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Article
Publication date: 14 December 2021

Sarah Lefebvre and Kelly Cowart

As the cosmetic surgery industry grows and diversifies, societal beauty standards have shifted to include images of surgically enhanced bodies. With the increased use of…

1681

Abstract

Purpose

As the cosmetic surgery industry grows and diversifies, societal beauty standards have shifted to include images of surgically enhanced bodies. With the increased use of influencer marketing, it is important for marketers to understand consumer perceptions of these modified appearances. This paper aims to use the lens of perceived morality (PM) to investigate consumer perceptions of cosmetic surgery services and the effect of enhanced body appearance on consumer interest in an endorsed brand. Interpersonal similarity (IS) is tested as a boundary condition.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed-methods approach was taken with a qualitative study and two online experiments. Participants were recruited through snowball sampling (NStudy 1 = 133) and Amazon Mechanical Turk (NStudy 2 = 202; NStudy 3 = 270).

Findings

The themes uncovered in the qualitative study revealed that cosmetic surgery services were acceptable when internally motivated but may signal inauthenticity. The findings of Study 2 suggested consumer interest in an endorsed brand was negatively impacted by body enhancement (BE), with PM as the underlying mechanism. Study 3 results demonstrated IS moderated this effect. The indirect effect was significant only for those low in IS.

Originality/value

This research contributes to the underexplored area of cosmetic surgery services and its role in influencer marketing. The findings extend the literature on consumer attitudes and perceptions toward these services and provides insight into the intersection of BE and morality. The contribution is notable, as marketers increasing rely on social media influencers, many of whom have undergone cosmetic surgery services and enhanced their body appearance, to promote their brands.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Borut Milfelner, Tanja Vidergar Kikel, Damijan Mumel and Aleksandra Pisnik

The purpose of this paper is to measure attitudes towards cosmetic surgery services among women and to determine the potential segments of women according to their…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to measure attitudes towards cosmetic surgery services among women and to determine the potential segments of women according to their attitudes towards cosmetic surgery services and discover the main differences among them.

Design/methodology/approach

The research was implemented on a sample of 258 women in Slovenia. A quota sample was chosen for this research following the age characteristics of the Slovenian female population. The data collection method used was personal interviews. Convergent validity for the attitudes towards cosmetic surgery services was assessed with exploratory factor analysis. The segmentation analysis procedure was implemented in two phases. First, hierarchical clustering with Ward’s method was deployed, and in the second step K-means cluster analysis was used.

Findings

The results show that four clusters were clearly distinctive according to three dimensions, namely, intrapersonal, social and consider component. In further analysis, four segments of women were analysed regarding the fear of ageing, the importance of appearance, body image and self-esteem. Results show that all four segments are unique and distinguish one from another.

Practical implications

Through segmentation analysis, authors of this study indicate two segments (target groups) that are possibly interesting for providers of cosmetic services. Marketing communication activities should mainly be focussed on the woman’s appearance.

Originality/value

Based on a theoretical hypothesis and use a quantitative method, the aim of this paper is to provide a deeper analysis and understanding of attitudes and views of different woman profile regarding cosmetic surgeries. It presents a more structured view on differences that exist among segments of female consumers while also adding new insights into the factors that influence attitudes towards cosmetic procedures.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 45 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 November 2021

Victoria Rodner, Amy Goode and Zara Burns

To better understand the uptake of cosmetic procedures in the wake of Instagram, this study aims to unravel how the aesthetic labour of influencers acts as the packaging…

2056

Abstract

Purpose

To better understand the uptake of cosmetic procedures in the wake of Instagram, this study aims to unravel how the aesthetic labour of influencers acts as the packaging of the cosmetic servicescape. In doing so, the authors contribute to theorising of aesthetic and emotional labour within the services marketing literature, fleshing out the bodywork of influential others not as employees but endorsers, who act like the “walking billboards” (Zeithaml and Bitner, 2003) for the cosmetic service industry.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopts a dual qualitative approach to data collection, coupling netnographic material from Instagram posts with 16 in-depth interviews with female Instagram users who have undergone or hope to undergo cosmetic surgery. Using mediated discourse analysis, the authors weave their visual and discursive data together for a richer account of the commoditisation of cosmetic surgery.

Findings

Adopting a postfeminist neoliberal lens, where women are viewed as aesthetic entrepreneurs who are constantly working on the body and the self, the findings of the study reveal how influencers’ aesthetic and emotional labour help package, propagate and demystify the cosmetic servicescape. Through their visual storytelling, we see how influencers help endorse (local) cosmetic services; commoditise cosmetic procedures through the conspicuous display of their ongoing body projects whilst masking the labour and pain involved; and how face-filters that use augmented reality (AR) technology foster new forms of (digitised) body dysmorphia.

