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As new English-medium universities open their doors in the Arabian Gulf andsome Arabic-medium universities switch to using English as the language ofinstruction…
As new English-medium universities open their doors in the Arabian Gulf andsome Arabic-medium universities switch to using English as the language ofinstruction, instructors in all disciplines face the challenge of teaching theircourses in English to students who have learned (and who are continuing tolearn) English as a foreign language. This article reviews theories and practicesfrom the field of Applied Linguistics and Teaching English as a SecondLanguage (TESOL) which can help content-area instructors understand andreach these learners.
Second language acquisition research has produced several concepts ofinterest to content-area instructors. Krashen’s theory of comprehensible inputfocuses on the language used by the instructor, while Swain’s of comprehensibleoutput emphasizes providing opportunities for students to produce language. Cummins differentiates between two types of language proficiency: BasicInterpersonal Communication Skills (BICS), which are needed for dailyinteractions, and Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP), which isrequired for academic tasks. Interlanguage and first language interference mayalso influence students’ second language production in classroom settings.
Specific classroom practices for improving students’ language comprehensionand facilitating content learning are recommended. These include modifyingspeech, using visual aids, utilizing a variety of questioning techniques, andextending the time instructors wait for students to respond. Instructors canemploy strategies, such as mind-mapping and quickwriting, to activate students’linguistic and conceptual schemata at the beginning of a lesson. Scaffoldingprovides structure and support for students to complete tasks until they are ableto realize them on their own. Collaborative/cooperative learning lowers students’affective filters and offers opportunities for participation and language practice. Graphics illustrate some of the suggested practices.
Teachers’ ability to identify and link content and language objectives is an important skill. This chapter explores how two-way immersion (TWI) teachers with a mainstream…
Teachers’ ability to identify and link content and language objectives is an important skill. This chapter explores how two-way immersion (TWI) teachers with a mainstream educator negotiated the shift to becoming a language-focused TWI teacher. We argue that it cannot automatically be assumed that these teachers have the knowledge and skills to attend to language issues. Specifically, our study examined how TWI teachers in three schools defined academic language and how they integrated language development into their practice through the use of language objectives. Our qualitative study features a constructivist framework using a thematic analysis of our data, which consisted of individual interviews and surveys with the teachers. Our analysis shows diverse interpretations of academic language and increased awareness of the role of language in their teaching and experienced benefits of making language objectives explicit, as teachers participated in professional development. Selecting and designing specific language-supporting activities, however, continued to be a challenge. We conclude that professional development needs to consider teachers’ different understandings and awareness of the role of language in the classroom. We also note that taking on the role of a language teacher may require a significant shift in assumptions about teaching and learning for teachers with mainstream teacher preparation and experiences and may depend on instructional context.
This study describes a telecollaborative project in an upper-level French language course at an American university from the students’ perspectives. The project involved…
This study describes a telecollaborative project in an upper-level French language course at an American university from the students’ perspectives. The project involved synchronous computer-mediated communications via the online videoconference platform Skype between US-based French language learners and French native speakers in France. In order to increase the participants’ interest and engagement in the virtual exchanges, the telecollaboration employed critical approaches in the task design. In this telecollaboration, students were asked not only to take part in an intercultural exchange with their partners on potentially sensitive topics that included freedom (e.g., freedom of speech, religious liberty), globalization (e.g., child labor), and immigration (e.g., racism, xenophobia), but also to engage in a short debate on these topics. An online anonymous survey was used to solicit their reactions and attitudes toward this critical approach, as well as toward the technology-enhanced learning activity as a whole. The qualitative analysis of the students’ responses showed that the telecollaboration project was generally well received, despite the inclusion of sensitive topics. Most students indicated that they felt most challenged by and most apprehensive about the topic of immigration, which was attributed to the concurrent complex socio-political situation at the time they participated in the telecollaboration project. High levels of anxiety were also reported from the youngest participants, those who majored or minored in other disciplines than French, and non-degree students. This exploratory study calls for more data and an in-depth analysis of the student’s discourse, especially with respect to potential differences in pragmatic strategies used for addressing sensitive versus less sensitive topics in the target language during virtual exchanges with native speakers in that target language.
In a university/district collaboration, three college professors and authors of this chapter co-taught with four teachers over a period of seven years. This study explores…
In a university/district collaboration, three college professors and authors of this chapter co-taught with four teachers over a period of seven years. This study explores the perceived changes in thought and practice of both groups as a result of providing three-week summer school programs for fifth and eighth grade emergent bilinguals. This research is grounded in qualitative methodologies of self-study and case study. We present our joint story as a self-study. Data were collected in the form of lesson plan notes, yearly journals, personal notes, audiotapes of meetings, and in-depth interviews/discussions of those involved in the bounded context. Resulting themes were situated meaning, hybrid language, and a 5R Instructional Model. A case study design is used to present the data from the four in-service teachers. Data were collected from field notes and interviews. Several themes emerged from the teacher data, all of which are components of situated meaning: professional development as side-by-side teaching and learning, recognition of and interest in curriculum integration, and change in classroom practice. Findings indicate that the summer program was a meaningful avenue for professional development (PD) for both groups. However, within group similarities were stronger than across group. The experience changed the way we teach and how we develop PD for teachers. The implications for professors and K-12 teachers are discussed and suggestions for further study and PD are given.
