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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2017

Kelly MacKay, Danielle Barbe, Christine M. Van Winkle and Elizabeth Halpenny

This study explores the multi-phasic experience of festivals to understand the nature, purpose and degree of social media (SM) use before, during and after festival occurrence and…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study explores the multi-phasic experience of festivals to understand the nature, purpose and degree of social media (SM) use before, during and after festival occurrence and how this may inform better engagement of attendees.

Design/methodology/approach

A census of tweets and posts from four festivals’ Twitter handles and Facebook accounts were coded and analyzed across three time points: one week prior, during and one week after the festival. They were coded on nature (e.g. conversational, promotional, informational), purpose (e.g. information-seeking, friendship/relationship) and presence of links, photos, etc. Tests for platform influences on usage were conducted.

Findings

In total, 1,169 tweets and 483 posts were captured. Two-thirds of SM activity occurred during the festivals, one-third pre-festival and minimal activity post festival. Temporal analyses found that while the purpose and nature of the message content varied across festival time points, this was often dependent on SM platform.

Research limitations/implications

Festivals are not taking advantage of the multi-phase experience model and the utility of SM to maintain contact and encourage visitors to continue processing their experience after the festival. This lost opportunity has implications for re-patronizing behaviour and sponsor relationships.

Originality value

Leung et al. (2013a) call for sector specific research to elucidate SM use in tourism. Festivals provide a unique environment of co-created experience. Findings suggest differential usage of SM across festival time frames and platforms that can be used to guide festival organizations’ SM communication to better engage its patrons.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 October 2016

Christine M. Van Winkle and Jill N.H. Bueddefeld

The purpose of this paper is to understand the process of value co-creation by examining festival attendees’ perspectives of their festival experiences. Service-dominant logic…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the process of value co-creation by examining festival attendees’ perspectives of their festival experiences. Service-dominant logic (SDL) is used as a framework to understand the how value is co-created in the festival setting.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a SDL approach and personal meaning mapping methods, this research offers insight into how value is co-created by the attendee, festival, and influential others.

Findings

This research found that personal, social, cultural, physical, place, and arts presentation domains come together to add value to the festival experience.

Research limitations/implications

This research adds insight into the value co-creation process if festival settings. SDL is examined in relation to findings and re-conceptualized based on findings. This research was not intended to generalize all performing arts festivals but instead provided a detailed descriptive account of the experiences offered by performing arts festivals examined.

Practical implications

These findings contribute to the understanding of how co-created experiences can be developed, marketed and managed and provide insight into areas of future research to better understand the co-creation process in event contexts.

Originality/value

By providing a framework for understanding the festival experience, employing SDL, and using of experiential assessment methods across festivals, this research fulfils an identified need for an in-depth understanding of the co-created meanings of festival experiences.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 October 2016

Christine M. Van Winkle, Amanda Cairns, Kelly J. MacKay and Elizabeth A. Halpenny

The purpose of this paper is to understand mobile device (MD) use in a festival context. Festivals offer a range of opportunities and activities to use a MD making this context…

3372

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand mobile device (MD) use in a festival context. Festivals offer a range of opportunities and activities to use a MD making this context ideal for understanding digital experiences during leisure. The guiding research question asked how do festival attendees use MDs at festivals. The Typology of Human Capability (THC) provided a framework to enhance the understanding of digital experiences at festivals.

Design/methodology/approach

This research involved six festival case studies where semi-structured interviews were conducted with attendees on-site. Interview questions focused on how festival attendees used MDs during the festival. Data were analyzed using directed content analysis guided by the THC.

Findings

On-site interviews with 168 attendees revealed that data support the THC dimensions and constructs (sensing, linking, organizing and performing). This typology advances the understanding of the range of digital customer experiences currently available at festivals.

Research limitations/implications

The addition of context to the THC is recommended to enhance its utility in application. As a limited number of festivals were included, the specific findings may not apply to all festivals but the implications are relevant to a range of festivals.

