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Book part
Publication date: 4 August 2017

Tripp Driskell, James E. Driskell and Eduardo Salas

The reliance on teams in today’s work environment underscores the importance of understanding how teams function. To better understand teams, one must be able to measure…

Abstract

Purpose

The reliance on teams in today’s work environment underscores the importance of understanding how teams function. To better understand teams, one must be able to measure team dynamics or interaction. The purpose of this chapter is to outline an unobtrusive approach to measuring team dynamics from verbal communications.

Methodology

The basic premise of this approach is that the words we use provide insight into how we feel and think at any given time. The methodology described in this chapter employs a lexical analytic approach to examining team dynamics. To best accomplish this, we first identify the principal features or dimensions of teamwork and then we propose lexical measures that may map to these processes.

Practical implications

This approach can be employed to track team functioning over time “at a distance” without interrupting task performance.

Originality

This chapter describes an approach to measuring relevant teamwork dimensions through verbal content. This approach has the potential to give us direct, unobtrusive insight into the emotional and cognitive states of teams. It is original in its examination of how team dynamics can be indexed in speech.

Details

Team Dynamics Over Time
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-403-7

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Book part
Publication date: 26 November 2016

Karin Klenke

Abstract

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Qualitative Research in the Study of Leadership
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-651-9

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Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

Saif Mir, Shih-Hao Lu, David Cantor and Christian Hofer

Content analysis is a methodology that has been used in many academic disciplines as a means to extract quantitative measures from textual information. The purpose of this…

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1515

Abstract

Purpose

Content analysis is a methodology that has been used in many academic disciplines as a means to extract quantitative measures from textual information. The purpose of this paper is to document the use of content analysis in the supply chain literature. The authors also discuss opportunities for future research.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conduct a literature review of 13 leading supply chain journals to assess the state of the content analysis-based literature and identify opportunities for future research. Additionally, the authors provide a general schema for and illustration of the use of content analysis.

Findings

The findings suggest that content analysis for quantitative studies and hypothesis testing purposes has rarely been used in the supply chain discipline. The research also suggests that in order to fully realize the potential of content analysis, future content analysis research should conduct more hypothesis testing, employ diverse data sets, utilize state-of-the-art content analysis software programs, and leverage multi-method research designs.

Originality/value

The current research synthesizes the use of content analysis methods in the supply chain domain and promotes the need to capitalize on the advantages offered by this research methodology. The paper also presents several topics for future research that can benefit from the content analysis method.

Details

The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-4093

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1988

David R. Wheeler

Effective international marketing requires collection of large amounts of data from diverse sources and sensitive use of such information in marketing strategy. While…

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4681

Abstract

Effective international marketing requires collection of large amounts of data from diverse sources and sensitive use of such information in marketing strategy. While marketing information systems help managers incorporate some kinds of data into their planning, content analysis offers a different set of insights into cultural concepts, themes and trends not usually captured by traditional data systems. Content analysis has evolved as a research technique since the 1920s, largely in social science applications. Today, aided by new analytical techniques and optical scanners, which can read huge volumes of material inexpensively; and state‐of‐the‐art computer software, which can handle languages such as Chinese, Japanese, and Arabic, content analysis has great promise for international marketing applications.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2015

Viktoria Goebel

The purpose of this paper is to respond to the call by Dumay and Cai (2014) for new ideas to enhance intellectual capital (IC) research. One possibility is to draw…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to respond to the call by Dumay and Cai (2014) for new ideas to enhance intellectual capital (IC) research. One possibility is to draw conclusions on comparability across the results of prior studies. This study investigates whether the results of prior IC content analyses are comparable despite differences in their IC research frameworks.

Design/methodology/approach

A content analysis of 428 German management reports is conducted, capturing the IC reporting scores for individual IC items to investigate the role of certain widely used IC items. The relationships of IC scores for different combinations of widely used IC items are further examined in a correlation analysis to indicate comparability of prior results.

