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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Inju Yang and Ming Li

This paper aims to examine how leaders’ avoidance influences followers’ attitudes and well-being in China. Although conflict avoidance is one of the most commonly used…

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2110

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine how leaders’ avoidance influences followers’ attitudes and well-being in China. Although conflict avoidance is one of the most commonly used conflict resolution styles in China, there has surprisingly been no explicit investigation of the effects of leaders’ avoidance.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 245 subordinates in three large companies in the People’s Republic of China through an online survey. Multiple regression analysis was adopted to test three sets of competing hypotheses.

Findings

Leaders’ avoidance behavior is positively related to followers’ perception of justice, supervisory trust and emotional well-being in Chinese organizations.

Originality/value

This paper joins growing attempts to consider conflict management in the context of leadership. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to examine empirically the relationships between a team leader’s avoidance behavior and his or her subordinates’ perceptions of justice, supervisory trust and emotional well-being in a single study. The findings are provoking by illustrating positive effect of leader’s conflict avoidance behavior in China. This paper supports that conflict avoidance could be a sustainable rather than one-off strategy by a leader, and that identifying conditions (e.g. culture) that affect the outcomes of conflict avoidance is important.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2002

Deon Tjosvold and Haifa F. Sun

Because of their relationship‐oriented values, avoiding conflict is thought to be particularly prevalent and appropriate in collectivist societies like China Although…

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3106

Abstract

Because of their relationship‐oriented values, avoiding conflict is thought to be particularly prevalent and appropriate in collectivist societies like China Although research in the West has assumed that avoiding conflict is one approach and a largely ineffective one, collectivists may use conflict avoidance in different ways, including protecting the other protagonist. Eighty‐five managers and employees in six State Owned Enterprises in South China described concrete incidents when they avoided conflict and responded to specific items to measure the prior relationship, motivation, strategies, and consequences. Results identify major motivations and strategies used in conflict avoidance. Findings indicate that Chinese managers and employees relied upon the other person, promoted task productivity, and strengthened the relationship when they had a prior strong relationship and cooperative goals. Cooperative goals and fear of revenge were both found to underlie outflanking (trying to work around the other). Results were interpreted as indicating that avoiding conflict can be useful and even reaffirm an already effective relationship, but like open conflict, it must be managed constructively.

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International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 19 April 2013

Takashi Saito and Ken‐ichi Ohbuchi

The purpose of this study is to examine individual differences in the susceptibility to pluralistic ignorance of avoidance among Japanese by measuring the value of social harmony.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine individual differences in the susceptibility to pluralistic ignorance of avoidance among Japanese by measuring the value of social harmony.

Design/methodology/approach

Two studies were conducted to examine the effects of a concern for social harmony on pluralistic ignorance of conflict avoidance among Japanese, hypothesizing that the pluralistic ignorance of avoidance will occur more frequently among those with a low regard for the value of social harmony than those with a high regard.

Findings

Consistent with the hypothesis, pluralistic ignorance occurred only among Japanese participants with a low regard for the value of social harmony and not among those who valued it highly.

Originality/value

These findings suggest that those who have a different stance from the cultural value feel a normative pressure by the biased perception of others' behavior due to pluralistic ignorance, which, as a result, works to preserve the predominant cultural value.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2014

Takashi Saito and Ken-ichi Ohbuchi

The purpose of this paper was to examine individual differences in the susceptibility to pluralistic ignorance of avoidance among Japanese by measuring the value of social…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to examine individual differences in the susceptibility to pluralistic ignorance of avoidance among Japanese by measuring the value of social harmony. It was hypothesized that the pluralistic ignorance of avoidance will occur more frequently among those with a low regard for the value of social harmony than those with a high regard.

Design/methodology/approach

In two scenario studies, the authors had participants rate both their own avoidance and others’ avoidance in conflict situations. In Study 1, the authors measured the value of social harmony by Yamaguch et al.’s (1995) Collectivism Scale, and they originally constructed a scale to measure the value in Study 2.

Findings

Consistent with the hypothesis, pluralistic ignorance occurred only among Japanese participants with a low regard for the value of social harmony and not among those who valued it highly.

Originality/value

These findings suggest that those who have a different stance from the cultural value feel a normative pressure by the biased perception of others’ behavior due to pluralistic ignorance, which, as a result, works to preserve the predominant cultural value.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Book part
Publication date: 2 December 2016

Joo-Young Park and Dong-One Kim

This paper examines the role of cultural values measured as collectivism, face-saving, and conflict-avoidance, in predicting employee voice behavior. Using data (n = 198…

Abstract

This paper examines the role of cultural values measured as collectivism, face-saving, and conflict-avoidance, in predicting employee voice behavior. Using data (n = 198) collected from automotive-industry employees in the United States (US) and Korea, several interesting findings emerged. First, and most notably, for a “leaver” who chooses the exit option, culture does not matter, such that none of the three cultural values have a significant association with the exit option across countries. Second, for a “stayer,” who chooses the voice, loyalty, or neglect option, culture does matter in that cultural-specific values, such as collectivism, face-saving, and conflict-avoidance were found to affect employees nonexit options in the Korean sample, but not in the U.S. sample. The results of this study suggest that these three cultural values guide and predict employee voice behavior. Additionally, the results of this study confirm that job alternatives are a significant predictor of the exit option across cultures. This study therefore presents strong empirical evidence of the effect of culture on employee voice behavior and increases our understanding of employee voice behavior across cultures.

