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Book part
Publication date: 3 September 2021

James Fowler

Abstract

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Strategy and Managed Decline: London Transport 1948–87
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-189-8

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Book part
Publication date: 29 August 2018

Paul A. Pautler

The Bureau of Economics in the Federal Trade Commission has a three-part role in the Agency and the strength of its functions changed over time depending on the…

Abstract

The Bureau of Economics in the Federal Trade Commission has a three-part role in the Agency and the strength of its functions changed over time depending on the preferences and ideology of the FTC’s leaders, developments in the field of economics, and the tenor of the times. The over-riding current role is to provide well considered, unbiased economic advice regarding antitrust and consumer protection law enforcement cases to the legal staff and the Commission. The second role, which long ago was primary, is to provide reports on investigations of various industries to the public and public officials. This role was more recently called research or “policy R&D”. A third role is to advocate for competition and markets both domestically and internationally. As a practical matter, the provision of economic advice to the FTC and to the legal staff has required that the economists wear “two hats,” helping the legal staff investigate cases and provide evidence to support law enforcement cases while also providing advice to the legal bureaus and to the Commission on which cases to pursue (thus providing “a second set of eyes” to evaluate cases). There is sometimes a tension in those functions because building a case is not the same as evaluating a case. Economists and the Bureau of Economics have provided such services to the FTC for over 100 years proving that a sub-organization can survive while playing roles that sometimes conflict. Such a life is not, however, always easy or fun.

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Healthcare Antitrust, Settlements, and the Federal Trade Commission
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-599-9

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2020

Yu Liu and Houjian Li

The purpose of this paper, based on first-hand data from 255 chairmen of planting cooperatives in Sichuan province, is threefold: to understand their social network…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper, based on first-hand data from 255 chairmen of planting cooperatives in Sichuan province, is threefold: to understand their social network heterogeneity; to understand the significance for members of marketing innovation in farmers' cooperatives and to understand the effects of chairmen's social network heterogeneity on cooperative marketing innovation.

Design/methodology/approach

The research employs an empirical survey of the chairmen of planting cooperatives in rural Sichuan province. The researchers use the ordinary least squares method to conduct regression on the data and the generalized linear model to process the data and avoid errors in the model setting. In the study, the following two hypotheses are examined: (1) The heterogeneity of chairmen's social networks has positive effects on cooperative marketing innovation; (2) The effects of heterogeneous external and internal social networks on cooperative marketing innovation are different.

Findings

The results show that both external and internal social network heterogeneity has positive effects on cooperative marketing innovation, and the effects of internal heterogeneity are greater than that of external heterogeneity.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to improving the income of farmers, the innovation of farmers' cooperatives and the development of agriculture in China. It provides a new way of managing and serving members to enable the long-term sustainable development of farmers' cooperatives.

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Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 10 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

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Case study
Publication date: 23 July 2020

Sanjay Singh

The present case study would help readers to understand paternalistic leadership behavior with its underlying theory. Readers would be able to appreciate the nature of…

Abstract

Learning outcomes

The present case study would help readers to understand paternalistic leadership behavior with its underlying theory. Readers would be able to appreciate the nature of experiences employees may have while working with a paternalistic leader high on authoritarianism. This case study would motivate readers to work out appropriate strategies for working under paternalistic bosses. The teaching note sensitizes readers about the complicated relationship between paternalistic leadership and culture.

Case overview/synopsis

Pyramid Globe Management Institute (PGMI) is struggling to generate revenue. PGMI founder, Tugmanshu Lakhani, has to find out new sources of revenue to keep the institute functioning. He constitutes a team of three professors for starting a new academic program with a foreign university. The initial success of the team brings favor from the founder but jealousy from the colleagues reeling under job threat. High authoritarianism and interference of the founder create a problematic situation for the three professors. When the new program starts showing promising results, the founder gets apprehensive about whether the new course may hurt the enrolment in the flagship program of the institute. The authoritarian and erratic behavior of the founder had a demotivating effect on the team working for the new program. Some team members resign under pressure while three professors stay to ensure the launch of the program. The professors have to resolve the conflict between their commitment toward PGMI in a troubled time and a career uncertainty if they continue working for it. Anticipating no change in the behavior of the founder and an uncertain future with PGMI, three professors quit after the start of the new program. The founder may continue losing committed employees if he is unable to balance his authoritarianism with benevolence and moral behavior. It will create more problems for PGMI in the future.

