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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2021

Leo Lukose and Tanmay Basak

The purpose of this paper is to address various works on mixed convection and proposes 10 unified models (Models 1–10) based on various thermal and kinematic conditions of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address various works on mixed convection and proposes 10 unified models (Models 1–10) based on various thermal and kinematic conditions of the boundary walls, thermal conditions and/ or kinematics of objects embedded in the cavities and kinematics of external flow field through the ventilation ports. Experimental works on mixed convection have also been addressed.

Design/methodology/approach

This review is based on 10 unified models on mixed convection within cavities. Models 1–5 involve mixed convection based on the movement of single or double walls subjected to various temperature boundary conditions. Model 6 elucidates mixed convection due to the movement of single or double walls of cavities containing discrete heaters at the stationary wall(s). Model 7A focuses mixed convection based on the movement of wall(s) for cavities containing stationary solid obstacles (hot or cold or adiabatic) whereas Model 7B elucidates mixed convection based on the rotation of solid cylinders (hot or conductive or adiabatic) within the cavities enclosed by stationary or moving wall(s). Model 8 is based on mixed convection due to the flow of air through ventilation ports of cavities (with or without adiabatic baffles) subjected to hot and adiabatic walls. Models 9 and 10 elucidate mixed convection due to flow of air through ventilation ports of cavities involving discrete heaters and/or solid obstacles (conductive or hot) at various locations within cavities.

Findings

Mixed convection plays an important role for various processes based on convection pattern and heat transfer rate. An important dimensionless number, Richardson number (Ri) identifies various convection regimes (forced, mixed and natural convection). Generalized models also depict the role of “aiding” and “opposing” flow and combination of both on mixed convection processes. Aiding flow (interaction of buoyancy and inertial forces in the same direction) may result in the augmentation of the heat transfer rate whereas opposing flow (interaction of buoyancy and inertial forces in the opposite directions) may result in decrease of the heat transfer rate. Works involving fluid media, porous media and nanofluids (with magnetohydrodynamics) have been highlighted. Various numerical and experimental works on mixed convection have been elucidated. Flow and thermal maps associated with the heat transfer rate for a few representative cases of unified models [Models 1–10] have been elucidated involving specific dimensionless numbers.

Originality/value

This review paper will provide guidelines for optimal design/operation involving mixed convection processing applications.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 31 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 27 October 2021

Sayed Mahdi Naghavi and Ghanbar Ali Sheikhzadeh

The purpose of this study is the identification of the best method to apply the body force in the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). In the simulation of mixed convection

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is the identification of the best method to apply the body force in the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). In the simulation of mixed convection, especially for large Richardson number flows in a square cavity.

Design/methodology/approach

First, three methods for applying the body force were compared to each other in the LBM. Then, an LBM-based code was written in the FORTRAN language using these three methods. Next, that code was used to simulate natural/mixed convection in a two-dimensional cavity to evaluate the methods for applying the body force. Finally, the optimum way for applying the body force was used for the simulation of free convection heat transfer in a concentric annulus with Rayleigh number in a range of 1,000 to 50,000, and mixed convection heat transfer in a concentric annulus with Rayleigh number in a range of 10,000 to 50,000 and Reynolds number in a range of 100 to 400.

Findings

Mixed convection heat transfer was simulated in a two-dimensional cavity with Richardson number in a range of 0.0001 to 100. The results which were obtained in low Richardson number flows have shown good adaptation to the available data. However, the results of large Richardson number flows, for example, Ri = 100, have shown a significant difference to the available data. Investigations revealed that this difference was due to the method of applying the body force. Therefore, the choice of the best way to apply the body force was investigated. Finally, for the large Richardson number flows, the best method to apply the body force has been identified among the several techniques.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, the effects of methods for applying the body force were not investigated in the cavities mixed convection, even though there are numerous investigations conducted on mixed convection with the LBM. In this study, the effects of techniques to apply the body force were investigated in large Richardson number flows. Finally, the best method to apply the body force is distinguished between several techniques for the large Richardson number mixed convection flows.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Assunta Andreozzi

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the thermal and fluid dynamic behaviors of mixed convection in air because of the interaction between a buoyancy flow and a moving…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the thermal and fluid dynamic behaviors of mixed convection in air because of the interaction between a buoyancy flow and a moving plate induced flow in a horizontal no parallel-plates channel to investigate the effects of the minimum channel spacing, wall heat flux, moving plate velocity and converging angle.