Practical implications

Operational definitions of the THC constructs within the festival setting were identified and provide opportunities for developing digital experience offerings.

Originality/value

This study provided the first comprehensive examination of MD use in festival contexts and in so doing offered data in support of Korn and Pine’s (2011) THC. The findings reveal opportunities for modifying the THC to increase its applicability in a range of settings.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 March 2014

Christine M. Van Winkle and Kyle M. Woosnam

– The purpose of this paper is to examine the relation between psychological sense of community (SOC) and perceived social impacts of festival events.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relation between psychological sense of community (SOC) and perceived social impacts of festival events.

Design/methodology/approach

SOC was measured using the four-dimensional Brief Sense of Community Scale (BSCS) and the Festival Social Impact Attitudes Scale (FSIAS) was used to measure perceived impacts. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires provided to residents of Caldwell, Texas following the annual Kolache Festival.

Findings

Results revealed a relation between two dimensions of the BSCS, needs fulfillment and influence, and the way in which impacts are perceived. Specifically, needs fulfillment was positively related to social benefits and individual benefits. Needs fulfillment was negatively related to social costs. Influence related to impacts in the same manner.

Research limitations/implications

This research provides support for a four-dimensional conceptualization of SOC and highlights the importance of examining the relation between psycho-social variables and perceptions of impact. Further research in additional settings is recommended.

Practical implications

Results suggest that individuals with greater SOC are better able to perceive festival impacts and could be mobilized by festival administrators to address festival issues. Further research in additional settings is recommended.

Originality/value

Empirical explorations of psychological SOC have been common in a range of community settings but have not received much attention with in the festival literature. Exploring how SOC is related to festival experiences can enhance theory development within this field of study as well as provide needed insight for festival administrators.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 December 2021

Christine Van Winkle and Shawn Corrigan

The purpose of the study was to explore multidirectional flows of information over the course of an emergency. The following research questions were designed to guide this study…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study was to explore multidirectional flows of information over the course of an emergency. The following research questions were designed to guide this study: How does social media communication unfold over the course of an emergency at a cultural event? How does the nature and purpose of social media communication between all SM users change once an emergency occurs that affects event operations? How does the sentiment of social media communication change once an emergency occurs that affects event operations?

Design/methodology/approach

This study explored how social media was used to communicate about on-site emergencies at community cultural events. Three events were studied before, during and after an on-site emergency that disrupted the event. The Twitter and Facebook posts referencing emergencies that took place at Shambhala, Detonate and Zombicon were explored, and the nature and purpose of the posts revealed how online communication changed throughout the emergencies. The Social Mediated Crisis Communication Model guided this research and findings contribute to the model's ongoing development by incorporating additional theories and models.

Findings

The research demonstrates that social media communication shifts during an emergency and how communication moves through a network changes. Once an emergency is underway, communication increases and who is talking with whom changes. The nature and purpose of the social media conversation also evolves over the course of an emergency.

Research limitations/implications

This study examined the social media communication during three on-site emergencies at three different cultural events. The findings contribute to the understanding of the Social Media Crisis Communication Model. Specifically, the research confirms the various actors who engage online but also shows that two-way communication is not common. As this study only examined three events experiencing three different emergencies, we have a limited understanding of how the type of emergencies affects social media communication.

Practical implications

The findings show the need for pre-crisis work by event organizers. It is necessary for the events to build trust with their online communities to ensure that when an emergency occurs the event will be seen as a trusted source. Also, staff training is needed to ensure people are prepared to handle the complexities of communicating online during an emergency. Issues like misinformation, influencers and the rapid pace of social media communication create a challenging environment for staff who are unprepared.

