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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2017

Liu Qiong

During the late Qing Dynasty, Western colonists plundered and divided the land as concession where they consequently built European and American architectures. These…

Abstract

During the late Qing Dynasty, Western colonists plundered and divided the land as concession where they consequently built European and American architectures. These architectures, such as concession garden architectures, are a result of relevant cultural exchange. Thus, concession garden architectural culture should be studied. In this study, the historical records of the concession and the concession garden in the late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China were examined on the basis of the representative architectures of Shanghai and Tianjin in China. The origin, classification, characteristic, and development of the concession garden architecture were regarded as the starting point, and the characteristics of the garden architecture in different regions were discovered. Further insights into the development of conservation concession garden buildings in China and the use of modern landscape architectures were provided, and new perspectives for studies on concession landscape architectures were presented through an in-depth understanding and analysis of concession landscape architectures.

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Article
Publication date: 15 December 2020

Liu Qing

This essay focuses on the Chinese-Japanese Library of the Harvard-Yenching Institute and examines how the Library collected and transported Chinese rare books to the…

Abstract

Purpose

This essay focuses on the Chinese-Japanese Library of the Harvard-Yenching Institute and examines how the Library collected and transported Chinese rare books to the United States during the 1930 and 1940s. It considers Harvard's rationale for its collection of Chinese books and tensions between Chinese scholars and the Harvard-Yenching Institute leaders and librarians over the purchase and “export” of Chinese books.

Design/methodology/approach

This research is a historical study based on archival research at Harvard-Yenching Institute and the Harvard-Yenching Library, as well as careful readings of published primary and secondary sources.

Findings

By examining the debates that surrounded the ownership of Chinese books, and the historical circumstances that enabled or hindered the cross-national movement of books, this essay uncovers a complex and interwoven historical discourse of academic nationalism, internationalism and imperialism.

Originality/value

Drawing upon the unexamined primary sources and published second sources, this essay uncovers a complex and interwoven historical discourse of academic nationalism, internationalism and imperialism.

Details

History of Education Review, vol. 50 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0819-8691

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2015

Rene Dentiste Mueller, George Xun Wang, Guoli Liu and Charles Chi Cui

Marketing research has focussed more on in-group favoritism and out-group derogation (i.e. ethnocentrism) than out-group favoritism and in-group derogation (i.e…

Abstract

Purpose

Marketing research has focussed more on in-group favoritism and out-group derogation (i.e. ethnocentrism) than out-group favoritism and in-group derogation (i.e. xenocentrism). The purpose of this paper is to explore the xenocentric behavior in the consumer sphere to explain why some consumers have a bias for foreign products even when domestic ones are qualitatively similar or better. As the Chinese economy has experienced more than three decades of near double-digit growth and increased openness to foreign products, it is important to examine phenomena related to the formation of Chinese attitudes toward foreign products with the rising tensions between the seemingly irreversible globalization and Chinese re-awakening nationalism.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on a review of the extant literature and focus groups in three cities in China.

Findings

This study has found that consumer xenocentrism (CX) is prevalent in China, especially among the new emerging wealthy classes, younger consumers, and the local elite. It appears that Chinese consumers are psychologically or sociologically orientated or predisposed toward foreign (Western) goods. The findings from this study suggest that both consumer ethnocentrism and CX are possible or even expected. The short review of Chinese history presented here has shown that these phenomena can be explained by traditional in-group/out-group theories. Specifically, when there are too many xenocentrics, national esteem is threatened and this prompts many individuals to become more ethnocentric.

Research limitations/implications

This study is based on the literature and focus groups data, hence, the findings are not intended to be generalizable.

Practical implications

The findings from this study should be of interest to business practitioners and policy makers.

Social implications

The historical and cultural perspectives taken in this study indicate that understanding consumers’ xenocentric behavior entails knowledge and deep understanding of how cultural values and contemporary social-political forces interplay within consumers’ formation and change of attitudes toward the choice of domestic and foreign products.

Originality/value

This study shows that the ability of foreign products to meet the individual’s need or enhance his/her self-esteem more so than domestic products is indicative of something more than simply an international, cosmopolitan, or modern orientation. The fact that consumer foreign bias is found with both mundane and widely available products, expensive and inexpensive products, and conspicuous and non-conspicuous goods challenges the assumption that this phenomenon is simply traditional prestige-consumption behavior. Future research needs to be directed at measuring the CX construct and examine potential antecedents of such a behavior.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Strategy and Geopolitics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-568-9

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Article
Publication date: 22 August 2008

Per Jenster and Yiting Cheng

The purpose of this paper is to provide an evolutionary view of the emerging wine industry in China.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an evolutionary view of the emerging wine industry in China.

