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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2023

Christopher Mackin

The field of broad-based employee ownership within corporations is a specific application of the foundational topic of property ownership. It is situated at the intersection of a…

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Abstract

Purpose

The field of broad-based employee ownership within corporations is a specific application of the foundational topic of property ownership. It is situated at the intersection of a broad range of scholarly disciplines including economics, law, finance and management. Each discipline contributes vocabulary and distinctions describing this field. That broad spectrum of disciplinary inquiry is a strength but it also lends a “ships passing in the night” quality to discussions of employee ownership. This paper attempts to unravel the narrative diversity surrounding this topic. Four meanings of ownership are introduced. Those meanings are in turn embedded within two abstract models of the corporation; the corporation as property and the corporation as social institution.

Design/methodology/approach

There is no experimental design The paper presents a conceptual overview and introduces a taxonomy of four meanings and two models of ownership.

Findings

Four meanings of ownership are introduced. The meanings are ownership as compensation, investment, retirement and membership. Those meanings are in turn embedded within two abstract models of the corporation; the corporation as property and the corporation as social institution.

Research limitations/implications

No hypotheses are advanced. This is not a research paper. A conceptual overview that makes use of taxonomy of meanings and models is introduced to help clarify confusions abundant in the field of employee ownership. Readers may differ with the categories of meanings and models introduced in this conceptual overview.

Practical implications

The ambition of the paper is to describe the various meanings and models of employee ownership presently in use in both academic and applied settings. It is not necessary or desirable to assert the primacy of a single meaning or model in order to achieve progress. The analysis provided here surfaces a range of assumptions about ownership that have heretofore been implicit in both scholarship and in practice. Making those assumptions explicit should prove useful to both scholars and practitioners of employee ownership.

Social implications

The concept of employee ownership enjoys a relatively broad appeal with the public. Among the academic disciplines that have trained their lights upon it, a more mixed reception prevails. Much of the academic and policy controversy derives from confusion about the nature and structure of employee ownership. This paper attempts to address that confusion by presenting a taxonomy of meanings and models that may prove useful for future research.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first efforts to comprehinsively map the various meanings and models of broad-based employee ownership.

Details

Journal of Participation and Employee Ownership, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-7641

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 9 December 2013

Christopher Mackin

Political institutions and contemporary workplaces operate according to different rules. The seeming contradiction between these two spheres, one democratic and the other…

Abstract

Purpose

Political institutions and contemporary workplaces operate according to different rules. The seeming contradiction between these two spheres, one democratic and the other something else, presents an opportunity for productive speculation about the possibilities for reconciliation. The purpose of this paper is to provide a guide for future research investigation of this perennial topic.

Design/methodology/approach

The discussion of whether the workplace can catch up with the democratic achievements of political life requires an understanding of the status quo, the prevailing frames or metaphors that govern our understanding of organizational life. Four metaphors are put forward to describe the prevailing spectrum of thought. In addition to metaphors, analogies are introduced as an interpretive tool to help guide the imaginative transition between political and workplace domains.

Practical implications

Democratic political cultures are supported by structures and institutions which encourage the expression of individual and collective voice. Workplaces, comprised of the same citizens who participate in the governance of communities, do not, with some important exceptions, offer the same opportunities for democratic participation. If a general analogy between political and workplace sphere is found persuasive, it should be possible to import and adapt democratic traditions from the former to the latter.

Originality/value

Discussions of workplace democracy often suffer from a certain naiveté, a bias against structure and toward informal consensus. Insofar as democratic workplaces are by definition smaller scale than political communities, this bias is defensible. This paper concludes however by asserting certain minimal “acid test” challenges to those who would promote the goal of workplace democracy.