Design/methodology/approach

The horizontal channel is made up of an upper inclined plate heated at uniform wall heat flux and a lower adiabatic moving surface (belt). The belt moves from the minimum channel spacing section to the maximum channel spacing section at a constant velocity so that its effect interferes with the buoyancy effect. The numerical analysis is accomplished by means of the finite volume method, using the commercial code Fluent.

Findings

Results in terms of heated upper plate and moving lower plate temperatures and stream function fields are presented. The paper underlines the thermal and fluid dynamic differences when natural convection or mixed convection takes place, varying minimum channel spacing, wall heat flux, moving plate velocity and converging angle.

Research limitations/implications

The hypotheses on which the present analysis is based are two-dimensional, laminar and steady state flow and constant thermo physical properties with the Boussinesq approximation. The minimum distance between the upper heated plate of the channel and its lower adiabatic moving plate is 10 and 20 mm. The moving plate velocity varies in the range 0-1 m/s; the belt moves from the right reservoir to the left one. Three values of the uniform wall heat flux are considered, 30, 60 and 120 W/m2, whereas the inclination angle of the upper plate θ is 2° and 10°.

Practical implications

Mixed convection because of moving surfaces in channels is present in many industrial applications; examples of processes include continuous casting, extrusion of plastics and other polymeric materials, bonding, annealing and tempering, cooling and/or drying of paper and textiles, chemical catalytic reactors, nuclear waste repositories, petroleum reservoirs, composite materials manufacturing and many others. The investigated configuration is used in applications such as re-heating of billets in furnaces for hot rolling process, continuous extrusion of materials and chemical vapor deposition, and it could also be used in thermal control of electronic systems.

Originality/value

This paper evaluates the thermal and velocity fields to detect the maximum temperature location and the presence of fluid recirculation. The paper is useful to thermal designers.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2018

Ismail Arroub, Ahmed Bahlaoui, Abdelghani Raji, Mohammed Hasnaoui and Mohamed Naïmi

The purpose of this paper is to investigate numerically mixed convection of Al2O3-water nanofluids flowing through a horizontal ventilated cavity heated from below by a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate numerically mixed convection of Al2O3-water nanofluids flowing through a horizontal ventilated cavity heated from below by a temperature varying sinusoidally along its lower wall. The simulations focus on the effects of different key parameters, such as Reynolds number (200 ≤ Re ≤ 5,000), nanoparticles’ concentration (0 ≤ ϕ ≤ 0.1) and phase shift of the heating temperature (0 ≤ γ ≤ π), on flow and thermal patterns and heat transfer performances.

Design/methodology/approach

The Navier–Stokes equations describing the nanofluid flow were discretized using a finite difference technique. The vorticity and energy equations were solved by the alternating direction implicit method. Values of the stream function were obtained by using the point successive over-relaxation method.

Findings

The simulations were performed for two modes of imposed external flow (injection and suction). The main findings are that the dynamical and thermal fields are affected by the parameters Re, ϕ, γ and the applied ventilation mode; the addition of nanoparticles leads to an improvement of heat transfer rate and an increase of mean temperature inside the enclosure; the heat exchange performance and the better cooling are more pronounced in suction mode; the phase shift of the heating temperature may lead to periodic solutions for weaker values of Re and contributes to an increase or a decrease of heat transfer depending on the value of ϕ and the convection regime.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the problem of mixed convection of a nanofluid inside a vented cavity using the injection or suction technics and submitted to non-uniform heating conditions has not been treated so far.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 10 December 2018

Ammar I. Alsabery, Taher Armaghani, Ali J. Chamkha, Muhammad Adil Sadiq and Ishak Hashim

The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of two-phase nanofluid model on mixed convection in a double lid-driven square cavity in the presence of a magnetic…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of two-phase nanofluid model on mixed convection in a double lid-driven square cavity in the presence of a magnetic field. The authors believe that this work is a good contribution for improving the thermal performance and the heat transfer enhancement in some engineering instruments.