Complexity academic level

This case can be used in organizational behavior, leadership and team-building courses in the regular Master of Business Administration (MBA) programs. The case can further be used in the executive development program, especially for analyzing the leadership problem in higher education organizations.

Supplementary materials

Teaching notes are available for educators only.

Subject code

CSS 7: Management science.

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Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2006

Andrew Kakabadse, Nada K. Kakabadse and Ruth Barratt

To examine an under‐researched area, namely the dynamics of chairman‐CEO interrelationship and its effect on the enterprise.

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4456

Abstract

Purpose

To examine an under‐researched area, namely the dynamics of chairman‐CEO interrelationship and its effect on the enterprise.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative methodology has been adopted through in‐depth interviews with chairmen, CEOs and non‐executive directors on the nature of chairman‐CEO interactions and their effects.

Findings

Four critical themes form the basis of this paper, chairman's role and contribution, nature of chairman‐CEO relationship, impact of the chairman‐CEO relationship on board effectiveness and the attributes of an effective chairman.

Practical implications

Enhances understanding of the determining influence of the chairman‐CEO dyad on board and organisational performance and also on the influence of formative context on this dyadic interaction.

Originality/value

One of the few studies that has explored through in‐depth interviews the chairman‐CEO relationship.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2018

Gillian Maree Vesty, Chao Ren and Sophia Ji

The purpose of this paper is to provide practical insights into a senior manager’s engagement with integrated reporting (IR). This paper theorises IR as an accounting…

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1624

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide practical insights into a senior manager’s engagement with integrated reporting (IR). This paper theorises IR as an accounting compromise and test of worth in an Australian IR pilot organisation.

Design/methodology/approach

In-depth interviews with the chairman of the IR pilot organisation are analysed in the context of Boltanski and Thévenot’s (1991, 2006) economies of worth (EW). A personal narrative approach was used to privilege the voice of an individual actor at the heart of decision making.

Findings

In contributing to van Bommel’s (2014) use of EW to examine IR as an accounting compromise, the authors find that ambiguity in IR does not mean that reporting is getting harder to operationalise. Instead, IR is getting harder to justify. The relativism issues that IR has revealed suggest that if all views are met, any significant contributions would not stand out. Interviews reveal that the challenge for IR is to provide the means to report on the organisation’s broader societal impacts, which go beyond measures of IR value creation.

Practical implications

This paper contributes to the accounting academy with practical insights on a dual-purpose organisation’s experiences with IR. The authors demonstrate how a chairman of the board uses accounting to navigate competing priorities and justify management decisions.

Originality/value

This study offers unique insights from the chairman of an IR pilot organisation. A personal narrative approach contributes to the limited empirical literature in accounting using EW as a micro-level analytic.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 31 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1995

Peter A. Weil

To examine hospital leadership team effectiveness, analyses theresponses of 540 randomly sampled board chairmen of US hospitals.Reports findings regarding board chairmen′s…

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1801

Abstract

To examine hospital leadership team effectiveness, analyses the responses of 540 randomly sampled board chairmen of US hospitals. Reports findings regarding board chairmen′s evaluation of their hospitals′ productive outputs and of the adequacy of their communications with the CEO and medical staff president (MSP) in their hospitals. Notes that over one‐quarter of board chairmen found communications with the MSP to be only sometimes productive and notes means whereby positive communications are promoted. Offers suggestions for board chairman recruitment.

Details

Health Manpower Management, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-2065

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2007

Nada K. Kakabadse and Andrew P. Kakabadse

This paper aims to undertake a study of national configurational demographics in order to determine the spread of understanding of the chairman's role, performance and…

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2138

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to undertake a study of national configurational demographics in order to determine the spread of understanding of the chairman's role, performance and contribution.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative methodology, exploratory in nature through in‐depth interviews and workshop discussion involving 103 UK, US and Australian participants, was undertaken.