Details

Sharing Ownership, Profits, and Decision-Making in the 21st Century
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-750-4

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 9 December 2013

Abstract

Details

Sharing Ownership, Profits, and Decision-Making in the 21st Century
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-750-4

Book part
Publication date: 9 December 2013

Abstract

Details

Sharing Ownership, Profits, and Decision-Making in the 21st Century
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-750-4

Article
Publication date: 12 November 2019

John Case and Michael Quarrey

The purpose of this paper is to review and analyze policies where employee share ownership might be relevant to the inequality debate in the USA.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review and analyze policies where employee share ownership might be relevant to the inequality debate in the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

Description and analysis of policy alternatives designed to increase the prevalence of employee ownership in the USA economy.

Findings

Since 1974, Congress has passed many provisions to encourage employee ownership, all with widespread bipartisan support. Additional policies would have an even greater impact. Congress could “level the playing field” for corporate divestitures and sales of companies by private equity firms; create Employee Ownership Investment Corporations, modeled after Small Business Investment Corporations, to provide capital for sales to employees; and create an Employee Equity Loan Program to guarantee loans for employee-ownership transactions. Such measures would have no budgetary impact. It could also create tax incentives to encourage corporate and private-equity sales to employees and establish regulations to ensure that employee-owned companies are eligible for the full benefit of recent opportunity zone legislation. Legislation could also encourage publicly traded companies to offer stock to employees at a discount and require companies that receive various forms of special treatment from the government to establish employee stock-ownership programs.

Originality/value

The academic journal literature has virtually no policy analyses on employee share ownership.

Details

Journal of Participation and Employee Ownership, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-7641

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 12 May 2022

David Milward

PurposeTo assess the potential significance of the gravesites of Canadian residential schools to criminology.Methodology/ApproachThe current state of criminological theory

Abstract

PurposeTo assess the potential significance of the gravesites of Canadian residential schools to criminology.

Methodology/ApproachThe current state of criminological theory with respect to crimes against humanity committed by the state is assessed, particularly with reference to any insights it may offer on the gravesites.

FindingsDenunciation of crimes against humanity is the one facet of successful prosecutions that would have value for residential school survivors. The current state of criminological theory for crimes by the state against humanity is inadequate for analyzing how and why those crimes are committed by democratic countries. The capacity of prosecutions by themselves to address the underlying social problems that fuel human rights abuses is limited. There is a need to explore how multi-faceted resolutions can both provide accountability for crimes against humanity and pursue long-standing solutions against further human rights abuses.

Originality/ValueGaps in criminology with respect to analyzing crimes against humanity committed by the state that are in need of further exploration and study are identified. There is a need to develop methodologies for analyzing crimes against humanity committed by democracies. Further study would have significance not only for Indigenous peoples, but also more broadly for racial minorities who are victimized in democracies. Denunciation of crimes against humanity is the only realistic benefit of prosecution. There is therefore a need to explore multi-faceted and enduring resolutions that are not limited to punishment.

Details

Diversity in Criminology and Criminal Justice Studies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-001-7

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Elizabeth A. Hoffmann

This study compares dispute resolution strategies of workers in hierarchical, conventional businesses with those of members of worker cooperatives – organizations in which all…

Abstract

This study compares dispute resolution strategies of workers in hierarchical, conventional businesses with those of members of worker cooperatives – organizations in which all workers co-own and co-manage the business. Drawing on data from three industries (coal mining, taxicab driving, and food distribution), this study finds some support for predictions in the literature that assert that the cooperative's flattened structure and egalitarian ideology will affect workers’ grievance resolution. Although the data do not indicate a single pattern in dispute resolution strategies (i.e., with all members of the cooperatives resolving their disputes one way and all non-cooperative employees using a different strategy), the data do demonstrate that, when comparing matched cooperative and conventional businesses within each industry, the worker cooperative members possess more dispute resolution strategies than their conventionally employed counterparts.