In response to the urgent national need to implement evidence-based literacy supports for adolescent struggling readers (ASRs), this chapter provides a framework for…
In response to the urgent national need to implement evidence-based literacy supports for adolescent struggling readers (ASRs), this chapter provides a framework for addressing reading comprehension instruction. Schools face significant challenges in the education of ASRs including how to address the achievement gap that emerges between proficient readers and a variety of poor reader subgroups predicted by the Simple View of Reading. The authors present current research in the components of reading comprehension (e.g., text structures, vocabulary, prior knowledge, cognitive strategies, and motivation) and explicit pedagogical practices associated with improving outcomes for ASRs, including a school-wide framework called the Content Literacy Continuum. Two specific interventions with supporting research are presented as model practices to improve outcomes for ASRs.
This study reports on the academic support programs targeting first-year business students at La Trobe Melbourne. The at-risk students were offered both a general academic…
This study reports on the academic support programs targeting first-year business students at La Trobe Melbourne. The at-risk students were offered both a general academic support class and a content-based program. This study was conducted to explore students' perception of the usefulness of these programs. The paper also aims to create a better intervention to attract more at-risk students by exploring the reasons behind the low rate of at-risk students making use of these services.
The specific research uses a mixed method approach to explore a way to best address the academic needs of the first-year international business students, especially those identified as at-risk students in a college in Melbourne where both a general academic program and a discipline-based program were on offer.
The findings indicate that although the content-based program was highly evaluated by students and also attracted more students than the general support module, many at-risk students did not use this service. The low level of English proficiency, the heavy workload, the passive and dependent learning style, the unclear information about the service and the desire to follow only teachers' guidance all prevented at-risk students from making use of the available services. These students need further help and guidance in this transitional period to recognise the assistance provided for them and to make use of these services to enhance their learning.
Recently, various support activities have been designed to assist international students in enhancing their language and academic skills necessary for pursuing their study in Australia. These activities range from credit-based English for Academic Purposes courses, to optional general language and study programs, and more recently, discipline or content-based programs. There is also a tendency in several universities to move from offering general language and study programs to embedding disciplinary programs. Adopting disciplinary-based academic support activities seem to be the right direction in many universities as these activities are more likely to help increase the overall pass-rate and improve student learning outcomes. However, problems seem to remain when many at-risk international students do not seem to go for these services. This study has led some light on how to improve the future language and academic skills to support activities for first-year overseas business students.
The purpose of this paper is to advance an understanding of the concept of advice and its relationship to documents, information and knowledge.
The purpose of this paper is to advance an understanding of the concept of advice and its relationship to documents, information and knowledge.
A conceptual analysis of a sample of 48 relevant advice studies and two books, directly informed by documentation and information theories, was conducted to find out how researchers have approached advice conceptually since 1940. Further gains in understanding advice came from analyzing its relationship with environmental uncertainty.
Researchers have studied advice in the context of human-human, machine-machine and information and communication technology-intermediated interactions. Advice has been conceptualized and categorized in many different ways. Over time, conceptualizations of advice have broadened and become more general. In this light, it is theorized that advice is as an information object targeted at an unmade decision. This conceptualization of advice permits situated and momentary advice documents. A newly developed content-based framework of advice leads to an advice typology with four content-based categories of best possible advice: correct answers, probabilities, possibilities, and acknowledgments of the unknown.
The refined advice theory, content-based advice framework and related typology of advice contributed here are small steps toward improved clarity about the nature of advice. These findings are limited in their focus to advice theory and advice categorization.
Scholars, practitioners and information system developers may reconsider advice theory and make use of the content-based framework and related advice typology in their work. These contributions will help advice-givers and the developers of advice-giving information systems and advice networks to provide better advice.
This paper fills a need for a clear and straightforward overall conceptualization of advice that accounts for advice documents and is informed by how advice has been previously conceptualized in multiple scientific fields.
The use of articles from scientific journals is an important part of research-based teaching at universities. The selection of relevant work from among the increasing…
The use of articles from scientific journals is an important part of research-based teaching at universities. The selection of relevant work from among the increasing amount of scientific literature can be problematic; the challenge is to find relevant recommendations, especially when the related articles are not obviously linked. This paper seeks to discuss these issues.
This paper focuses on the analysis of user activity traces in journals using the open source software “Open Journal Systems” (OJS). The research questions to what extent end users follow a certain link structure given within OJS or immediately select the articles according to their interests. In the latter case, the recorded data sets are used for creating further recommendations. The analysis is based on an article matrix, displaying the usage frequency of articles and their user selected successive articles within the OJS. Furthermore, the navigation paths are analysed.
It was found that the users tend to follow a set navigation structure. Moreover, a hybrid recommendation system for OJS is described, which uses content based filtering as the basic system extended by the results of a collaborative filtering approach.
The paper presents two original contributions: the analysis of user path tracing and a novel algorithm that allows smooth integration of new articles into the existing recommendations, due to the fact that scientific journals are published in a frequent and regular time sequence.
Learning to teach subject matter topics that emerge as challenging for culturally and linguistically diverse students remains a key goal for prospective teachers. Teacher…
Learning to teach subject matter topics that emerge as challenging for culturally and linguistically diverse students remains a key goal for prospective teachers. Teacher education needs multiple ways to guide preservice teachers (PSTs) for this work. One context for such teacher development is classroom-based teacher inquiry. I describe an innovation in teacher inquiry pedagogy that mentors PSTs in (a) mining multiple sources of knowledge for teaching challenging areas of content learning, (b) systematically analyzing knowledge gleaned from these sources, and (c) mediating through visual representations the overlapping, reinforcing, and sometimes conflicting ideas gleaned from sources, in order to advance conceptions and practice in content-based learning for diverse youth. I describe the pedagogy in practice, then use a case of one PST to illustrate how her knowledge evolved in learning to teach persuasive writing to early adolescent English language learners. It was in the knowledge sources interface, mediated by visual representations and written reflections, that this PST’s developing knowledge gained texture and depth.