Findings

The role of chairman is considered as having a distinct effect on board dynamics, role and contribution and the monitoring and support of management. Nine demographic factors are identified as affecting the manner in which the role of chairman is exercised in the UK, USA and Australia.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this qualitative exploratory study need to be integrated into a quantitative empirical survey in order to ascertain the validity of the results to date.

Practical implications

The two key conclusions highlight the requirement for governance due diligence, examining the financial and competitive strength of the organisation as well as uncovering contextual sensitivities.

Originality/value

Insufficient attention has been given to the role of chairman. The study offers additional insight on how demographic factors influence the shaping and determination of the role of chairman. This paper should be of interest to practitioners, consultants, line managers, board members, chairmen, management academics and business studies students.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Mark A. Clatworthy and Michael John Jones

The purpose of this paper is to assess the effect of financial performance on the textual characteristics of the chairman's statement. In particular, given the increased…

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7703

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the effect of financial performance on the textual characteristics of the chairman's statement. In particular, given the increased motives for poorly performing management to engage in impression management, the paper focuses on whether companies' reporting strategies depend on underlying financial performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The research questions are investigated by examining a range of textual characteristics in the chairman's statements of 100 extremely profitable and extremely unprofitable UK listed companies.

Findings

The results in this paper indicate that the chairman's statement is subject to impression management techniques as managers' propensity to associate themselves with company financial results is associated with the firm's underlying financial performance. There is also some evidence that unprofitable companies focus more on the future, rather than on past performance.

Research limitations/implications

The paper shows the results of this study are based on samples of extremely profitable or extremely unprofitable companies and thus represent the tails of the distribution; further research using random sampling could investigate the extent to which the findings hold for all companies. Additional factors, such as changes in board membership, could also be examined in future research.

Practical implications

The research in this paper has implications for the current state of financial reporting whereby auditors do not formally audit, but instead review, the chairman's statement to ascertain its consistency with the financial statements.

Originality/value

The paper will be of value to academic researchers in the field of impression management and to users of annual reports who may rely on the chairman's statement for decision making.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article
Publication date: 5 April 2013

Patricia B. Abels and Joseph T. Martelli

This paper aims to concentrate on the prevailing agency theory along with its complementary theory of stewardship as foundations for the authors' research. Recent economic

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2843

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to concentrate on the prevailing agency theory along with its complementary theory of stewardship as foundations for the authors' research. Recent economic turmoil within the USA has resulted in stakeholders demanding change within governance policies of corporations. One such adjustment has been the separation of the CEO and Chairman positions within organizations. The authors' study seeks to uncover the extent to which duality CEO relationships exist in large corporations within the USA. In light of the push towards splitting the dual roles, the authors further investigated new CEOs recently appointed into the CEO position.

Design/methodology/approach

Companies selected for this study were the top 500 revenue‐producing companies in the USA as published by Fortune magazine in 2008. For comparison purposes, the authors' database included newly appointed CEOs coming on board with the original 2008 companies that had remained on the listing for both years as published by Fortune in 2010. The authors' 2008 database included 500 companies and their 2010 database included 86 companies. The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) was the product classification used in order to establish the principal industry sector for companies under analysis.

Findings

The authors' 2008 analysis reveals that 303 CEOs hold a combination title of CEO and Chairman. The most frequent title combination is CEO and Chairman, with 156 executives holding this combined title. The authors' 2010 analysis reveals that 33 new CEOs hold a combination title of CEO and Chairman. The most frequent title combination is CEO and President with 43 executives holding the title. The authors' analysis of retired CEOs reveals that 15 retired CEOs continue serving in the capacity of Chairman of the Board of Directors.

Research limitations/implications

Using the top 500 companies in the USA, based upon sales revenue, did limit the study to large corporations within the USA.

Originality/value

The agency theory does provide an explanation of the duality movement witnessed in corporations. The practice of splitting duality roles of CEO and Chairman within public corporations appears to be becoming a reality within the USA, whether on a voluntary or a mandatory basis in order to enhance corporate independence and transparency.

Details

Corporate Governance: The international journal of business in society, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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