Design/methodology/approach

The current work investigates the problem of mixed convection heat transfer in a double lid-driven square cavity in the presence of magnetic field. The used cavity is filled with water-Al2O3 nanofluid based on Buongiorno’s two-phase model. The bottom horizontal wall is maintained at a constant high temperature and moves to the left/right, while the top horizontal wall is maintained at a constant low temperature and moves to the right/left. The left and right vertical walls are thermally insulated. The dimensionless governing equations are solved numerically using the Galerkin weighted residual finite element method.

Findings

The obtained results show that the heat transfer rate enhances with an increment of Reynolds number or a reduction of Hartmann number. In addition, effects of thermophoresis and Brownian motion play a significant role in the growth of convection heat transfer.

Originality/value

According to above-mentioned studies and to the authors’ best knowledge, there has no study reported the MHD mixed convection heat transfer in a double lid-driven cavity using the two-phase nanofluid model. Thus, the authors of the present study believe that this work is valuable. Therefore, the aim of this comprehensive numerical study is to investigate the effects of two-phase nanofluid model on mixed convection in a double lid-driven square cavity in the presence of a magnetic field. The authors believe that this work is a good contribution for improving the thermal performance and the heat transfer enhancement in some engineering instruments.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2010

Esmail M.A. Mokheimer, S. Sami and B.S. Yilbas

This paper's aim is to examine flow and heat transfer through vertical channels between parallel plates, which is of prime importance in the design of cooling systems for…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper's aim is to examine flow and heat transfer through vertical channels between parallel plates, which is of prime importance in the design of cooling systems for electronic equipment such as that of finned cold plates in general, plate‐and‐frame heat exchangers, etc.

Design/methodology/approach

Numerical and analytical solutions are presented to investigate the heat transfer enhancement and the pressure drop reduction due to buoyancy effects (for buoyancy‐aided flow) for the developing laminar mixed convection in vertical channel between parallel plates in the vicinity of the critical values of the buoyancy parameter (Gr/Re)crt that are obtained analytically. The numerical solutions are presented for a wide range of the buoyancy parameters Gr/Re that cover both of buoyancy‐opposed and buoyancy‐aided flow situations under each of the isothermal boundary conditions under investigation.

Findings

Buoyancy parameters greater than the critical values result in building‐up the pressure downstream of the entrance such that the vertical channel might act as a thermal diffuser with possible incipient flow reversal. Locations at which the pressure gradient vanishes and the locations at which the pressure‐buildup starts have been numerically obtained and presented for all the investigated cases.

Research limitations/implications

The study is limited to the laminar flow situation.

Practical implications

The results clearly show that for buoyancy‐aided flow, the increase of the buoyancy parameter enhances the heat transfer and reduces the pressure drop across the vertical channel. These findings are very useful for cooling channel or chimney designs.

Originality/value

The study is original and presents new findings, since none of the previous studies reported the conditions for which pressure buildup might take place due to mixed convection in vertical channels between parallel plates.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 20 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2015

Abdelraheem M. Aly, Mitsuteru Asai and Ali J. Chamkha

The purpose of this paper is to model mixed convection in a square cavity included circular cylinders motion using an incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (ISPH…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to model mixed convection in a square cavity included circular cylinders motion using an incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (ISPH) technique.

Design/methodology/approach

The problem is solved numerically by using the ISPH method.

Findings

The SPH tool shows robust performance to simulate the rigid body motion in the mixed convective flow with heat transfer, and it may apply easily to complicated problems in 2D and 3D problem without difficulties.

Originality/value

The application of the SPH method to mixed convective flow with heat transfer and its potential application easily to complicated 3D problems is original.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 25 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 14 July 2020

Subhasree Dutta, Somnath Bhattacharyya and Ioan Pop

This study aims to numerically analyse the impact of an inclined magnetic field and Joule heating on the conjugate heat transfer because of the mixed convection of an Al2O3

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to numerically analyse the impact of an inclined magnetic field and Joule heating on the conjugate heat transfer because of the mixed convection of an Al2O3–water nanofluid in a thick wall enclosure.