Originality/value

The authors shed light on the darker side of social media and body-enhancing technologies, where tales of body transformation trivialise cosmetic intervention and AR technology induces a digitised body dysmorphia.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 April 2020

Cuong Quoc Nguyen, Phuoc Tran and Minh Nguyen

The purpose of this study is to assess the factors that motivate young people’s intention to undergo cosmetic surgery in Vietnam.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to assess the factors that motivate young people’s intention to undergo cosmetic surgery in Vietnam.

Design/methodology/approach

This study applies Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior as a research model. The study is based on a quantitative method that applied exploratory factor analysis.

Findings

In total, 412 valid responses are used for the statistical analysis. The results confirm that subjective norm (SN), attitude toward cosmetic surgery and perceived behavioral control (PBC) are the main factors that motivate young people’s intention to undergo cosmetic surgery.

Originality/value

The results show the positive relationship between attitude toward cosmetic surgery, SN, PBC and intention to undergo cosmetic surgery in Vietnam.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 December 2021

Rodoula H. Tsiotsou and Philipp Klaus

The purpose of this study is to propose a conceptual framework of beautification/modification services, to introduce the special issue on the topic “Mirror, Mirror on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to propose a conceptual framework of beautification/modification services, to introduce the special issue on the topic “Mirror, Mirror on the Wall! Examining the Bright and Dark Side of Face and Body Beautification/Modification Services” and to provide a future research agenda.

Design/methodology/approach

Building on the available literature, the authors developed the “Nip and Tuck” service framework of beautification/modification services depicting the motives, benefits and outcomes while it identifies current industry trends.

Findings

The authors explore the antecedents and consequences (positive and negative) of consuming face and body beautification/modification services and integrate these in the “Nip and Tuck” service framework. In the framework, the authors acknowledge the critical role of new technologies such as augmented reality apps and the internet in enabling and transforming beautification/modification services into commodities. The framework also identifies the benefits consumers seek and derive from these services while it recognizes current trends that shape the industry. The authors conclude with a set of future research directions that arise from the framework and the papers in the special issue.

Practical implications

The attained insights are useful to managers of beautification and modification services seeking to understand and satisfy their customers’ needs while securing their well-being.

Social implications

Understanding the role of beautification and modification services in consumers’ well-being is essential for business managers and policymakers.

Originality/value

The authors propose a novel, “Nip and Tuck” framework of face and body beautification/modification services and its key antecedents and consequences while considering both their bright and dark sides.

Article
Publication date: 4 April 2016

Masoud Karami, Mohamad Mehdi Maleki and Alan J. Dubinsky

The purpose of the study is to explore the impact of cultural values on perceptions of service encounter quality by examining the potentially mediating role of service

2001

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study is to explore the impact of cultural values on perceptions of service encounter quality by examining the potentially mediating role of service encounter expectations.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire was designed to collect data from 30 cosmetic clinic patients in Tehran, Iran. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the convergent and discriminant validity of the scales. Moreover, path modeling and bootstrapping were implemented using Smartpls 2.0 (M3) software to analyze the collected data and to assess the research model (Figure 1).

Findings

Cultural values have a significant impact on both expectations and perceptions of service encounter quality. Moreover, findings show that expectations of service encounter quality have an impact on perceptions of service encounter quality. The mediating role of service encounter expectations was confirmed.

Research limitations/implications

There are additional issues that should be addressed about different aspects of service encounters in developing countries. Moreover, subcultures provide attractive context for service quality perception research; subcultures comprise a large consumer market having its own cultural values that future research could examine.

Practical implications

Healthcare service providers should understand the cultural values of patients that may differ by social demographic characteristics. Providing a service that enhances patient cultural values might enhance success in the plastic surgery market, because such surgery may assist one in gaining recognition and improving their relationships with others. Clinic managers should consider Iran as a developing country, with its considerable young population having modern self-oriented demands, should be a desirable market for cosmetics and beauty care products.

Originality/value

Using the concept of Schwartz’s basic human values model to assess consumers’ cultural values and its impact on service encounter quality was the study’s main contribution. Moreover, it is among few studies conducted in the cosmetic surgery industry in a developing country’s context.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 August 2021

Mark Scott Rosenbaum, Jill Jensen and Germán Contreras-Ramírez

This study aims to explore innate and sociocultural forces that lead gay men to purchase invasive and non-invasive cosmetic medical treatments.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore innate and sociocultural forces that lead gay men to purchase invasive and non-invasive cosmetic medical treatments.