Details

Employee Voice in Emerging Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-240-8

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Book part
Publication date: 18 November 2014

James A. Chyz and Scott D. White

This paper takes a unique approach to provide additional insight into the agency view of tax avoidance. We directly investigate the association between the presence of…

Abstract

This paper takes a unique approach to provide additional insight into the agency view of tax avoidance. We directly investigate the association between the presence of agency conflicts and corporate tax avoidance. Using a measure of CEO centrality, developed by Bebchuk, Cremers, and Peyer (2011), we identify settings in which agency conflicts are likely to be high. In contrast to prior literature, our primary tests do not rely on the inferences of market participants regarding tax avoidance. We find that CEO centrality is positively and significantly associated with tax avoidance. Additionally, we analyze the mediating role of monitoring by institutional investors in our setting. We find that the relation between tax avoidance and the existence of agency conflicts is strongest for firms with low levels of CEO monitoring. We also add to prior literature by investigating the implications of our setting on future accounting performance and future firm value.

Details

Advances in Taxation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-120-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

Yifeng Chen, Dean Tjosvold and Sofia Su Fang

Given the susceptibility of cross‐cultural interaction to misunderstandings and disagreements, conflict management may be especially useful for helping employees develop…

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2506

Abstract

Given the susceptibility of cross‐cultural interaction to misunderstandings and disagreements, conflict management may be especially useful for helping employees develop quality leader relationships with their foreign managers. One hundred and eleven Chinese employees from various industries in Shanghai were interviewed on specific incidents where they had a conflict, defined as incompatible actions, with their Japanese manager or American manager. A qualitative analysis of the incidents and statistical tests of the data supported the hypotheses that a cooperative approach to conflict, rather than competitive or avoidance approaches, help Chinese employees and their foreign managers strengthen their relationship and improve their productivity. Cooperative conflict management may be an important way to overcome obstacles and develop an effective leader relationship across cultural boundaries.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2011

Elfriede Penz and Margaret K. Hogg

Mixed emotions (i.e. consumer ambivalence) play a central role in approach‐avoidance conflicts in retailing. In order to assess how consumer ambivalence impacts shopping…

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17150

Abstract

Purpose

Mixed emotions (i.e. consumer ambivalence) play a central role in approach‐avoidance conflicts in retailing. In order to assess how consumer ambivalence impacts shopping behaviour, this paper seeks to conceptualize and investigate the multi‐dimensional antecedents of approach‐avoidance conflicts, experienced by shoppers in changing retail environments, and the importance of approach‐avoidance conflicts for consumers' decision to stay and complete their purchase in that particular shopping channel.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a cross‐country study, which compared online and offline consumers, the paper tested the influence of the situation, product, and reference group on shoppers' intentions; and identified how consumers' mixed emotions influenced approach‐avoidance conflicts in different retail settings.

Findings

Whereas some distinctions could be drawn between online and offline contexts when examining the impact of market‐related, product‐related and social factors on consumers' decision to shop (H1, H2, H3 and H4), no clear distinction could be drawn between online and offline channels in terms of mediating effects of mixed emotions (H5, H6 and H7). Mixed emotions (ambivalence) did mediate the impact of certain product‐related, market‐related and personal factors on consumers' intention to purchase.

Practical implications

Retailers need to reduce the impact of consumers' emotional responses to the retail setting where mixed emotions are likely to lead to consumers leaving the stores. For online shops, those retailers are successful who are able to induce behavioural reactions that make consumers return and explore the web site and not use it for search only.

Originality/value

Responding to calls for further research on mixed emotions and their consequences, the paper captures the complex impact of consumers' mixed emotions on approach‐avoidance conflicts, and thereby extends earlier work on consumer ambivalence.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 45 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2008

Hee Sun Park and Mijeang Park

This research aims to examine the relationship between conflict management in the workplace and member satisfaction in work groups at both individual and group levels.

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2671

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to examine the relationship between conflict management in the workplace and member satisfaction in work groups at both individual and group levels.

Design/methodology/approach

The objectives were achieved by surveying 135 Korean teachers in 28 kindergartens, treating them as small work groups. A multilevel modeling technique was used to examine the impact of conflict management preferences on individual satisfaction with group processes.

Findings

For the cooperation style of conflict management, individual‐level preference and group‐level similarity in preference were related positively to individual satisfaction with group processes. Individual‐level preference and group‐level similarity in preference for the avoidance style, however, did not significantly influence individual satisfaction with group processes. It was also found that the positive relationship between individual preference for the cooperation style and satisfaction with group processes was stronger with less variation (i.e. greater similarity) in group‐level preference for the cooperation style and with greater variation (i.e. less similarity) in group‐level preference for the avoidance style. Research limitations/implications – No causality can be established between conflict management style preferences and satisfaction with group processes. Only two styles of conflict management were assessed with a small number of measurement items.

Originality/value

The study shows how useful a multilevel examination of conflict management style preferences and satisfaction with group processes can be for conflict research.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Rashmi Singh and J. K. Nayak

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of family communication patterns (FCPs) on adolescents’ choice of conflict resolution strategies during family…

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1959

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of family communication patterns (FCPs) on adolescents’ choice of conflict resolution strategies during family holiday planning.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is framed by and builds on the literature on the adolescents’ choice of conflict resolution strategies and the FCP. The sample was collected using a survey among 400 adolescents in India. Exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling have been used to analyse the data.

Findings

The paper provides a significant relationship between FCP and the choice of conflict resolution strategies. The study findings suggested that adolescents’ choice of resolution strategy depends on the type of communication environment in the family. It has been seen that adolescents have more say in concept-oriented families and use different types of resolution strategies compared to socio-oriented families.

Practical implications

The present study has considerable implications for the marketers and the academicians. Through FCP, marketers will be able to segment the families and, hence, may introduce efficient and competent marketing strategies and promotional campaigns.

Originality/value

The paper offers insights into the choice of conflict resolution strategy by adolescents’ in different FCPs. The study has originality and offers value to marketers as it focuses on adolescents, and explores their perceptions about their influence during the decision process.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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