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Book part

Kyle Turner, T. Russell Crook and Alex Miller

The purpose is to assess current construct measurement in social entrepreneurship and provide recommendations for future construct measurement on the topic.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose is to assess current construct measurement in social entrepreneurship and provide recommendations for future construct measurement on the topic.

Methodology/design

We use content analysis to assess the construct measurement practices in social entrepreneurship research. Prior studies were coded and analyzed to assess the way social entrepreneurship researchers have developed measures for key constructs in the social entrepreneurship literature. The content analysis allows for the examination of the number, type, and measures associated with social entrepreneurship research and for the comparison with the construct measurement practices in entrepreneurship research, in general.

Findings

We suggest that, while initial quantitative research has provided a useful start for empirical analysis of social entrepreneurship, future research can be improved by developing and applying stronger measures of key constructs, such as social value, mission consistency, and performance of social enterprises.

Originality/value

This chapter takes a content analytic approach to provide evidence regarding how a foundational element such as construct measurement has developed within social entrepreneurship research. We also propose directions for improving future research by validating and strengthening measurements of core constructs in social entrepreneurship.

Details

Social Entrepreneurship and Research Methods
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-141-1

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Book part

Moses Acquaah

The purpose of this study is to review the literature on strategic management in Africa with special emphasis on how strategy constructs have been measured and present a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to review the literature on strategic management in Africa with special emphasis on how strategy constructs have been measured and present a roadmap to help improve strategy research in Africa.

Design/methodology/approach

A content analysis of empirical research on strategic management published in journals using data from Africa from 2000 to 2013 is conducted to examine construct measurement practices.

Findings

The findings indicate that the average sample sizes in strategy research in Africa is not large as strategy research in general, and have low statistical power. While the studies rely heavily on single-indicator measures, there were also several studies using scale or multiple measures that report reliabilities.

Research limitations

Limitations of the research include small number of studies used, inability to examine journal effects’ of the findings due to few numbers of papers from many of the journals, and lack of examination of the influence of the context and topical areas of the articles on the use of the construct measurement techniques.

Practical implications

The study provides information about the use of construct measurement techniques and power analysis in strategy research in Africa. It further encourages the use of larger sample sizes, the examination of power, and more focus on variables which allow the assessment of reliabilities and validity.

Originality and value

Little is known about construct measurement practices of the empirical research in and about Africa in the discipline of strategic management. This chapter builds on extant research on construct measurement issues in strategic management research, but with the unique value-added contribution of focusing on the African environment where the discipline is beginning to take hold.

Details

Advancing Research Methodology in the African Context: Techniques, Methods, and Designs
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-489-4

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Book part

Nathan P. Podsakoff, Wei Shen and Philip M. Podsakoff

Since the publication of Venkatraman and Grant's (1986) article two decades ago, considerably more attention has been directed at establishing the validity of constructs

Abstract

Since the publication of Venkatraman and Grant's (1986) article two decades ago, considerably more attention has been directed at establishing the validity of constructs in the strategy literature. However, recent developments in measurement theory indicate that strategy researchers need to pay additional attention to whether their constructs should be modeled as having formative or reflective indicators. Therefore, the purpose of this chapter is to highlight the differences between formative and reflective indicator measurement models, and discuss the potential role of formative measurement models in strategy research. First, we systematically review the literature on construct measurement model specification. Second, we assess the extent of measurement model misspecification in the recent strategy literature. Our assessment of 257 constructs in the contemporary strategy literature suggests that many important strategy constructs are more appropriately modeled as having formative indicators than as having reflective indicators. Based on this review, we identify some common errors leading to measurement model misspecification in the strategy domain. Finally, we discuss some implications of our analyses for scholars in the strategic management field.

Details

Research Methodology in Strategy and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-339-6

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Article

Soohyung Joo and Jee Yeon Lee

This study aims to develop a measurement instrument, which involves four usability dimensions of efficiency, effectiveness, satisfaction, and learnability, as a way of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to develop a measurement instrument, which involves four usability dimensions of efficiency, effectiveness, satisfaction, and learnability, as a way of assessing the usability of academic digital libraries.

