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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1997

Chi‐nien Chung

In this paper, I demonstrate an alternative explanation to the development of the American electricity industry. I propose a social embeddedness approach (Granovetter…

Abstract

In this paper, I demonstrate an alternative explanation to the development of the American electricity industry. I propose a social embeddedness approach (Granovetter, 1985, 1992) to interpret why the American electricity industry appears the way it does today, and start by addressing the following questions: Why is the generating dynamo located in well‐connected central stations rather than in isolated stations? Why does not every manufacturing firm, hospital, school, or even household operate its own generating equipment? Why do we use incandescent lamps rather than arc lamps or gas lamps for lighting? At the end of the nineteenth century, the first era of the electricity industry, all these technical as well as organizational forms were indeed possible alternatives. The centralized systems we see today comprise integrated, urban, central station firms which produce and sell electricity to users within a monopolized territory. Yet there were visions of a more decentralized electricity industry. For instance, a geographically decentralized system might have dispersed small systems based around an isolated or neighborhood generating dynamo; or a functionally decentralized system which included firms solely generating and transmitting the power, and selling the power to locally‐owned distribution firms (McGuire, Granovetter, and Schwartz, forthcoming). Similarly, the incandescent lamp was not the only illuminating device available at that time. The arc lamp was more suitable for large‐space lighting than incandescent lamps; and the second‐generation gas lamp ‐ Welsbach mantle lamp ‐ was much cheaper than the incandescent electric light and nearly as good in quality (Passer, 1953:196–197).

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International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 17 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Shuhaib Mushtaq and Mohd Farooq Wani

This paper aims to investigate the effect of varying Wt.% (0-3 per cent) of graphite as a solid lubricant on the tribological properties of Fe-Cu-Sn alloy.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the effect of varying Wt.% (0-3 per cent) of graphite as a solid lubricant on the tribological properties of Fe-Cu-Sn alloy.

Design/methodology/approach

Powder metallurgy technique is used for the fabrication of Fe-Cu-Sn alloy with varying Wt.% of graphite. The tribological tests were conducted on a ball-on-disc universal tribometer under different testing conditions.

Findings

The friction coefficient decreases with sliding distance and load, but the wear rate increases with the increase in load. The G3 composition showed the best tribological properties under dry conditions. The wear mechanism of G0 composition shows adhesive wear and abrasive wear, while G1, G2 and G3 compositions show mildly abrasive wear.

Originality/value

This paper reported a new, cheap and wear-resistant self-lubricating Fe matrix material for gears and bearings.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 70 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2018

Jerzy Józefczyk and Mirosław Ławrynowicz

Rapid advancements in internet technology have made it possible to develop electronic commerce in general and internet shopping in particular. Easy access to a vast number…

Abstract

Purpose

Rapid advancements in internet technology have made it possible to develop electronic commerce in general and internet shopping in particular. Easy access to a vast number of existing internet stores enables buyers to customize their shopping processes to minimize the total purchase cost. This paper aims to investigate a novel internet shopping problem, which consists of the diversification of a given list of products to buy among many stores and to use discounts offered by the stores.

Design/methodology/approach

The adequate discrete optimization problem referred to as internet shopping optimization problem with price sensitivity discounts (ISOPwD) is investigated, which turned out to be strongly nondeterministic polynomial (NS)-hard. Two heuristic solution algorithms have been derived using the tabu search (TS) and the simulated annealing (SA) metaheuristics for having a solution in a reasonable time. The algorithms have been assessed via computational experiments, and they have been compared with another algorithm known from the literature that has been elaborated for a simpler version of ISOPwD.

Findings

The conducted evaluation has shown the advantage of both heuristic algorithms on the algorithm known from the literature. Moreover, the TS-based algorithm outperformed the other one in terms of the total cost incurred by customers and the computational time.

Research limitations/implications

The special primary piecewise linear discounting function is only taken into account. Other possible discounts connected, for example, with bundles of products and (or) coupons are not considered.

Practical implications

The elaborated algorithms can be recommended for internet shopping providers who want to introduce the ability to search a cost-optimized set of products in their databases or for applications that combine offers from various online retailers, e.g. internet price comparison services and auction sites.

Originality/value

The novelty of considered ISOPwD, in comparison with similar problems discussed in the literature, deals with an arbitrary number of purchased products, the possibility to buy an identical product in different stores and the consideration of the weight, the amount and the availability of goods as parameters of ISOPwD.

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Article
Publication date: 3 December 2018

Jessica Lee Weber

This study aims to analyze whether corporate social responsibility (CSR) report characteristics, including disclosure level and external assurance, and reporting firms…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyze whether corporate social responsibility (CSR) report characteristics, including disclosure level and external assurance, and reporting firms’ CSR performance, explain variation in cost of equity capital among CSR disclosers.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a propensity score matched sample of CSR reports prepared according to the Global Reporting Initiative’s (GRI) G3/G3.1 Reporting Guidelines.

Findings

Overall, there does not appear to be a difference in cost of equity capital among CSR disclosers based on GRI disclosure level. The exception is for poor CSR performers reporting at the highest GRI disclosure levels, but not obtaining assurance. These firms may be suspected of greenwash and therefore have higher cost of equity capital than the reference group. Poor CSR performers, especially those reporting at the highest GRI disclosure levels, obtain the greatest cost of equity capital benefit associated with external assurance.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature by showing that the cost of equity capital benefits associated with CSR disclosure and assurance do not accrue equally to all CSR disclosers. Specifically, this study is the first to provide empirical evidence of the cost of equity capital consequences of suspected greenwashing and empirically demonstrate the role of external assurance in mitigating greenwashing concerns among poor performers.