Originality/value

Emergencies can threaten the survival of event organizations and put the health and wellness of attendees, staff and other stakeholders at risk. The study of crisis communication in special event contexts has received little theoretical attention and yet it is an important area of event management practice. Social media is an essential part of communication strategies and should be integrated into emergency planning to best reach people when an emergency threatens the safety of those involved with the event. The Social Media Crisis Communication Model offers some insight, but understanding its relevance is necessary if it is to be integrated into event emergency management.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 April 2020

Christine Van Winkle

116

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Article
Publication date: 9 October 2017

Christine Reitmaier and Wolfgang Schultze

Enhanced business reporting (EBR) seeks to address the information needs of investors when making company valuations for investment decisions. The purpose of this paper is to…

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Abstract

Purpose

Enhanced business reporting (EBR) seeks to address the information needs of investors when making company valuations for investment decisions. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relevance for market valuation of EBR disclosures that are directly related to firm valuation (value-based reporting (VBR)).

Design/methodology/approach

Data are hand collected from annual reports of German publicly listed companies over five years. The content analysis is based on the valuation-related disclosure framework of the German Schmalenbach Society of Business Administration. A 2SLS approach accounts for potential endogeneity.

Findings

Share-based compensation, leverage, corporate size, and share volatility are significant determinants of VBR. The level of VBR is significantly associated with market values and provides additional market value explanatory power, indicating its relevance to investors in the process of valuation and decision making. Also, the relevance of book value and earnings for explaining market values increases for firms with better VBR. The findings are robust to the exclusion of banks and assurance companies and to alternative model and variable specifications.

Research limitations/implications

The research contributes to the literature on voluntary disclosures by testing an EBR framework explicitly derived from valuation theory. The results provide indirect evidence of the investors’ use of respective valuation techniques in decision making. A contribution is made to the value relevance literature by showing that valuation-related disclosures constitute a suitable proxy for “other information” in the Ohlson’s (1995) model. Such disclosures complement traditional accounting metrics, i.e. book value and earnings, as basis for valuations. Potential caveats relate to the content analysis of annual reports and the endogeneity of voluntary disclosures.

Originality/value

This paper informs the debate on further developments of EBR in helping to identify important components thereof.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 February 2020

Adrian Bossey

This paper responds to a range of theory and industry reporting, to provide an informed narrative which explores the current state of accessibility at UK festivals for people who…

2019

Abstract

Purpose

This paper responds to a range of theory and industry reporting, to provide an informed narrative which explores the current state of accessibility at UK festivals for people who are Deaf or disabled and the potential implications of developments in ICT for enhancing design, marketing, operations and performances across all phases of festival delivery, in order to improve inclusivity and accessibility. To this end, the paper addresses the following question: What do representatives of the UK live music industry perceive as barriers to accessibility and exemplars of current best practice for music festival attendees who are Deaf or disabled? What do representatives of the UK live music industry consider as the role of ICT to increase accessibility for music festival attendees who are Deaf or disabled?

Design/methodology/approach

Primary research focused on supply-side considerations with a sample group of 10 UK live music industry professionals. The scope of the research was limited geographically to England and by artform to open-air music festivals, venues which host some music festival provision and a Sector Support Organisation. Open questions elucidated qualitative information around; awareness of accessibility and inclusivity initiatives; potential for co-creation; non-digital improvements; current technological influences; and potential digital futures for accessible “live” experiences. A conceptual framework was constructed and semi-structured face-to-face interviews were carried out with six respondents, and four respondents completed a structured, self-administered e-mail questionnaire.

Findings

Findings include: ICT can facilitate enhanced dialogue with existing and potential audience members who are Deaf or disabled to both; reduce existing social exclusion (Duffy et al., 2019) and improve the visitor experience for all attendees. All respondents agreed that physical enhancements are important and some mentioned communications and customer care. Respondents reported increasingly ambitious usages of ICT at music festivals, which may support suggestions of a virtual experience trend (Robertson et al., 2015). Online ticketing systems have potential to grant equal functionality to people who are Deaf or disabled, as recommended by the Department for Culture, Media & Sport (2015). Respondents broadly welcomed the potential for positive impacts of ICT on increasingly accessible live experiences at music festivals which retained a sense of authenticity and “liveness”. Challenges around “as live” ICT-derived experiences were identified including risks of creating second-class experiences for Deaf and disabled attendees.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of this case study include the small sample size and limited scope.