Findings

The findings show that widely used IC items capture the majority of IC reporting and that the IC scores for different combinations of these IC items are highly correlated. These findings indicate that the results of prior IC content analyses are comparable as long as most of the widely used IC items are included in prior IC research frameworks.

Research limitations/implications

The study contributes to IC reporting research as it shows that conclusions can be drawn across prior studies in meta-analyses because the results of prior studies are comparable in rankings and key findings.

Originality/value

Although content analyses of IC reporting have been previously criticised, this study seminally questions the comparability of the results of prior studies due to differences in the IC research frameworks.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 31 August 2016

Mara Ridhuan Che Abdul Rahman

Intellectual capital (IC) is believed to be more important resources to add the value of a company rather than physical assets. This gives rise to the increasing practice…

Abstract

Intellectual capital (IC) is believed to be more important resources to add the value of a company rather than physical assets. This gives rise to the increasing practice of reporting IC information in corporate annual report. Over the past fifteen years, considerable numbers of studies have employed content analysis to examine the extent and nature of IC information in several countries, but they presented different results. These results might partly contribute to different methods in counting information. In fact, the previous studies have been critised for not explicitly clarifying how information was recoded and counted which led to incomparable findings. Therefore, this paper firstly seeks to discuss an illustrative example of ‘sense-making‘ process in identifying, categorizing, and counting of IC information in annual reports of pilot sample company. Secondly, the method refined in the pilot study was applied over the final samples of six large companies in the UK from 1974 to 2008 The contribution of this paper is to primarily refine the previous method in recoding information, to send a message that transparency is crucial in content analysis and to facilitate method replication for future studies. Overall, this study demonstrates a marked increase in IC information disclosure was identified over the 35 years. The relational capital information disclosure was relatively more prominent over time, followed by human capital and structural capital.

Details

Asian Journal of Accounting Research, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2459-9700

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Petros Vourvachis and Thérèse Woodward

The purpose of this paper is to review the use of content analysis in social and environmental reporting (SER) research. It explores how the relevant literature has…

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2417

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the use of content analysis in social and environmental reporting (SER) research. It explores how the relevant literature has evolved over time and particularly how recent developments have affected the validity and reliability challenges that researchers face when executing the method.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper combines a quasi-systematic review of the literature employing content analysis (examining a sample of 251 studies published over the last 40 years in a wide array of journals with interest in the field), with a largely interpretive meta-analysis, using an index, considering the research questions asked and frameworks used as well as the specific content analysis decisions.

Findings

A number of issues of concern in the use of the method are identified, mainly over comparability and reliability of coding schemes. Potential explanations are developed and methodological refinements that could enhance the usefulness of content analysis methods in SER research are subsequently proposed.

Research limitations/implications

It should be acknowledged that, as 251 SER studies have been reviewed, there is always the possibility that some unique studies that could have contributed in the discussion have been ignored.

Practical implications

By reviewing the use of the method in a comprehensive sample of 251 SER studies published over the last 40 years in a wide array of journals with interest in the field, the paper also offers a guide for researchers (particularly in the SER field) wishing to employ content analysis in the future.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the literature by offering a critical and comprehensive review of the method’s theoretical underpinnings and application in SER research, and by describing changing patterns in content analysis, in order to help build a more secure foundation for future work.

Details

Journal of Applied Accounting Research, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-5426

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2012

Stefan Seuring and Stefan Gold

Inconsistent research output makes critical literature reviews crucial tools for assessing and developing the knowledge base within a research field. Literature reviews in…

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14828

Abstract

Purpose

Inconsistent research output makes critical literature reviews crucial tools for assessing and developing the knowledge base within a research field. Literature reviews in the field of supply chain management (SCM) are often considerably less stringently presented than other empirical research. Replicability of the research and traceability of the arguments and conclusions call for more transparent and systematic procedures. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the importance of literature reviews in SCM.