Design/methodology/approach

To generate measurement items, previous research related to usability frameworks, usability guidelines, and empirical usability tests was reviewed. The measurement instrument was then verified in terms of reliability and validity, empirically using data from 230 actual users of an academic digital library. To ensure the reliability of the instrument, internal consistency of measurements, measurement item reliability, and construct reliability were examined. Construct validity, which consists of convergent validity and discriminant validity, was also examined on the basis of confirmatory factor analysis using structural equation modeling.

Findings

The usability evaluation instrument suggested in this study comprises four dimensions: efficiency, effectiveness, satisfaction, and learnability, and three to four items were identified to measure each dimension.

Originality/value

To date, while many of the usability studies have relied on either experimental methods or inspection methods, few studies have been conducted to identify evaluation measures that can assess the usability of a digital library from a survey method. This study is one of a few studies to develop a measurement instrument tailored to academic digital library environments.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

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Article

Sheila Namagembe, Suzanne Ryan and Ramaswami Sridham

The purpose of this paper is to propose a new model that is inclusive and practical because of the deficiencies in models for construct measurement. Further, the authors…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a new model that is inclusive and practical because of the deficiencies in models for construct measurement. Further, the authors demonstrate the value of the proposed model by describing its application to the development and validation of a multi-dimensional construct, enviropreneurial orientation. Although used in the literature, enviropreneurial orientation had not been developed nor tested as a construct. The paper provides detailed explanation of development and validation processes exemplified by experiences of research into the factors that motivate individual enviropreneurial orientation among owner/managers in supply chains.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors review models of construct development and propose an eight step model to overcome the deficiencies in the existing models. The eight steps are: defining the construct; identifying its dimensions; generating measurement items for each dimension; pretesting the measurement items; collecting data; constructing scales; analysing reliability; and evaluating the relationships. Each step is explained through examples based on the authors’ experience in using the model to develop the new construct – enviropreneurial orientation.

Findings

All correlation results were positive and significant as were the multiple regression results with one exception, competitive aggressiveness.

Originality/value

The authors provide a practical model to guide new construct measurement development which can be used by researchers and research students for multi-dimensional constructs, especially they are constrained by time and financial resources. By using an example to demonstrate the applicability of the model, the authors go beyond the usual description of construct development models to make the proposed model more comprehensible and thus useful.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

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Article

Julie E. Francis

This paper aims to respond to claims by Collier and Bienstock and Rossiter that reflective measurement is wrong for internet retailing service quality (IRSQ). The research…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to respond to claims by Collier and Bienstock and Rossiter that reflective measurement is wrong for internet retailing service quality (IRSQ). The research empirically assesses Rossiter's proposal that the C‐OAR‐SE procedure for index development will generate a more valid way to measure IRSQ than is otherwise available.

Design/methodology/approach

C‐OAR‐SE is used to develop a formative IRSQ index. The index is administered to internet shoppers in an online survey. The index is compared with an existing IRSQ scale in terms of content, parsimony, measurement scores and criterion validity.

Findings

The scale and index display parity in content, parsimony and measurement scores, while the scale shows higher criterion validity. The results contradict Rossiter's claims and foster doubt regarding the usefulness of C‐OAR‐SE's formative measurement procedures.

Research limitations/implications

IRSQ can be conceptualised as reflective or formative, but C‐OAR‐SE does not necessarily generate a better way to measure the construct. Furthermore, implementing C‐OAR‐SE unearths problems with the procedure.

Practical implications

Multiple variations of IRSQ exist, as well as multiple views on how to measure the variations and differing degrees to which the variations are actually measured. Crucially, the situation is not as bleak as Collier and Bienstock or Rossiter suggest: the literature does offer sound, valid IRSQ measurement scales.

Originality/value

The paper resolves unwarranted criticisms of IRSQ scales, highlights the limitations with some scales, offers the first complete example of using C‐OAR‐SE to develop a new index and lends applied support to theoretical criticisms of C‐OAR‐SE.