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2015

Ying Ke, Jun Li and George Havenith

An experimental study was conducted to investigate the local ventilation (the right arm, the chest and the back) and wear response of three types of working jackets in…

Abstract

Purpose

An experimental study was conducted to investigate the local ventilation (the right arm, the chest and the back) and wear response of three types of working jackets in different conditions. The relationship between the local ventilation and its related wear response was also explored. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A clothing local ventilation measuring system was developed based on the steady state method to measure the local ventilation of the right arm, the chest and the back. Separate wear trials were conducted to determine the local skin temperature, local microclimate temperature and humidity, clothing local surface temperature, heart rate (HR), eardrum temperature and subjective perceptions.

Findings

The results indicated that the back part of the jacket had the highest ventilation, followed by the chest and the arm. Fabric permeability affected the local ventilation of the arm and the chest more than on the back. Clothing local surface temperature was significantly related to garment regions but not to fabric permeability. Back ventilation and back surface temperature, arm or chest ventilation and local microclimate humidity of the arm or chest, HR and back ventilation, local ventilation of the arm or the chest and its related thermal sensation, had significant linear relationships.

Originality/value

The research will help to understand the relationship between the air exchange of the microclimate and the wear response, and thus gives some suggestions on garment design or selection, especially for the working garments.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2017

Gaurav Kumar, Ashoke De and Harish Gopalan

Hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes large eddy simulation (RANS-LES) methods have become popular for simulation of massively separated flows at high Reynolds numbers…

Abstract

Purpose

Hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes large eddy simulation (RANS-LES) methods have become popular for simulation of massively separated flows at high Reynolds numbers due to their reduced computational cost and good accuracy. The current study aims to examine the performance of LES and hybrid RANS-LES model for a given grid resolution.

Design/methodology/approach

For better assessment and contrast of model performance, both mean and instantaneous flow fields have been investigated. For studying instantaneous flow, proper orthogonal decomposition has been used.

Findings

Current analysis shows that hybrid RANS-LES is capable of achieving similar accuracy in prediction of both mean and instantaneous flow fields at a very coarse grid as compared to LES.

Originality/value

Focusing mostly on the practical applications of computation, most of the attention has been given to the prediction of one-point flow statistics and little consideration has been put to two-point statistics. Here, two-point statistics has been considered using POD to investigate unsteady turbulent flow.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 27 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2019

Robert Czernkowski, Stephen Kean and Stephen Lim

This paper aims to examine the impact of the Australian Securities Exchange Corporate Governance recommendations on the breadth (amount of items covered) of (environmental…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the impact of the Australian Securities Exchange Corporate Governance recommendations on the breadth (amount of items covered) of (environmental and social) sustainability reporting by the firms in the Top 100, around the change from G3.1 to G4 disclosure regimes.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper undertakes comparisons of means and regression models to investigate the changes between disclosure scores of 98 listed entities from the 2013 G3.1 to the 2015 G4 disclosure regimes.

Findings

This paper finds that average disclosure levels did not change. Nonetheless, disclosure practices did vary by entity size and performance. Analysis of 2015 disclosures contingent on 2013 disclosure practice indicates that disclosure changes are consistent with a pattern of mean reversion.

Practical implications

Evidence that low disclosers increased disclosure and high disclosers reduced disclosers is consistent with the idea that sustainability disclosure is not so much driven by any ethical considerations, but rather by a desire to not be a disclosure outlier. Reliance on voluntary disclosure to achieve a socially desired level of disclosure is unlikely to bear fruit.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the literature on sustainability by examining firm responses to change in disclosure regimes, and concluding that size and peer relativities drive the disclosure process.

Details

Accounting Research Journal, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1030-9616

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2019

Fatima Alali, Zhou (Daniel) Chen and Yue (Laura) Liu

The study examines sustainability reporting in the government and not-for-profit organizations (GNFPs). Using a descriptive approach, data from the Global Reporting…

Abstract

The study examines sustainability reporting in the government and not-for-profit organizations (GNFPs). Using a descriptive approach, data from the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) are utilized to identify GNFP’s sustainability reporting trends and incentives over the period from 2001 to 2016. The study shows improvement in the GNFPs’ sustainability reporting over the analysis period, especially by larger organizations. In specific, results show that the number of GNFPs that reported has increased over the analysis period, and the number of social, economic, and environmental issues that are reported on has also increased although fragmentally across different GNFPs. In addition, a few GNFPs integrate their sustainability report with their financial report or obtain external assurance. The study shows that GNFPs’ sustainability reporting is motivated by meeting stakeholders’ needs and achieving business goals. Based on these findings, the study identifies future reporting opportunities for GNFPs to improve informativeness and reliability of sustainability reporting with the ultimate goals of improving transparency and accountability. The data used in this study capture only the GNFPs that reported or registered in the GRI database. Thus, future studies may use other data sets or conduct field and case analyses to obtain further insights into the process of adopting and reporting on sustainability and the roles that different stakeholders play in pursuing such efforts. In addition, the study identifies other future research opportunities. The study contributes to the extant literature on sustainability and social responsibility during periods of changing regulatory framework in less-researched organizations that contributes significantly to society.

Details

Research on Professional Responsibility and Ethics in Accounting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-370-9

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Abstract

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Digital Media and the Greek Crisis
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-328-9

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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2009

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Abstract

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 61 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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