Design/methodology/approach

Research on industry evolution provides a background for the historical evolution of the Chinese wine industry. Case studies are used to illustrate the different strategies of the leading wine producers in China, and to identify the major concerns and challenges in the Chinese wine industry. Growth potentials and ongoing trends are supported with statistics from authoritative databases and Chinese wine industry associations.

Findings

The Chinese wine market is characterized by an increasing concentration where the top four domestic producers dominate with 50 per cent market share. The lack of a wine culture makes brand marketing crucial to business success. Limited international efforts have been made by Chinese wine producers, although one winery has embarked on capturing 50 per cent of the global ice‐wine industry.

Research limitations/implications

The paper provides a historical overview of the Chinese wine industry and its current situation, which could not elude generalization and simplification. Enormous regional diversity in China compels differentiated regional studies in terms of production, consumer behaviors and marketing strategies.

Practical implications

The historical evolution of the Chinese wine industry reveals different settings for wine business in China. The dominance of domestic wine companies and ignorance of foreign wine brands among the general public imply a tough setting for foreign wine makers and distributors to enter the market.

Originality/value

The paper provides some insight into the historical and ongoing development of the Chinese wine market.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 31 July 2007

Philip Constable and Nooch Kuasirikun

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between accounting and the early roots of the nation‐state in mid nineteenth‐century Siam/Thailand.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between accounting and the early roots of the nation‐state in mid nineteenth‐century Siam/Thailand.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the paper examines the theoretical inter‐relationship between accounting and nationalism. Second, it relates this theoretical understanding to a study of the changing concepts, methods and structures of indigenous Siamese accounting at a time of transition when foreign mercantile influence was beginning to have an impact on the mid nineteenthcentury Siamese economy. Third, the paper analyses how these accounting structures and practices came to constitute a socio‐political instrument, which contributed to the administrative development of a Siamese dynastic state by the mid nineteenth‐century. Finally, the paper studies the ways in which this dynastic state began to promote national characteristics through the use of its accounts to create a sense of Siamese cultural identity.

Findings

The findings emphasise the important role of accounting in the construction of political and national identity.

Originality/value

This inter‐disciplinary paper highlights a general neglect in the accounting literature of the instrumental role of accounting in nation‐state formation as well as offering a re‐interpretation of Thai historiography from an accounting viewpoint. Moreover as an example of alternative accounting practice, this paper provides an analysis of indigenous accounting methods and structures in mid nineteenth‐century Siam/Thailand at the point when they were becoming increasingly influenced by foreign mercantilism.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 24 November 2010

Zhuo Wang, Peiyi Ding, Noel Scott and Yezheng Fan

China is primarily a nonreligious country with less than 10% of people following Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Catholicism, or other religions. Two major communication paths…

Abstract

China is primarily a nonreligious country with less than 10% of people following Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Catholicism, or other religions. Two major communication paths, the land and sea Silk Roads, directly affected the distribution and development of Muslim tourism and attractions. The combination of Islam with local custom and culture is a unique feature in China, and contributes to its development as a form of ethnic rather than religious tourism. As a result, research in China focuses on ethnic product development, minority sports and anthropological tourism, themed events, and intangible cultural heritage.

Details

Tourism in the Muslim World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-920-6

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 April 2011

Rong Du, Shizhong Ai and Cathal M. Brugha

This paper aims to relate Taoist Yin‐Yang thinking to Western nomology in terms of trust and trust building, seeking to explore the question of how trust impacts on…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to relate Taoist Yin‐Yang thinking to Western nomology in terms of trust and trust building, seeking to explore the question of how trust impacts on conflict management.

Design/methodology/approach

A moderating model of trust in conflict management is proposed. Investigations and observations using primary and secondary data are described. Three cases are presented to explain the moderating effects of adjusting activities and trust on conflict and negotiation.

Findings

The proposed model was supported. The following findings have been obtained: keeping a balance between adjusting others and adjusting self is a key to resolving conflict; creating and retaining harmony is a bridge that leads both sides in conflict and negotiation to adjust themselves; taking indirect actions through relationships instead of by direct actions through power is a good way to trigger a state of harmony; and trust is shown to be the original driver and source that contribute to adapting actions, harmony and eventually to a win‐win negotiation outcome.

Research limitations/implications

The investigations were limited in time and scope and consequently not conclusive.

Practical implications

This research may provide practical implictions for people and organizations interested in conflict resolution who wish to: take a position that values trust; take indirect actions through relationship instead of direct actions through power; create and retain harmony between both sides in conflict and negotiation; and keep a balance between adjusting others and adjusting self, so to achieve win‐win negotiation outcomes.

Originality/value

This research may enhance the understanding of Taoist Yin‐Yang thinking by linking it with the Western nomology.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

The Environmental State Under Pressure
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-854-5

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Book part
Publication date: 7 October 2015

Abstract

Details

Chinese Railways in the Era of High-Speed
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-984-4

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