the present study is to provide the dynamic characteristics of long journal bearings lubricated with couple stress fluids.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the present study is to provide the dynamic characteristics of long journal bearings lubricated with couple stress fluids.

Design/methodology/approach

Based upon the micro‐continuum theory generated by Stokes, the dynamic Reynolds‐type equation governing the film pressure is derived to account for the couple stress effects resulting from the non‐Newtonian behavior of complex fluids. By applying the linear stability theory to the non‐linear equations of motion the journal rotor, the equilibrium positions and dynamic characteristics of the system are evaluated.

Findings

As compared to the classical Newtonian model, the effects of couple stresses signify enhanced stiffness and damping coefficients (including KXX, KXY , BXX and BXY) at moderate values of the steady eccentricity ratio. Totally, as the rotor center operates at an eccentricity ratio about εs≤0.71, long bearings lubricated with couple stress fluids under small disturbance results in a higher stability threshold speed than that of the Newtonian‐lubricant case.

Originality/value

These findings provide engineers useful information in designing journal‐bearing systems.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 57 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

Jaw‐Ren Lin, Rong‐Fang Lu, Won‐Hsion Liao and Chia‐Chuan Kuo

A theoretical study of the combined effects of non‐Newtonian couple stresses and fluid inertia forces on the squeeze‐film behaviors for parallel circular plates is…

Abstract

A theoretical study of the combined effects of non‐Newtonian couple stresses and fluid inertia forces on the squeeze‐film behaviors for parallel circular plates is presented in this paper. Based upon the micro‐continuum theory, the Stokes constitutive equations are used to account for the couple stress effects resulting from the lubricant blended with various additives. The convective inertia forces included in the momentum equation are approximated by the mean value averaged across the fluid film thickness. Numerical solutions for the squeezing film characteristics are presented for various values of couple stress parameter and Reynolds number. Comparing with the classical Newtonian non‐inertia flow, the combined effects of couple stresses and convective inertia forces result in a larger load‐carrying capacity and therefore, increase the response time of the squeezing film plates.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 56 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Jawali Umavathi, Jada Prathap Kumar, Ioan Pop and Murudappa Shekar

The purpose of this paper is to consider the problem of fully developed laminar mixed convection flow of a couple stress fluid in a vertical channel with the third-kind…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to consider the problem of fully developed laminar mixed convection flow of a couple stress fluid in a vertical channel with the third-kind boundary conditions in the presence or absence of heat source/sink effect.

Design/methodology/approach

Through proper choice of dimensionless variables, the governing equations are developed. These governing equations are solved analytically by the differential transform method and numerically by the Runge–Kutta shooting method. Analytical solutions for the velocity and temperature profiles for heat generation and absorption of the problem are reported.

Findings

The mass flow rate and Nusselt numbers at both the left and right channel walls on mixed convection parameter, Brinkman number, couple stress parameter and heat generation/absorption parameter for equal and unequal Biot numbers are presented. Favorable comparisons of special cases with previously published work are obtained. It is found that velocity, temperature, mass flow rate and Nusselt number decrease with couple stress parameter and increase with mixed convection parameter and Brinkman number.

Originality/value

The work done in this paper is not done earlier to the authors’ knowledge. This is the first paper in which the sixth-order differential equation is solved using the semi-numerical method, which is a differential method.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2018

V.S. Madalli, Siddharama Patil, Ayyappa Hiremath and Ramesh Kudenatti

This paper aims to present a detailed analysis to explore the various properties of non-Newtonian couple stress lubricants between parallel porous plates.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a detailed analysis to explore the various properties of non-Newtonian couple stress lubricants between parallel porous plates.

Design/methodology/approach

With reference to the theories based on micro-continuum analysis, a non-linear, non-Newtonian Reynolds type equation is arrived. The closed form solutions obtained clearly indicate the changes in pressure, load bearing capacity and response time because of variation in viscosity of couple stress fluid.

Findings

It is observed that the viscosity variation factor greatly influences the change in pressure, load carrying capacity and squeezing time.

Originality/value

It is observed that the nature of lubricants with suitable additives greatly helps in overcoming the adverse effect because of porous surface. Reynolds type equation is analysed using appropriate boundary conditions. The expression for pressure distribution arrived at in turn leads to the analysis of load bearing capacity and response time.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 70 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 October 2020

Shalini M. Patil, C.V. Vinay and Dinesh P.A.

The purpose of this paper is to study the amalgamated consequences of nonNewtonian fluid and permeability for nonporous journal spinning with constant tangential velocity…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the amalgamated consequences of nonNewtonian fluid and permeability for nonporous journal spinning with constant tangential velocity inside a rough porous bearing.

Design/methodology/approach

The flow is assumed to have developed under low Reynolds number, and the flow is governed by reduced Navier–Stokes equations. Based on Stokes theory for couple-stress fluid, a closed form of nonNewtonian Reynolds equation is obtained. Finite difference based multigrid method is adopted to study the various parameters of journal bearings.

Findings

It is found that bearing attributes such as pressure distribution and weight carrying capacity are commanding for nonNewtonian couple-stress fluid compared to the classical Newtonian case.

Originality/value

The multigrid method for the Reynolds equation is used, which accelerates the convergence rate of the solution and is independent of the grid size. The effects of couple-stress fluid promote the enhanced pressure distribution in the fluid. Both increased weight bearing capacity and delayed squeezing time reduce the skin-friction and hence take longer time to come in contact with each other.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/ILT-02-2020-0051/

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 73 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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