Details

Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-4529

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Article

Nebojsa S. Davcik

The research practice in management research is dominantly based on structural equation modeling (SEM), but almost exclusively, and often misguidedly, on covariance-based…

Abstract

Purpose

The research practice in management research is dominantly based on structural equation modeling (SEM), but almost exclusively, and often misguidedly, on covariance-based SEM. The purpose of this paper is to question the current research myopia in management research, because the paper adumbrates theoretical foundations and guidance for the two SEM streams: covariance-based and variance-based SEM; and improves the conceptual knowledge by comparing the most important procedures and elements in the SEM study, using different theoretical criteria.

Design/methodology/approach

The study thoroughly analyzes, reviews and presents two streams using common methodological background. The conceptual framework discusses the two streams by analysis of theory, measurement model specification, sample and goodness-of-fit.

Findings

The paper identifies and discusses the use and misuse of covariance-based and variance-based SEM utilizing common topics such as: first, theory (theory background, relation to theory and research orientation); second, measurement model specification (type of latent construct, type of study, reliability measures, etc.); third, sample (sample size and data distribution assumption); and fourth, goodness-of-fit (measurement of the model fit and residual co/variance).

Originality/value

The paper questions the usefulness of Cronbach's α research paradigm and discusses alternatives that are well established in social science, but not well known in the management research community. The author presents short research illustration in which analyzes the four recently published papers using common methodological background. The paper concludes with discussion of some open questions in management research practice that remain under-investigated and unutilized.

Details

Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

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Book part

Md Nuruzzaman

The objective of this study is to investigate how country risk, different political actions from the government and bureaucratic behavior influence the activities in…

Abstract

The objective of this study is to investigate how country risk, different political actions from the government and bureaucratic behavior influence the activities in industry supply chains (SCs) in emerging markets. The main objective of this study is to investigate the influence of these external stakeholders’ elements to the demand-side and supply-side drivers and barriers for improving competitiveness of Ready-Made Garment (RMG) industry in the way of analyzing supply chain. Considering the phenomenon of recent change in the RMG business environment and the competitiveness issues this study uses the principles of stakeholder and resource dependence theory and aims to find out some factors which influence to make an efficient supply chain for improving competitiveness. The RMG industry of Bangladesh is the case application of this study. Following a positivist paradigm, this study adopts a two phase sequential mixed-method research design consisting of qualitative and quantitative approaches. A tentative research model is developed first based on extensive literature review. Qualitative field study is then carried out to fine tune the initial research model. Findings from the qualitative method are also used to develop measures and instruments for the next phase of quantitative method. A survey is carried out with sample of top and middle level executives of different garment companies of Dhaka city in Bangladesh and the collected quantitative data are analyzed by partial least square-based structural equation modeling. The findings support eight hypotheses. From the analysis the external stakeholders’ elements like bureaucratic behavior and country risk have significant influence to the barriers. From the internal stakeholders’ point of view the manufacturers’ and buyers’ drivers have significant influence on the competitiveness. Therefore, stakeholders need to take proper action to reduce the barriers and increase the drivers, as the drivers have positive influence to improve competitiveness.

This study has both theoretical and practical contributions. This study represents an important contribution to the theory by integrating two theoretical perceptions to identify factors of the RMG industry’s SC that affect the competitiveness of the RMG industry. This research study contributes to the understanding of both external and internal stakeholders of national and international perspectives in the RMG (textile and clothing) business. It combines the insights of stakeholder and resource dependence theories along with the concept of the SC in improving effectiveness. In a practical sense, this study certainly contributes to the Bangladeshi RMG industry. In accordance with the desire of the RMG manufacturers, the research has shown that some influential constructs of the RMG industry’s SC affect the competitiveness of the RMG industry. The outcome of the study is useful for various stakeholders of the Bangladeshi RMG industry sector ranging from the government to various private organizations. The applications of this study are extendable through further adaptation in other industries and various geographic contexts.