Practical implications

Promoters should: consider further developing the co-creation of accessibility initiatives, utilising ICT to both deliver improvements and engage with potential audience members who are Deaf or disabled. Seek to pro-actively recruit staff members who are Deaf or disabled and significantly increase their programming of performers who are Deaf or disabled. Consider reviewing their ticketing processes for music festivals, to identify accessibility challenges for audience members and implement appropriate ICT-based solutions. Consider maximising accessibility benefits for audience members who are Deaf or disabled from existing ICT provision on site and explore additional bespoke ICT solutions at music festivals.

Social implications

Adopting the best practices described across the festival sector may improve inclusivity for disabled people at music festivals and other events. Event management educators should consider reviewing provision to ensure that best practice is embedded around accessibility for audience members who are Deaf or disabled. Additional public funding should be provided to drive ICT-derived improvements to accessibility for audience members who are Deaf or disabled at smaller-scale music festivals. Further research should be considered around inclusive approaches to digital experiences within a music festival environment for audience members who are Deaf or disabled and tensions between accessibility and notions of “liveness”.

Originality/value

The “snapshot” of digital aspects of accessibility at UK festivals within this research is of particular value due to paucity of other research in this area, and it's narrative from varied industry professionals. The paper makes recommendations to promoters, academics and public funders, to attempt to advance inclusion (or at least to mitigate current exclusion) and identify directions for future research into accessible digital experiences at music festivals for people who are Deaf or disabled.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 June 2007

Alan Barcan

The student revolt of 1967 to 1974, which finally expired about 1978, retains its fascination and much of its significance in the twenty‐first century. But the seven or so years…

Abstract

The student revolt of 1967 to 1974, which finally expired about 1978, retains its fascination and much of its significance in the twenty‐first century. But the seven or so years which preceded it are often passed over as simply a precursor, the incubation of a subsequent explosion; they deserve a higher status. The concentration of interest on the late 1960s and early 1970s arises from the driving role of students in the cultural revolution whose traumatic impact still echoes with us. As late as 2005 some commentators saw federal legislation introducing Voluntary Student Unionism as the culmination of struggles in the 1970s when Deputy Prime Minister Costello and Health Minister Abbott battled their radical enemies. Interest in these turbulent years at a popular, non‐academic level has produced a succession of nostalgic reminiscences. In the Sydney Morning Herald’s ‘Good Weekend’ for 13 December 2003 Mark Dapin pondered whether the Melbourne Maoists had changed their world views (‘Living by the Little Red book’.) In the Sydney University Gazette of October 1995 Andrew West asserted that the campus radicals of the 1960s and ‘70s had remained true to their basic beliefs (‘Not finished fighting’.) Some years later, in April 2003, the editor of that journal invited me to discuss ‘Where have all the rebels gone?’ My answer treated this as a twofold question: What has happened to the former rebels? Why have the students of today abandoned radicalism?

Details

History of Education Review, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0819-8691

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1985

Viewing the last dying embers of 1984, the Orwel‐lian year of Big Brother and some of its not‐so‐far off the mark predictions, the unemployment which one cannot help feeling is…

Abstract

Viewing the last dying embers of 1984, the Orwel‐lian year of Big Brother and some of its not‐so‐far off the mark predictions, the unemployment which one cannot help feeling is more apparent than real, it is hardly surprising that the subject of Poverty or the so‐called Poverty arise. The real poverty of undernourished children, soup kitchens, children suffering at Christmas, hungry children ravenously consuming free school meals has not, even now, returned.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 87 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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