Design/methodology/approach

Literature reviews are defined as primarily qualitative synthesis. Content analysis is introduced and applied for reviewing 22 literature reviews of seven sub‐fields of SCM, published in English‐speaking peer‐reviewed journals between 2000 and 2009. A descriptive evaluation of the literature body is followed by a content analysis on the basis of a specific pattern of analytic categories derived from a typical research process.

Findings

Each paper was assessed for the aim of research, the method of data gathering, the method of data analysis, and quality measures. While some papers provide information on all of these categories, many fail to provide all the information. This questions the quality of the literature review process and the findings presented in respective papers.

Research limitations/implications

While 22 literature reviews are taken into account in this paper as the basis of the empirical analysis, this allows for assessing the range of procedures applied in previous literature reviews and for pointing to their strengths and shortcomings.

Originality/value

The findings and subsequent methodological discussions aim at providing practical guidance for SCM researchers on how to use content analysis for conducting literature reviews.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2006

James Guthrie and Indra Abeysekera

The aim of this paper is to review the use of content analysis as a research method in understanding social and environmental accounting (SEA) and to examine current…

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4914

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to review the use of content analysis as a research method in understanding social and environmental accounting (SEA) and to examine current contemporary foci of this research tradition. Further, seeks to examine several research method issues relating to the use of content analysis are examined.

Design/methodology/approach

Contemporary focus and research issues are analyzed to provide some future directions for scholars in the field of SEA, by categorizing work in the SEA, social environmental reporting (SER) and intellectual capital reporting (ICR) literature, according to the following: normative literature/theory/commentaries; focus of empirical investigation; quality SER research; combined research methodologies; content analysis method issues.

Findings

Literature indicates that few attempts have been made to combine other research methodologies with content analysis, although it has proven fruitful with the limited investigation undertaken to examine aspects of SER. Further extending the performance reporting by combining SER with ICR may provide useful information.

Research limitations/implications

Increasingly, researchers in the field of SEA need to be able to justify the specific research methods they use when collecting the empirical data that they examine in order to support and test opinions regarding the merit of different approaches to managing, measuring and reporting of SEA.

Originality/value

Traditionally, the focus of content analysis has been narrow but this paper breaks new ground in proposing to broaden the focus to include SEA and to combine content analysis with other methods of data collection.

Details

Journal of Human Resource Costing & Accounting, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1401-338X

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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2020

Linda W. Lee, Amir Dabirian, Ian P. McCarthy and Jan Kietzmann

The purpose of this paper is to introduce, apply and compare how artificial intelligence (AI), and specifically the IBM Watson system, can be used for content analysis in…

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1548

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce, apply and compare how artificial intelligence (AI), and specifically the IBM Watson system, can be used for content analysis in marketing research relative to manual and computer-aided (non-AI) approaches to content analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

To illustrate the use of AI-enabled content analysis, this paper examines the text of leadership speeches, content related to organizational brand. The process and results of using AI are compared to manual and computer-aided approaches by using three performance factors for content analysis: reliability, validity and efficiency.

Findings

Relative to manual and computer-aided approaches, AI-enabled content analysis provides clear advantages with high reliability, high validity and moderate efficiency.

Research limitations/implications

This paper offers three contributions. First, it highlights the continued importance of the content analysis research method, particularly with the explosive growth of natural language-based user-generated content. Second, it provides a road map of how to use AI-enabled content analysis. Third, it applies and compares AI-enabled content analysis to manual and computer-aided, using leadership speeches.

Practical implications

For each of the three approaches, nine steps are outlined and described to allow for replicability of this study. The advantages and disadvantages of using AI for content analysis are discussed. Together these are intended to motivate and guide researchers to apply and develop AI-enabled content analysis for research in marketing and other disciplines.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper is among the first to introduce, apply and compare how AI can be used for content analysis.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 54 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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