Details

Advances in Industrial & Labor Relations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-470-6

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1999

Catherine Coy, Marni Ludwig and Jennifer Kronovet

Contemporary poetry is a rich landscape of voices and visions. With more than 1,300 new poetry titles to choose from each year, how can librarians make the best acquisitions for…

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Abstract

Contemporary poetry is a rich landscape of voices and visions. With more than 1,300 new poetry titles to choose from each year, how can librarians make the best acquisitions for their communities? The following resource materials from Poets House ‐ a 35,000 volume poetry library and literary center ‐ offer a starting point. Highlights a wide variety of selections from Poets House’s annual exhibit of all of the year’s new poetry books. The Directory of American Poetry Books provides complete bibliographic information and capsule reviews for more than 6,000 books published since 1991. These materials were originally distributed at the 1998 American Library Association Conference, where Poets House exhibited the entire 1998 showcase and presented poetry readings and a discussion entitled: “Live at the library: poets and librarians panel”.

Details

Collection Building, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0160-4953

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 January 2017

Nicole M. Marlatt, Elisabeth M. Van Bussel, Dallas Seitz and Iris Gutmanis

The purpose of this paper is to introduce problem-solving therapy (PST) training to an Ontario health region. The aim of this pilot project was to increase psychotherapy access by…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce problem-solving therapy (PST) training to an Ontario health region. The aim of this pilot project was to increase psychotherapy access by training community-based outreach clinicians and to understand their satisfaction with the training program as well as their confidence in applying the principles of PST.

Design/methodology/approach

Clinicians from Southwestern Ontario who provide community-based mental health outreach services to older adults were invited to participate in this training opportunity. Selection was based on their existing client base, the geographic area they served, and self-reported foreseeable PST training benefits. Selected individuals received an eight-hour in-person didactic session, eight one-hour case-based learning opportunities, and individual case supervision. Acquired knowledge, perceived confidence in their skills, level of adherence to PST principles in clinical interactions, and satisfaction with the training program itself were measured.

Findings

Of the 36 applicants, eight trainees were selected. All trainees completed their training and seven were successfully certified in PST. Trainees indicated a high level of satisfaction with the training experience. According to the evaluation tools, trainee confidence in providing PST significantly increased, though there was no statistically significant change in knowledge.

Originality/value

This study provides the first evidence that PST can be introduced within a regional geriatric mental health service in Canada. The training involved both in-person training, web-based conferencing sessions and a supervisory component. The training lasted 16 hours and resulted in staff skill development in an evidence-based psychotherapy modality.

Details

The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-6228

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 December 2023

Vaclav Snasel, Tran Khanh Dang, Josef Kueng and Lingping Kong

This paper aims to review in-memory computing (IMC) for machine learning (ML) applications from history, architectures and options aspects. In this review, the authors investigate…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review in-memory computing (IMC) for machine learning (ML) applications from history, architectures and options aspects. In this review, the authors investigate different architectural aspects and collect and provide our comparative evaluations.

Design/methodology/approach

Collecting over 40 IMC papers related to hardware design and optimization techniques of recent years, then classify them into three optimization option categories: optimization through graphic processing unit (GPU), optimization through reduced precision and optimization through hardware accelerator. Then, the authors brief those techniques in aspects such as what kind of data set it applied, how it is designed and what is the contribution of this design.

Findings

ML algorithms are potent tools accommodated on IMC architecture. Although general-purpose hardware (central processing units and GPUs) can supply explicit solutions, their energy efficiencies have limitations because of their excessive flexibility support. On the other hand, hardware accelerators (field programmable gate arrays and application-specific integrated circuits) win on the energy efficiency aspect, but individual accelerator often adapts exclusively to ax single ML approach (family). From a long hardware evolution perspective, hardware/software collaboration heterogeneity design from hybrid platforms is an option for the researcher.

Originality/value

IMC’s optimization enables high-speed processing, increases performance and analyzes massive volumes of data in real-time. This work reviews IMC and its evolution. Then, the authors categorize three optimization paths for the IMC architecture to improve performance metrics.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

Keywords

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