Design/methodology/approach

A horizontal temperature gradient together with the shear-driven Flow creates the mixed convection inside the enclosure. The nonhomogeneous model, in which the nanoparticles have a slip velocity because of thermophoresis and Brownian diffusion, is adopted in the present study. The thermal performance is evaluated by determining the entropy generation, which includes the contribution because of magnetic field. A control volume method over a staggered grid arrangement is adopted to compute the governing equations.

Findings

The Lorentz force created by the applied magnetic field has an adverse effect on the flow and thermal field, and consequently, the heat transfer and entropy generation attenuate because of the presence of magnetic force. The Joule heating enhances the fluid temperature but attenuates the heat transfer. The impact of the magnetic field diminishes as the angle of inclination of the magnetic field is increased, and it manifests as the volume fraction of nanoparticles is increased. Addition of nanoparticles enhances both the heat transfer and entropy generation compared to the clear fluid with enhancement in entropy generation higher than the rate by which the heat transfer augments. The average Bejan number and mixing-cup temperature are evaluated to analyse the thermodynamic characteristics of the nanofluid.

Originality/value

This literature survey suggests that the impact of an inclined magnetic field and Joule heating on conjugate heat transfer based on a two-phase model has not been addressed before. The impact of the relative slip velocity of nanoparticles diminishes as the magnetic field becomes stronger.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 27 May 2014

F.O. Pătrulescu, T. Groşan and I. Pop

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the steady mixed convection boundary layer flow from a vertical frustum of a cone in water-based nanofluids. The problem is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the steady mixed convection boundary layer flow from a vertical frustum of a cone in water-based nanofluids. The problem is formulated to incorporate three kinds of nanoparticles: copper, alumina and titanium oxide. The working fluid is chosen as water with the Prandtl number of 6.2. The mathematical model used for the nanofluid incorporates the particle volume fraction parameter, the effective viscosity and the effective thermal diffusivity. The entire regime of the mixed convection includes the mixed convection parameter, which is positive for the assisting flow (heated surface of the frustum cone) and negative for the opposing flow (cooled surface of the frustum cone), respectively.

Design/methodology/approach

The transformed non-linear partial differential equations are solved numerically for some values of the governing parameters. The derivatives with respect to? were discretized using the first order upwind finite differences and the resulting ordinary differential equations with respect to? were solved using bvp4c routine from Matlab. The absolute error tolerance in bvp4c was 1e-9.

Findings

The features of the flow and heat transfer characteristics for different values of the governing parameters are analysed and discussed. The effects of the particle volume fraction parameter \phi, the mixed convection parameter \lambda and the dimensionless coordinate? on the flow and heat transfer characteristics are determined only for the Cu nanoparticles. It is found that dual solutions exist for the case of opposing flows. The range of the mixed convection parameter for which the solution exists increases in the presence of the nanofluids.

Originality/value

The paper models the mixed convection from a vertical truncated cone using the boundary layer approximation. Multiple (dual) solutions for the flow reversals are obtained and the range of existence of the solutions was found. Particular cases for ?=0 (full cone), ? >>1 and (free convection limit) \lambda>>1were studied. To the authors best knowledge this problem has not been studied before and the results are new and original.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2013

A. Malleswaran, S. Sivasankaran and M. Bhuvaneswari

The main objective of the present study is to investigate the effects of various lengths and different locations of the heater on the left sidewall in a square lid‐driven cavity.

Abstract

Purpose

The main objective of the present study is to investigate the effects of various lengths and different locations of the heater on the left sidewall in a square lid‐driven cavity.

Design/methodology/approach

The non‐dimensional equations are discretized by the finite‐volume method. The upwind scheme and the central difference scheme are implemented for the convection and the diffusion terms, respectively.

Findings

On increasing the Richardson number, the overall heat transfer is increased whether the length and the location of the heater is considered or not. Among the various lengths of the heater considered, the total heat transfer is better only for the length LH=1/3 of the heater if it is extended from top or bottom of the cavity. In the case of location of the heater, the average heat transfer enhances for center location of the heater. Existence of the magnetic field suppresses the convective heat transfer and the fluid flow.

Practical implications

The results can be used in the cooling of electronic devices and heat transfer improvement in heat exchangers.

Originality/value

The numerical results obtained here focus on the detailed investigation of flow and temperature field in a discretely heated lid‐driven square cavity. The findings will be helpful in many applications such as heat exchangers and cooling of electronic devices.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 2000