Design/methodology/approach

This work draws on a literature review and personal reflections to identify and interpret patterns and themes on drivers that encourage gay men to use cosmetic medical treatments.

Findings

In line with evolutionary theory, the authors suggest that the male proclivity to evaluate a partner’s sexual desirability on the basis of physical appearance and youth remains consistent among gay men. They also posit that sociocultural norms, such as media imagery, portray gay men as physically attractive and youthful. Among gay men, homonormative ideals that define attractiveness fall on a continuum ranging from hyper-masculinity to hypo-masculinity, with each end encouraging gay men to accept different beauty standards.

Research limitations/implications

To date, service researchers have mostly overlooked the role of evolution in consumers’ propensity to purchase professional services. This study sets the foundation for researchers to consider both instinctual and sociocultural norms that encourage consumers to purchase not only cosmetic medical treatments but also professional services in general.

Practical implications

Gay men represent a prime target market for cosmetic medical treatment providers, as their desire for physical attractiveness and youth remains constant as they age.

Originality/value

This study offers novel insights into gay male consumption of cosmetic medical treatments and services from theoretical and practical perspectives.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1993

Adrian R. Bull

Considers the two issues of the range of health care services andbalances within the range. Notes the necessity of conducting a nationaldebate concerning the range and…

Abstract

Considers the two issues of the range of health care services and balances within the range. Notes the necessity of conducting a national debate concerning the range and limits of service provision within the health service framework. Stresses the importance of making decisions of balance within the range at local level. Unless there is a rational framework for decision making at both levels, both patients and society itself will suffer from inconsistency, confusion and inequity.

Details

Journal of Management in Medicine, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-9235

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2006

David Reisman

Singapore's rapid economic progress has been accompanied by a series of experiments in medical savings and health insurance. This paper aims to examine the “three Ms” …

4368

Abstract

Purpose

Singapore's rapid economic progress has been accompanied by a series of experiments in medical savings and health insurance. This paper aims to examine the “three Ms” – Medisave, MediShield, and Medifund – in order to establish the way in which the policy‐instruments are expected to deliver the status required.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper collects evidence on both outcomes and payments.

Findings

Results show that a nation in which the median citizen is under 40 is in a strong position to rely principally on individual medical savings accounts. The paper predicts that Singapore, as its population ages, will probably rely more heavily on risk pooling and insurance.

Practical implications

The practical implications are that an extension of insurance is inevitable, but that earmarked savings will probably remain the first line of defence.

Originality/value

The paper is the first to document the Singapore experience of payment for health. It draws inferences and makes recommendations that will be of interest to policy makers both in poorer and in richer countries.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 May 2019

Muhammad Khalilur Rahman

The medical tourism industry has become one of the most profitable industries around the world wherein most of the countries exploit every effort to attract medical…

1068

Abstract

Purpose

The medical tourism industry has become one of the most profitable industries around the world wherein most of the countries exploit every effort to attract medical tourists to take advantage of its medical care benefits. The purpose of this study is to explore the determinants of medical tourists’ perceived services and their satisfaction for medical care in hospitals.

Design/methodology/approach

The quantitative method was conducted to examine the three groups of foreign travellers such as medical tourists, expats and normative medial tourists’ perceived medical services quality and satisfaction. Data from a survey of 266 respondents were analyzed using the structural equation modelling technique.

Findings

The findings of this study provide evidence that hospital accessibility and interpersonal behaviour are the most critical constructs that influence medical tourists’ attributes. Additionally, medical costs and health-care technicality have a significant relationship with the perceived services of medical tourists. The study also demonstrated that medical tourists’ satisfaction highly attributed to their perceived services towards the quality of medical care they received and experienced in the hospitals.

Practical implications

The results have important implications for managerial considerations at hospitals. Hospital accessibility is a crucial dimension to be measured at hospitals when measuring service quality. Service providers need to be mindful that all aspects of medical services are essential and need to be delivered satisfactorily to ensure customer satisfaction. Patients’ perceived services and their satisfaction is a crucial bridge in determining the likelihood of future return among patients to the hospitals.

Originality/value

This study has managed to convincingly secure findings to provide useful information and understanding of the hospital accessibility and interpersonal manner of health-care professionals at hospitals in Malaysia. Particularly, when any hospital offers quality services, they must consider the reasonable medical expenses that can be affordable by the average people and update their medical equipment that are necessary for technical and diagnostic purposes. By ensuring these, they can attract the medical tourists.

1 – 10 of 548