Details

Sustaining Competitive Advantage Via Business Intelligence, Knowledge Management, and System Dynamics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-764-2

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Book part

Azizah Ahmad

The strategic management literature emphasizes the concept of business intelligence (BI) as an essential competitive tool. Yet the sustainability of the firms’ competitive…

Abstract

The strategic management literature emphasizes the concept of business intelligence (BI) as an essential competitive tool. Yet the sustainability of the firms’ competitive advantage provided by BI capability is not well researched. To fill this gap, this study attempts to develop a model for successful BI deployment and empirically examines the association between BI deployment and sustainable competitive advantage. Taking the telecommunications industry in Malaysia as a case example, the research particularly focuses on the influencing perceptions held by telecommunications decision makers and executives on factors that impact successful BI deployment. The research further investigates the relationship between successful BI deployment and sustainable competitive advantage of the telecommunications organizations. Another important aim of this study is to determine the effect of moderating factors such as organization culture, business strategy, and use of BI tools on BI deployment and the sustainability of firm’s competitive advantage.

This research uses combination of resource-based theory and diffusion of innovation (DOI) theory to examine BI success and its relationship with firm’s sustainability. The research adopts the positivist paradigm and a two-phase sequential mixed method consisting of qualitative and quantitative approaches are employed. A tentative research model is developed first based on extensive literature review. The chapter presents a qualitative field study to fine tune the initial research model. Findings from the qualitative method are also used to develop measures and instruments for the next phase of quantitative method. The study includes a survey study with sample of business analysts and decision makers in telecommunications firms and is analyzed by partial least square-based structural equation modeling.

The findings reveal that some internal resources of the organizations such as BI governance and the perceptions of BI’s characteristics influence the successful deployment of BI. Organizations that practice good BI governance with strong moral and financial support from upper management have an opportunity to realize the dream of having successful BI initiatives in place. The scope of BI governance includes providing sufficient support and commitment in BI funding and implementation, laying out proper BI infrastructure and staffing and establishing a corporate-wide policy and procedures regarding BI. The perceptions about the characteristics of BI such as its relative advantage, complexity, compatibility, and observability are also significant in ensuring BI success. The most important results of this study indicated that with BI successfully deployed, executives would use the knowledge provided for their necessary actions in sustaining the organizations’ competitive advantage in terms of economics, social, and environmental issues.

This study contributes significantly to the existing literature that will assist future BI researchers especially in achieving sustainable competitive advantage. In particular, the model will help practitioners to consider the resources that they are likely to consider when deploying BI. Finally, the applications of this study can be extended through further adaptation in other industries and various geographic contexts.

Details

Sustaining Competitive Advantage Via Business Intelligence, Knowledge Management, and System Dynamics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-764-2

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Article

Puja Khatri and Pragya Gupta

The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize a suitable measure for the employee wellbeing construct and validate this tool in Indian workplace settings, especially with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize a suitable measure for the employee wellbeing construct and validate this tool in Indian workplace settings, especially with reference to IT/ITes and BFSI sectors.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is descriptive and cross-sectional in nature. The literature was first reviewed to identify the underlying probable dimensions of employee wellbeing and its corresponding items. These items were then subjected to elaborate discussions with experts from industry as well as academia. The index, thus, developed was administered to collect primary data from employees working in IT/ITeS and BFSI sectors based in Delhi-NCR. PLS SEM 3 was applied as employee wellbeing was construed as a first-order reflective second-order formative construct. Thereafter, it was subjected to suitable assessments of reliability and convergent validity.

Findings

The findings reveal that employee wellbeing can be conceptualized as a construct having four dimensions namely, purpose in life (PIL), work–life balance (WLB), job wellness (JW) and physical wellness (PW). It was also revealed that all the dimensions identified in the study capture different facets of the employee wellbeing and collectively define the construct; omission of any items may lead to change in the nature of the construct. This investigation is unique as it frames the index of employee wellbeing with specifications of a formative measurement model. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no published study so far has measured EWB as a formative construct.

Originality/value

Many earlier studies have incorporated a unidimensional approach to individual wellbeing and lacked a crucial outlook of having multi-dimensional understanding of the employee wellbeing construct in the social and work context. Furthermore, this paper contributes not only to the existing body of knowledge in employee wellbeing, but also brings forth an important aspect of measurement model specification, i.e. formative measurement model by bringing the specific reasons for taking employee wellbeing as a formative concept.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

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